Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Light Related Abstracts

16 Growth and Biochemical Composition of Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. under Varied Growth Conditions

Authors: M. Alsull

Abstract:

In this study, Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. isolated from Penang National Park coastal waters, Malaysia, and cultivated under combined various laboratory conditions (temperature, light and nitrogen limitation and starvation). Growth rate, dry weight, chlorophyll a content, total lipids content and total carbohydrates content were estimated at mid-exponential growth phase. Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. showed remarkably decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and dry weight when maintained under nitrogen limitation and starvation conditions, as well as when grown under 12:12 h light, dark regime conditions. Chlorella sp. showed ability to counter the fluctuation in temperature with no significant effects on the measured parameters; in contrast, Tetraselmis sp. showed a decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and dry weight when grown under 15±1˚C temperature. Cultures maintained under nitrogen full concentration, and 24 h light regime showed decrease in total lipids content, compared with 12:12 h light, dark cycle regime, in the two tested species.

Keywords: Light, Microalgae, temperature, biochemical composition, nitrogen limitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
15 Wastewater Treatment Using Microalgae

Authors: Chigbo Ikechukwu Emmanuel

Abstract:

Microalgae can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater due to their capacity to assimilate nutrients. The pH increase which is mediated by the growing algae also induces phosphorus precipitation and ammonia stripping to the air, and may in addition act disinfecting on the wastewater. Domestic wastewater is ideal for algal growth since it contains high concentrations of all necessary nutrients. The growth limiting factor is rather light, especially at higher latitudes. The most important operational factors for successful wastewater treatment with microalgae are depth, turbulence and hydraulic retention time.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Growth, Nitrogen, operation, Light, Microalgae, Phosphorus, ponds

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
14 The Combined Influences of Salinity, Light and Nitrogen Limitation on the Growth and Biochemical Composition of Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp., Isolated from Penang National Park Coastal Waters, Malaysia

Authors: Mohamed M. Alsull

Abstract:

In the present study, two microalgae species “Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp.” isolated from Penang National Park coastal waters, Malaysia; were cultivated under combined various laboratory conditions “salinity, light, nitrogen limitation and starvation”. Growth rate, dry weight, chlorophyll a content, total lipid and protein contents, were estimated at mid exponential growth phase. Both Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. showed remarkable decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and protein content companied with increase in lipid content under nitrogen limitation and starvation conditions. Maintaining Nannochloropsis sp. under salinity 15‰ caused only significant decrease in total protein content; while Tetraselmis sp. grown at the same salinity caused decrease in the growth rate, chlorophyll a, dry weight and total protein content only when nitrogen was available.

Keywords: Light, Microalgae, Salinity, biochemical composition, nitrogen limitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
13 Factors Affecting Visual Environment in Mine Lighting

Authors: M. Aruna, N. Lakshmipathy, Ch. S. N. Murthy

Abstract:

The design of lighting systems for surface mines is not an easy task because of the unique environment and work procedures encountered in the mines. The primary objective of this paper is to identify the major problems encountered in mine lighting application and to provide guidance in the solution of these problems. In the surface mining reflectance of surrounding surfaces is one of the important factors, which improve the vision, in the night hours. But due to typical working nature in the mines it is very difficult to fulfill these requirements, and also the orientation of the light at work site is a challenging task. Due to this reason machine operator and other workers in a mine need to be able to orient themselves in a difficult visual environment. The haul roads always keep on changing to tune with the mining activity. Other critical area such as dumpyards, stackyards etc. also change their phase with time, and it is difficult to illuminate such areas. Mining is a hazardous occupation, with workers exposed to adverse conditions; apart from the need for hard physical labor, there is exposure to stress and environmental pollutants like dust, noise, heat, vibration, poor illumination, radiation, etc. Visibility is restricted when operating load haul dumper and Heavy Earth Moving Machinery (HEMM) vehicles resulting in a number of serious accidents. one of the leading causes of these accidents is the inability of the equipment operator to see clearly people, objects or hazards around the machine. Results indicate blind spots are caused primarily by posts, the back of the operator's cab, and by lights and light brackets. The careful designed and implemented, lighting systems provide mine workers improved visibility and contribute to improved safety, productivity and morale. Properly designed lighting systems can improve visibility and safety during working in the opencast mines.

