Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

ligands Related Abstracts

6 The Application of New Ligands including Different Atoms and Evaluation of Their Nucleophile Effects against Various Metals

Authors: Saman Hajmohamadi, Sohrab Hajmohamadi

Abstract:

The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the application of new ligands including different atoms and evaluation of their nucleophile effects against various metals. Chemistry researchers are really interested in this field. From among various ligands, there are some ligands with different coordinating ligands as well. There are great number of intermediate complexes and major elements of organic compositions with various atoms. There is a regular adding of new compositions. Complexes are the most important chemical combinations with various catalysts and biological, medicinal and other applications. Those complexes with ligands including different atom givers are really important and their synthesis could solve most of chemical problems. Supplying of new ligands is an important and key part of coordination chemistry which may cause some varieties and different properties in complexes with equal central nucleus. As a result, this research has evaluated new ligands including different coordination atoms, such as oxygen, nitrogen etc. along with their behavior against various metals like copper, nickel, iron etc.

Keywords: ligands, Iron, Copper, nucleophile, cobalt

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5 Mining the Proteome of Fusobacterium nucleatum for Potential Therapeutics Discovery

Authors: Abdul Musaweer Habib, Habibul Hasan Mazumder, Saiful Islam, Sohel Sikder, Omar Faruk Sikder

Abstract:

The plethora of genome sequence information of bacteria in recent times has ushered in many novel strategies for antibacterial drug discovery and facilitated medical science to take up the challenge of the increasing resistance of pathogenic bacteria to current antibiotics. In this study, we adopted subtractive genomics approach to analyze the whole genome sequence of the Fusobacterium nucleatum, a human oral pathogen having association with colorectal cancer. Our study divulged 1499 proteins of Fusobacterium nucleatum, which has no homolog in human genome. These proteins were subjected to screening further by using the Database of Essential Genes (DEG) that resulted in the identification of 32 vitally important proteins for the bacterium. Subsequent analysis of the identified pivotal proteins, using the KEGG Automated Annotation Server (KAAS) resulted in sorting 3 key enzymes of F. nucleatum that may be good candidates as potential drug targets, since they are unique for the bacterium and absent in humans. In addition, we have demonstrated the 3-D structure of these three proteins. Finally, determination of ligand binding sites of the key proteins as well as screening for functional inhibitors that best fitted with the ligands sites were conducted to discover effective novel therapeutic compounds against Fusobacterium nucleatum.

Keywords: Homology Modeling, ligands, colorectal cancer, drug target, Fusobacterium nucleatum

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4 Synthesis and Preparation of Carbon Ferromagnetic Nanocontainers for Cancer Therapy

Authors: L. Szymanski, Z. Kolacinski, Z. Kamiński, G. Raniszewski, J. Fraczyk, L. Pietrzak

Abstract:

In the article the development and demonstration of method and the model device for hyperthermic selective destruction of cancer cells are presented. This method was based on the synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanotubes serving as ferromagnetic material nano containers. Methodology of the production carbon - ferromagnetic nanocontainers includes: the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, chemical and physical characterization, increasing the content of ferromagnetic material and biochemical functionalization involving the attachment of the key addresses. Biochemical functionalization of ferromagnetic nanocontainers is necessary in order to increase the binding selectively with receptors presented on the surface of tumour cells. Multi-step modification procedure was finally used to attach folic acid on the surface of ferromagnetic nanocontainers. Folic acid is ligand of folate receptors which is overexpresion in tumor cells. The presence of ligand should ensure the specificity of the interaction between ferromagnetic nanocontainers and tumor cells. The chemical functionalization contains several step: oxidation reaction, transformation of carboxyl groups into more reactive ester or amide groups, incorporation of spacer molecule (linker), attaching folic acid. Activation of carboxylic groups was prepared with triazine coupling reagent (preparation of superactive ester attached on the nanocontainers). The spacer molecules were designed and synthesized. In order to ensure biocompatibillity of linkers they were built from amino acids or peptides. Spacer molecules were synthesized using the SPPS method. Synthesis was performed on 2-Chlorotrityl resin. The linker important feature is its length. Due to that fact synthesis of peptide linkers containing from 2 to 4 -Ala- residues was carried out. Independent synthesis of the conjugate of foilic acid with 6-aminocaproic acid was made. Final step of synthesis was connecting conjugat with spacer molecules and attaching it on the ferromagnetic nanocontainer surface. This article contains also information about special CVD and microvave plasma system to produce nanotubes and ferromagnetic nanocontainers. The first tests in the device for hyperthermal RF generator will be presented. The frequency of RF generator was in the ranges from 10 to 14Mhz and from 265 to 621kHz.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, ligands, hyperthermia, synthesis of carbon nanotubes

