Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

lift Related Abstracts

9 Concept and Design of a Biomimetic Single-Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV)

Authors: S. Thomas, D. Ho, A. Kerroux, L. Lixi, N. Rackham, S. Rosenfeld


In this first paper, the different concepts and designs to build a single-wing MAV are discussed. Six scratch-building prototypes using three different designs have been tested regarding sufficient lift and weight distribution, of which various configurations were explored. Samare prototypes achieved wireless control over the motor and flap whilst obtaining data from the IMU, though obtaining an increase in lift was the key issue due to insufficient thrust. The final prototype was able to demonstrate an improvement in weight distribution.

Keywords: Flight Control, SAMARE, micro aerial vehicle (MAV), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), mono-copter, single-wing, mono-wing, aerofoil, lift

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8 Numerical Study on Parallel Rear-Spoiler on Super Cars

Authors: Anshul Ashu


Computers are applied to the vehicle aerodynamics in two ways. One of two is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and other is Computer Aided Flow Visualization (CAFV). Out of two CFD is chosen because it shows the result with computer graphics. The simulation of flow field around the vehicle is one of the important CFD applications. The flow field can be solved numerically using panel methods, k-ε method, and direct simulation methods. The spoiler is the tool in vehicle aerodynamics used to minimize unfavorable aerodynamic effects around the vehicle and the parallel spoiler is set of two spoilers which are designed in such a manner that it could effectively reduce the drag. In this study, the standard k-ε model of the simplified version of Bugatti Veyron, Audi R8 and Porsche 911 are used to simulate the external flow field. Flow simulation is done for variable Reynolds number. The flow simulation consists of three different levels, first over the model without a rear spoiler, second for over model with single rear spoiler, and third over the model with parallel rear-spoiler. The second and third level has following parameter: the shape of the spoiler, the angle of attack and attachment position. A thorough analysis of simulations results has been found. And a new parallel spoiler is designed. It shows a little improvement in vehicle aerodynamics with a decrease in vehicle aerodynamic drag and lift. Hence, it leads to good fuel economy and traction force of the model.

Keywords: spoiler, lift, drag, flow simulation

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7 A Detailed Study of Two Different Airfoils on Flight Performance of MAV of Same Physical Dimension

Authors: Vivek Paul, Shoeb A. Adeel, Shashant Anand, Dinesh, Suraj, Roshan


The paper presents a study of micro air vehicles (MAVs) with wingspans of 20 Cm with two different airfoil configurations. MAVs have vast potential applications in both military and civilian areas. These MAVs are fully autonomous and supply real-time data. The paper focuses on two different designs of the MAVs one being N22 airfoil and the other a flat plate with similar dimension. As designed, the MAV would fly in a low Reynolds-number regime at airspeeds of 15 & 20 m/sec. Propulsion would be provided by an electric motor with an advanced lithium. Because of the close coupling between vehicle elements, system integration would be a significant challenge, requiring tight packaging and multifunction components to meet mass limitations and Centre of Gravity (C.G) balancing. These MAVs are feasible and within a couple of years of technology development in key areas including sensors, propulsion, Aerodynamics, and packaging these would be easily available to the users at affordable prices. The paper finally compares the flight performance of the two configurations.

Keywords: Endurance, CFD, mav, Airfoil, Flight Performance, lift, drag, climb

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6 Prediction of Finned Projectile Aerodynamics Using a Lattice-Boltzmann Method CFD Solution