Keywords: Illumination, Light, Efficacy, reflectance, visibility, luminance, contrast, illuminance, luminaire

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
12 Implementing Two Rotatable Circular Polarized Glass Made Window to Reduce the Amount of Electricity Usage by Air Condition System

Authors: Imtiaz Sarwar

Abstract:

Air conditioning in homes may account for one-third of the electricity during period in summer when most of the energy is required in large cities. It is not consuming only electricity but also has a serious impact on environment including greenhouse effect. Circular polarizer filter can be used to selectively absorb or pass clockwise or counter-clock wise circularly polarized light. My research is about putting two circular polarized glasses parallel to each other and make a circular window with it. When we will place two circular polarized glasses exactly same way (0 degree to each other) then nothing will be noticed rather it will work as a regular window through which all light and heat can pass on. While we will keep rotating one of the circular polarized glasses, the angle between the glasses will keep increasing and the window will keep blocking more and more lights. It will completely block all the lights and a portion of related heat when one of the windows will reach 90 degree to another. On the other hand, we can just open the window when fresh air is necessary. It will reduce the necessity of using Air condition too much or consumer will use electric fan rather than air conditioning system. Thus, we can save a significant amount of electricity and we can go green.

Keywords: Energy, Light, circular polarizer, window, air condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
11 Laser Light Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin

Abstract:

This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, Nonlinear optics, Light, Bending, lens

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
10 Laser Beam Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin, Fatih. V. Çelebi

Abstract:

This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, Nonlinear optics, Light, Bending, lens

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
9 Influence of Different Light Levels in Amaryllis (Hippeastrum X hybridum Hort.) Development and Flowering

Authors: Maximiliano K. Pagliarini, Ana Carolina T. Malavolta, Isabela M. Morita, Regina Maria M. Castilho

Abstract:

An essential factor for flower production is solar radiation, which is part of plant vital processes. As excess as shortage of light can harm the development of the culture leading to loss in product quality, Unfeasible or decreasing their commercial value. The objective of this research was to evaluate different light levels and their influence on Amaryllis (Hippeastrum X hybridum Hort.) development and flowering. The experiment was conducted at UNESP, São Paulo State, Brazil from August to October 2014. The bulbs were placed in black vases of 1.2 L filled with commercial substrate and divided into 4 different lighting environments (treatments): T1–greenhouse, T2–greenhouse with shade cloth (50%), T3–low lights indoor (until 500 lx) and T4–medium lights indoor (between 500–1000 lx). The used design was completely randomized with ten repetitions and three vessels (bulbs), totalling 30 vessels (bulbs) per treatment. The evaluated characteristics were: Chlorophyll content, number of leaves, length of leaf, number of simultaneous rods, rod length, rod diameter, number of flowers, flowers diameter, beginning of flowering and flowering duration. The results showed that in greenhouse provided Amaryllis better quality plants.

Keywords: Light, ornamental plants, bulbs, açucena

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
8 A Study of Light in Zoroastrianism and Ancient Iranian Traditions: A Case of Mathnavi

Authors: Farideh Aramideh

Abstract:

The aim of this essay is to study the light in Zoroastrianism, and Masnavi by Rumi. The use of light goes back to thousand years B.C. the light in the legacy of ancient Iranian wisdom has been used in Mithraism, Zurvanism, Zoroastrianism and Manichaean religion and spirituality has been emanated in the world through the light. Ontology and angelology and the sacredness of fire in Zoroastrianism have been interpreted according to the concept of light. The ruling atmosphere on mazdaism world is the world which is full of light and angels, and light is one of the basis of worldview in ancient Iranian mysticism, especially Zoroastrianism and Manichaean, continued widely in Islamic mysticism, and also it always provokes discussions among scholars and mystics especially Iranian mystics. Light and fire are used as the signs and symbols of God's existence, The Shining lights emanated from the sacred essence of God, knowledge, and mysticism, love, discovering the wisdom and a way to God. Rumi speaks eloquently about light in Masnavi, and by using the light; he could render his readers the fundamental mystic subjects such as the true existence of God, the verity of prophets and saints, intuition of God, spiritual states of union with God and abiding in God, which are the most complicated mystic terms.