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3 Destruction of Colon Cells by Nanocontainers of Ferromagnetic

Authors: Ireneusz Majsterek, Lukasz Szymanski, Zbigniew Kolacinski, Grzegorz Raniszewski, Slawomir Wiak, Lukasz Pietrzak, Dariusz Koza, Karolina Przybylowska-Sygut, Zbigniew Kaminski, Justyna Fraczyk, Malgorzata Walczak, Beata Kolasinska, Adam Bednarek, Joanna Konka

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of electromagnetic field from the range of radio frequencies on the desired nanoparticles for cancer therapy. In the article, the development and demonstration of the method and the model device for hyperthermic selective destruction of cancer cells are presented. This method was based on the synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanotubes serving as ferromagnetic material nanocontainers. The methodology of the production carbon - ferromagnetic nanocontainers (FNCs) includes: The synthesis of carbon nanotubes, chemical, and physical characterization, increasing the content of a ferromagnetic material and biochemical functionalization involving the attachment of the key addresses. The ferromagnetic nanocontainers were synthesised in CVD and microwave plasma system. Biochemical functionalization of ferromagnetic nanocontainers is necessary in order to increase the binding selectively with receptors presented on the surface of tumour cells. Multi-step modification procedure was finally used to attach folic acid on the surface of ferromagnetic nanocontainers. Pristine ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes are not suitable for application in medicine and biotechnology. Appropriate functionalization of ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes allows to receiving materials useful in medicine. Finally, a product contains folic acids on the surface of FNCs. The folic acid is a ligand of folate receptors – α which is overexpressed on the surface of epithelial tumours cells. It is expected that folic acids will be recognized and selectively bound by receptors presented on the surface of tumour cells. In our research, FNCs were covalently functionalized in a multi-step procedure. Ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes were oxidated using different oxidative agents. For this purpose, strong acids such as HNO3, or mixture HNO3 and H2SO4 were used. Reactive carbonyl and carboxyl groups were formed on the open sides and at the defects on the sidewalls of FNCs. These groups allow further modification of FNCs as a reaction of amidation, reaction of introduction appropriate linkers which separate solid surface of FNCs and ligand (folic acid). In our studies, amino acid and peptide have been applied as ligands. The last step of chemical modification was reaction-condensation with folic acid. In all reaction as coupling reagents were used derivatives of 1,3,5-triazine. The first trials in the device for hyperthermal RF generator have been done. The frequency of RF generator was in the ranges from 10 to 14Mhz and from 265 to 621kHz. Obtained functionalized nanoparticles enabled to reach the temperature of denaturation tumor cells in given frequencies.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, ligands, hyperthermia, cancer colon cells

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2 Radio Frequency Heating of Iron-Filled Carbon Nanotubes for Cancer Treatment

Authors: L. Szymanski, Z. Kolacinski, G. Raniszewski, L. Pietrzak, S. Wiak, Z. Staniszewska

Abstract:

There exist more than one hundred different types of cancer, and therefore no particular treatment is offered to people struggling with this disease. The character of treatment proposed to a patient will depend on a variety of factors such as type of the cancer diagnosed, advancement of the disease, its location in the body, as well as personal preferences of a patient. None of the commonly known methods of cancer-fighting is recognised as a perfect cure, however great advances in this field have been made over last few decades. Once a patient is diagnosed with cancer, he is in need of medical care and professional treatment for upcoming months, and in most cases even for years. Among the principal modes of treatment offered by medical centres, one can find radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. All of them can be applied separately or in combination, and the relative contribution of each is usually determined by medical specialist in agreement with a patient. In addition to the conventional treatment option, every day more complementary and alternative therapies are integrated into mainstream care. There is one promising cancer modality - hyperthermia therapy which is based on exposing body tissues to high temperatures. This treatment is still being investigated and is not widely available in hospitals and oncological centres. There are two kinds of hyperthermia therapies with direct and indirect heating. The first is not commonly used due to low efficiency and invasiveness, while the second is deeply investigated and a variety of methods have been developed, including ultrasounds, infrared sauna, induction heating and magnetic hyperthermia. The aim of this work was to examine possibilities of heating magnetic nanoparticles under the influence of electromagnetic field for cancer treatment. For this purpose, multiwalled carbon nanotubes used as nanocarriers for iron particles were investigated for its heating properties. The samples were subjected to an alternating electromagnetic field with frequency range between 110-619 kHz. Moreover, samples with various concentrations of carbon nanotubes were examined. The lowest frequency of 110 kHz and sample containing 10 wt% of carbon nanotubes occurred to influence the most effective heating process. Description of hyperthermia therapy aiming at enhancing currently available cancer treatment was also presented in this paper. Most widely applied conventional cancer modalities such as radiation or chemotherapy were also described. Methods for overcoming the most common obstacles in conventional cancer modalities, such as invasiveness and lack of selectivity, has been presented in magnetic hyperthermia characteristics, which explained the increasing interest of the treatment.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, ligands, hyperthermia, cancer colon cells

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1 Molecular Insights into the 5α-Reductase Inhibitors: Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship, Pre-Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion and Docking Studies

Authors: Richa Dhingra, Monika, Manav Malhotra, Tilak Raj Bhardwaj, Neelima Dhingra

Abstract:

5-Alpha-reductases (5AR), a membrane bound, NADPH dependent enzyme and convert male hormone testosterone (T) into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is the required for the development and function of male sex organs, but its overproduction has been found to be associated with physiological conditions like Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Thus the inhibition of 5ARs could be a key target for the treatment of BPH. In present study, 2D and 3D Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) pharmacophore models have been generated for 5AR based on known inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) values with extensive validations. The four featured 2D pharmacophore based PLS model correlated the topological interactions (–OH group connected with one single bond) (SsOHE-index); semi-empirical (Quadrupole2) and physicochemical descriptors (Mol. wt, Bromines Count, Chlorines Count) with 5AR inhibitory activity, and has the highest correlation coefficient (r² = 0.98, q² =0.84; F = 57.87, pred r² = 0.88). Internal and external validation was carried out using test and proposed set of compounds. The contribution plot of electrostatic field effects and steric interactions generated by 3D-QSAR showed interesting results in terms of internal and external predictability. The well validated 2D Partial Least Squares (PLS) and 3D k-nearest neighbour (kNN) models were used to search novel 5AR inhibitors with different chemical scaffold. To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of action of these steroidal derivatives, molecular docking and in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies were also performed. Studies have revealed the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding of the ligand with residues Alanine (ALA) 63A, Threonine (THR) 60A, and Arginine (ARG) 456A of 4AT0 protein at the hinge region. The results of QSAR, molecular docking, in silico ADME studies provide guideline and mechanistic scope for the identification of more potent 5-Alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI).

Keywords: Molecular Docking, ligands, QSAR, benign prostatic hyperplasia

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