Authors: Zaki Abiza, Miguel Chavez, David M. Holman, Ruddy Brionnaud


In this paper, the prediction of the aerodynamic behavior of the flow around a Finned Projectile will be validated using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solution, XFlow, based on the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM). XFlow is an innovative CFD software developed by Next Limit Dynamics. It is based on a state-of-the-art Lattice-Boltzmann Method which uses a proprietary particle-based kinetic solver and a LES turbulent model coupled with the generalized law of the wall (WMLES). The Lattice-Boltzmann method discretizes the continuous Boltzmann equation, a transport equation for the particle probability distribution function. From the Boltzmann transport equation, and by means of the Chapman-Enskog expansion, the compressible Navier-Stokes equations can be recovered. However to simulate compressible flows, this method has a Mach number limitation because of the lattice discretization. Thanks to this flexible particle-based approach the traditional meshing process is avoided, the discretization stage is strongly accelerated reducing engineering costs, and computations on complex geometries are affordable in a straightforward way. The projectile that will be used in this work is the Army-Navy Basic Finned Missile (ANF) with a caliber of 0.03 m. The analysis will consist in varying the Mach number from M=0.5 comparing the axial force coefficient, normal force slope coefficient and the pitch moment slope coefficient of the Finned Projectile obtained by XFlow with the experimental data. The slope coefficients will be obtained using finite difference techniques in the linear range of the polar curve. The aim of such an analysis is to find out the limiting Mach number value starting from which the effects of high fluid compressibility (related to transonic flow regime) lead the XFlow simulations to differ from the experimental results. This will allow identifying the critical Mach number which limits the validity of the isothermal formulation of XFlow and beyond which a fully compressible solver implementing a coupled momentum-energy equations would be required.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, Mach, Pitch, lift, drag, LBM, finned projectile, lattice-boltzmann method

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5 Computation of Drag and Lift Coefficients on Submerged Vanes in Open Channels

Authors: P. Deepak Kumar, Anshul Jain, P. K. S. Dikshit


To stabilize the riverbanks in the curved reaches of alluvial channels due to erosion and to stop sediment transportation, many models and theories have been put forth. One among such methods is to install flat vanes on the channel bed in predetermined manner. In practical, a relatively small no of vanes can produce bend flows which are practically uniform across the channel. The objective of the present study is to measure the drag and lift on such submerged vanes in open channels. Experiments were performed and the data collected have been presented and analyzed. Using the data collected herein, predictors for the coefficients of drag and lift have been developed. Such predictors yield the value of these coefficients for the known fluid properties and flow characteristic of the channel.

Keywords: open channel, lift, drag, vanes

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4 Computational Analysis of Cavity Effect over Aircraft Wing

Authors: P. Booma Devi, Dilip A. Shah


This paper seeks the potentials of studying aerodynamic characteristics of inward cavities called dimples, as an alternative to the classical vortex generators. Increasing stalling angle is a greater challenge in wing design. But our examination is primarily focused on increasing lift. In this paper, enhancement of lift is mainly done by introduction of dimple or cavity in a wing. In general, aircraft performance can be enhanced by increasing aerodynamic efficiency that is lift to drag ratio of an aircraft wing. Efficiency improvement can be achieved by improving the maximum lift co-efficient or by reducing the drag co-efficient. At the time of landing aircraft, high angle of attack may lead to stalling of aircraft. To avoid this kind of situation, increase in the stalling angle is warranted. Hence, improved stalling characteristic is the best way to ease landing complexity. Computational analysis is done for the wing segment made of NACA 0012. Simulation is carried out for 30 m/s free stream velocity over plain airfoil and different types of cavities. The wing is modeled in CATIA V5R20 and analyses are carried out using ANSYS CFX. Triangle and square shapes are used as cavities for analysis. Simulations revealed that cavity placed on wing segment shows an increase of maximum lift co-efficient when compared to normal wing configuration. Flow separation is delayed at downstream of the wing by the presence of cavities up to a particular angle of attack.

Keywords: lift, drag reduce, square dimple, triangle dimple, enhancement of stall angle

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3 Optimization of the Aerodynamic Performances of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Fares Senouci, Bachir Imine


This document provides numerical and experimental optimization of the aerodynamic performance of a drone equipped with three types of horizontal stabilizer. To build this optimal configuration, an experimental and numerical study was conducted on three parameters: the geometry of the stabilizer (horizontal form or reverse V form), the position of the horizontal stabilizer (up or down), and the landing gear position (closed or open). The results show that up-stabilizer position with respect to the horizontal plane of the fuselage provides better aerodynamic performance, and that the landing gear increases the lift in the zone of stability, that is to say where the flow is not separated.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Wind Tunnel, turbulence model, lift, drag

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2 Design and Validation of an Aerodynamic Model of the Cessna Citation X Horizontal Stabilizer Using both OpenVSP and Digital Datcom

Authors: Marine Segui, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez, Matthieu Mantilla