Keywords: Light, Zoroastrianism, myticims, Masnavi

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
7 Circadian Clock and Subjective Time Perception: A Simple Open Source Application for the Analysis of Induced Time Perception in Humans

Authors: Agata M. Kołodziejczyk, Mateusz Harasymczuk, Pierre-Yves Girardin, Lucie Davidová

Abstract:

Subjective time perception implies connection to cognitive functions, attention, memory and awareness, but a little is known about connections with homeostatic states of the body coordinated by circadian clock. In this paper, we present results from experimental study of subjective time perception in volunteers performing physical activity on treadmill in various phases of their circadian rhythms. Subjects were exposed to several time illusions simulated by programmed timing systems. This study brings better understanding for further improvement of of work quality in isolated areas. 

Keywords: Light, Biological clock, treadmill, time illusions

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
6 Comparatives Studies about Moser´s Light and Conventional Lights

Authors: Suzana Leitao Russo, Carlos Tadeu Santana Tatum

Abstract:

This paper aims to show comparative studies of different types of innovation applied to lighting, along with a theoretical review by means of a bibliographic method. We demonstrate that it is possible to understand the impacts of industries with a conventional innovation that uses natural resources to manufacture lights, and the opposite, when a frugal innovation solves the problems of a society at the bottom of the pyramid, helping people without access to electricity to get home lighting. The frugal innovation is simply the use of recycled PET bottles. We achieved the objective of our study by gathering data from environment, electrical engineering, international rules, and innovation, which gave us the best results. With all these variables, we can characterize this work as an interdisciplinary study.

Keywords: Innovation, Light, frugal, PET bottle

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
5 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor

Abstract:

Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: Light, Religious Architecture, sacred architecture, phenomenology of architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
4 Understanding the Impact of Ambience, Acoustics, and Chroma on User Experience through Different Mediums and Study Scenarios

Authors: Mushty Srividya

Abstract:

Humans that inhabit a designed space consciously or unconsciously accept the spaces which have an impact on how they perceive, feel and act accordingly. Spaces that are more interactive and communicative with the human senses become more interesting. Interaction in architecture is the art of building relationships between the user and the spaces. Often spaces are form-based, function-based or aesthetically pleasing spaces but they are not interactive with the user which actually has a greater impact on how the user perceives the designed space and appreciate it. It is very necessary for a designer to understand and appreciate the human character and design accordingly, wherein the user gets the flexibility to explore and experience it for themselves rather than the designed space dictating the user how to perceive or feel in that space. In this interaction between designed spaces and the user, a designer needs to understand the spatial potential and user’s needs because the design language varies with varied situations in accordance with these factors. Designers often have the tendency to construct spaces with their perspectives, observations, and sense the space in their range of different angles rather than the users. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the potential of the space by understanding different factors and improve the quality of space with the help of creating better interactive spaces. For an interaction to occur between the user and space, there is a need for some medium. In this paper, light, color, and sound will be used as the mediums to understand and create interactions between the user and space, considering these to be the primary sources which would not require any physical touch in the space and would help in triggering the human senses. This paper involves in studying and understanding the impact of light, color and sound on different typologies of spaces on the user through different findings, articles, case studies and surveys and try to get links between these three mediums to create an interaction. This paper also deals with understanding in which medium takes an upper hand in a varied typology of spaces and identify different techniques which would create interactions between the user and space with the help of light, color, and sound.

