Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Light Microscopy Related Abstracts

3 Pale, Firm and Non-Exudative (PFN): An Emerging Major Broiler Breast Meat Group

Authors: Moises Grespan, Massami Shimokomaki, Cintia Midori Kaminishikawahara, Fernanda Jéssica Mendonça, Elza Iouko Ida, Adriana Lourenço Soares

Abstract:

The quality of broiler breast meat is changing as a result of continuing emphasis on genetically bird’s selection for efficiently higher meat production. The consumer is experiencing a cooked product that is drier and less juicy when consumed. Breast meat has been classified as PSE (pale, soft, exudative), DFD (dark, firm, dry) and normal color meat. However, recently variations of this color have been observed and they are not in line with the specificity of the meat functional properties. Thus, the objective of this work was to report the finding of a new pale meat color group characterized as Pale, Firm and Non-exudative (PFN) based on its pH, color, meat functional properties and micro structural evaluation. Breast meat fillets samples (n=1045) from commercial line were classified into PSE (pH ≤5.8, L* ≥ 53.0), PFN (pH > 5.8 and L* ≥ 53.0) and Normal (pH >5.8 and L* < 53.0), based on pH and L* values. In sequence, a total of 30 samples of each group were analyzed for the water holding capacity (WHC) and shear force (SF). The incidence was 9.1% for PSE meat, 85.7% for PFN and 5.2% for Normal meat. The PSE meat presented lower values of WHC (P ≤ 0.05) followed in sequence by PFN and Normal samples and also the SF values of fresh PFN was higher than PSE meat (P ≤ 0.05) and similar to Normal samples. Under optical microscopy, the cell diameter was 10% higher for PFN in relation to PSE meat and similar to Normal meat. These preliminary results indicate an emerging group of breast meat and it should be considered that the Pale, Firm and Non-exudative should be considered as an ideal broiler breast meat quality.

Keywords: Texture, Light Microscopy, water holding capacity, broiler PSE meat

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2 Microscopic Examination of the Pre-Hatching Development of the Chicken Ovary

Authors: Mohamed Alsafy, Samir El-Gendy, Ashraf Karkoura, Doha Shokry

Abstract:

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the development of the chicken ovary. One hundred fertilized egg of Alexandria breed of chicken used. The whole embryo has undergone the light microscopic examination at HH20 (E.3), HH21 (E.3.5), HH23 (E.4), HH29 (E.6) and HH34 (E.8). The ovary has undergone the light microscopic examination at HH38 (E.12) and HH42 (E.16), SEM at HH26 (E.5), HH29 (E.6), HH36 (E.10), HH38 (E.12), HH39 (E.13) and HH42 (E.16), TEM at HH38 (E.12) and HH42 (E.16). The genital ridge appeared by a thickening of the coelomic epithelium medioventral surface of the developing mesonephroi at HH20 (E.3). The boundaries of the undifferentiating gonads defined clearly separated from the mesonephroi. The undifferentiated gonads bulged as a distinct organ in the coelomic cavity at HH23 (E.4). At the initial stages of the gonadogenesis, the germinal epithelium was stratified squamous epithelium. The PGCs appeared at the genital ridge at HH21 (E.3.5). The PGCs observed at the dorsal mesentery with few microvilli and showed positive PAS reaction due to the glycogen content in their cytoplasm. The left-right gonadal asymmetry firstly detected by the number of PGCs migrating toward the left gonadal ridge more than the right at HH20 (E.3) and the macroscopic examination of gonadal asymmetry began at HH34 (E.8). The left ovary appeared a smooth rod-shape, its stroma showed lipid droplets, and its parenchyma showed an extensive arrangement of interstitial cords at HH42 (E.16).

Keywords: Light Microscopy, Ovary, SEM, TEM, Alexandria chicken

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1 Anatomical, Light and Scanning Electron Microscopical Study of Ostrich (Struthio camelus) Integument

Authors: Samir El-Gendy, Doaa Zaghloul

Abstract:

The current study dealt with the gross and microscopic anatomy of the integument of male ostrich in addition to the histological features of different areas of skin by light and SEM. The ostrich skin is characterized by prominent feather follicles and bristles. The number of feather follicles was determined per cm2 in different regions. The integument of ostrich had many modifications which appeared as callosities and scales, nail and toe pads. They were sternal, pubic and Achilles tendon callosities. The vacuolated epidermal cells were seen mainly in the skin of legs and to a lesser extent in the skin of back and Achilles areas. Higher lipogenic potential was expressed by epidermis from glabrous areas of ostrich skin. The dermal papillae were found in the skin of feathered area of neck and back and this was not a common finding in bird's skin which may give resistance against shearing forces in these regions of ostrich skin. The thickness of the keratin layer of ostrich varied, being thick and characteristically loose in the skin at legs, very thin and wavy at neck, while at Achilles skin area, scale and toe pad were thick and more compact, with the thickest very dense and wavy keratin layer at the nail. The dermis consisted of superficial layer of dense irregular connective tissue characterized by presence of many vacuoles of different sizes just under the basal lamina of the epithelium of epidermis and deep layer of dense regular connective tissue. This result suggested presence of fat droplets in this layer which may be to overcome the lack of good barrier of cutaneous water loss in epidermis.

Keywords: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Light Microscopy, ostrich, integument, skin modifications

Procedia PDF Downloads 109