This research is the part of a major project at the Research Laboratory in Active Controls, Avionics and Aeroservoelasticity (LARCASE) aiming to improve a Cessna Citation X aircraft cruise performance with an application of the morphing wing technology on its horizontal tail. However, the horizontal stabilizer of the Cessna Citation X turns around its span axis with an angle between -8 and 2 degrees. Within this range, the horizontal stabilizer generates certainly some unwanted drag. To cancel this drag, the LARCASE proposes to trim the aircraft with a horizontal stabilizer equipped by a morphing wing technology. This technology aims to optimize aerodynamic performances by changing the conventional horizontal tail shape during the flight. As a consequence, this technology will be able to generate enough lift on the horizontal tail to balance the aircraft without an unwanted drag generation. To conduct this project, an accurate aerodynamic model of the horizontal tail is firstly required. This aerodynamic model will finally allow precise comparison between a conventional horizontal tail and a morphed horizontal tail results. This paper presents how this aerodynamic model was designed. In this way, it shows how the 2D geometry of the horizontal tail was collected and how the unknown airfoil’s shape of the horizontal tail has been recovered. Finally, the complete horizontal tail airfoil shape was found and a comparison between aerodynamic polar of the real horizontal tail and the horizontal tail found in this paper shows a maximum difference of 0.04 on the lift or the drag coefficient which is very good. Aerodynamic polar data of the aircraft horizontal tail are obtained from the CAE Inc. level D research aircraft flight simulator of the Cessna Citation X.

Keywords: Aerodynamic, Citation, model, coefficient, longitudinal, lift, drag, Cessna, Datcom, OpenVSP

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1 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis and Optimization of the Coanda Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platform

Authors: Jin Lee, Nigel Kelly, Zaid Saddiqi


Research shows that using Coanda aero surfaces can drastically augment the lift forces when applied to an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platform. By directing the flow of air from a propeller over a convex surface, a negative pressure gradient forms, resulting in additional lift generated. In theory, the direct thrust from the propeller in the gravity direction is then augmented by this additional lift force. However, Coanda saucer UAVs, which commonly use a dish-like, radially-extending structure, have shown no significant increases in thrust/lift force and therefore have never been commercially successful: the additional thrust/lift generated by the Coanda surface diminishes since the airstreams emerging from the rotor compartment expand radially causing serious loss of momentums and therefore a net loss of total thrust/lift. To overcome this technical weakness, we propose to examine the Coanda surface design and optimize its geometry for the highest thrust/lift. A typical Coanda UAV has flow directed radially outwards from an orifice and finally vectored in the direction of Coanda curvature. This behavior is highly influenced by the height, h, of the airstream emerging from the orifice preceding the Coanda surface and the radius of curvature, R, of the Coanda surface. The goal of this study is to: (1) determine what ratio of h/R will produce the highest lift coefficient for a Coanda surface of 2-dimensional geometry when applied to a newly designed cylindrical configuration and (2) compare the lift generated from a 4-sided cylindrical Coanda design vs. a conventional radial Coanda surface. To accomplish these objectives, the Buckingham Pi theorem is used to generate non-dimensional variables h/R, Reynold’s number, and Lift Coefficient. Our preliminary study shows that the airstream separates from the Coanda surface at certain conditions, resulting in near-complete loss of thrust/lift from the platform. Ideally, we aim to avoid these conditions to maximize thrust/lift. With these constraints in mind, a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, ANSYS Fluent®, is used to simulate the flow characteristics with suitable ranges of h/R ratios and orifice velocities. The results of this numerical study indicate that flow-separation occurs at h/R > 0.3, and the highest lift coefficient occurs at a range just before this flow-separation. To validate this approach, the Streamline Curvature Theorem is applied to the airstream, revealing a good agreement with the pressure gradient seen in our simulations. Additionally, a mathematical model in literature compares well with our estimation of the flow-separation angle. We conclude that the proposed 4-sided cylindrical configuration shows an average 25% increase in total thrust, compared with conventional radial-design Coanda platforms. It is also evident that flow-separation is heavily influenced by the h/R ratio. Moreover, an h/R ratio has been identified, which will produce the highest lift coefficient for a Coanda UAV, according to our simulations. This result, coupled with a 4-sided cylindrical Coanda configuration, is deemed to be a very efficient design for enhancing thrust/lift of a Coanda UAV platform. This venture integrates with an ongoing research project where a Coanda prototype is being assembled. Additionally, a custom thrust-stand has been constructed for thrust/lift measurement.

Keywords: CFD, UAV, lift, Coanda

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