Keywords: Human Factors, Sound, Light, Color, communicative spaces, interactive spaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
3 Optimising Light Conditions for Recombinant Protein Production in the Microalgal Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplast

Authors: Saskya E. Carrera P., Ben Hankamer, Melanie Oey

Abstract:

The green alga C. reinhardtii provides a platform for the cheap, scalable, and safe production of complex proteins. Despite gene expression in photosynthetic organisms being tightly regulated by light, most expression studies have analysed chloroplast recombinant protein production under constant light. Here the influence of illumination time and intensity on GFP and a GFP-PlyGBS (bacterial-lysin) fusion protein expression was investigated. The expression of both proteins was strongly influenced by the light regime (6-24 hr illumination per day), the light intensity (0-450 E m⁻²s⁻¹) and growth condition (photoautotrophic, mixotrophic and heterotrophic). Heterotrophic conditions resulted in relatively low recombinant protein yields per unit volume, despite high protein yields per cell, due to low growth rates. Mixotrophic conditions exhibited the highest yields at 6 hrs illumination at 200µE m⁻²s⁻¹ and under continuous low light illumination (13-16 mg L⁻¹ GFP and 1.2-1.6 mg L⁻¹ GFP-PlyGBS), as these conditions supported good cell growth and cellular protein yields. A ~23-fold increase in protein accumulation per cell and ~9-fold increase L⁻¹ culture was observed compared to standard constant 24 hr illumination for GFP-PlyGBS. The highest yields under photoautotrophic conditions were obtained under 9 hrs illumination (6 mg L⁻¹ GFP and 2.1 mg L⁻¹ GFP-PlyGBS). This represents a ~4-fold increase in cellular protein accumulation for GFP-PlyGBS. On a volumetric basis the highest yield was at 15 hrs illumination (~2-fold increase L⁻¹ over the constant light for GFP-PlyGBS). Optimising illumination conditions to balance growth and protein expression can thus significantly enhance overall recombinant protein production in C. reinhardtii cultures.

Keywords: Light, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, recombinant protein, mixotrophic

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
2 Efficient Use of Power Light-Emitting Diode Chips in the Main Lighting System and in Generating Heat in Intelligent Buildings

Authors: Siamak Eskandari, Neda Ebadi

Abstract:

Among common electronic parts which have been invented and have made a great revolution in the lighting system through the world, certainly LEDs have no rival. These small parts with their very low power consumption, very dazzling and powerful light and small size and with their extremely high lifetime- compared to incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent lamp (CFLs) have undoubtedly revolutionized the lighting industry of the world. Based on conducted studies and experiments, in addition to their acceptable light and low power consumption -compared to incandescent bulbs and CFLs-, they have very low and in some cases zero environmental pollution and negative effects on human beings. Because of their longevity, in the case of using high-quality circuits and proper and consistent use of LEDs in conventional and intelligent buildings, there will be no need to replace the burnout lamps, for a long time (10 years). In this study which was conducted on 10-watt power LEDs with suitable heatsink/cooling, considerable amount of heat was generated during lighting after 5 minutes and 45 seconds. The temperature rose to above 99 degrees Celsius and this amount of heat can raise the water temperature to 60 degrees Celsius and more. Based on conducted experiments, this can provide the heat required for bathing, washing, radiators (in cold seasons) easily and only by imposing very low cost and it will be a big step in the optimization of energy consumption in the future.

Keywords: Energy, Water, Light, optimization of power LED

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
1 An Exploration of Lighting Quality on Sleep Quality of Children in Elementary Schools

Authors: Mohamed Boubekri, Jaewook Lee, Kristen Bub, Kate Kurry

Abstract:

In this study, we explored the impact of light, particularly daylight on sleep time and quality of elementary school children. Sleep actigraphy was used to measure objectively sleep time and sleep efficiency. Our data show a good correlation between light levels and sleep. In some cases, differences of up to 36 minutes were found between students in low light levels and those in high light level classrooms. We recommend, therefore, that classroom design need to pay attention to the daily daylight exposures elementary school children are receiving.

Keywords: Sustainable Architecture, Children, Light, Sleep, Circadian Rhythm, Elementary school, daylight, actigraphy

Procedia PDF Downloads 1