Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Life Expectancy Related Abstracts

9 Components and Public Health Impact of Population Growth in the Arab World

Authors: Asharaf Abdul Salam, Ibrahim Elsegaey, Rshood Khraif, Abdullah AlMutairi, Ali Aldosari

Abstract:

Arab World that comprises of 22 member states of Arab League undergoes rapid transition in demographic front - fertility, mortality and migration. A distinctive geographic region spread across West Asia and North East Africa unified by Arabic language shares common values and characteristics even though diverse in economic and political conditions. Demographic lag that characterizes Arab World is unique but the present trend of declining fertility combined with the existing relatively low mortality undergoes significant changes in its population size. The current research aimed at (i) assessing the growth of population, over a period of 3 decades, (ii) exploring the components and (iii) understanding the public health impact. Based on International Data Base (IDB) of US Census Bureau, for 3 time periods – 1992, 2002 and 2012; 21 countries of Arab World have been analyzed by dividing them into four geographic sectors namely Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), West Asia, Maghreb and Nile Valley African Horn. Population of Arab World grew widely during the past both through natural growth and migration. Immigrations pronounced especially in the resource intensive GCC nations not only from East Asian and central African countries but also from resource thrifty Arab nations. Migrations within the Arab World as well as outside of the Arab World remark an interesting demographic phenomenon that requires further research. But the transformations on public health statistics – impact of demographic change – depict a new era in the Arab World.

Keywords: Life Expectancy, demographic change, public health statistics, net migration, natural growth, geographic sectors, fertility and mortality

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8 The Effectiveness of Group Spiritual Therapy on Increasing the Life Expectancy and Mental Health in Elderlies

Authors: Seyed Reza Mirmahdi, Seyedeh Maryam Hashemi Jabali

Abstract:

This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of group spiritual therapy on increasing the life expectancy and mental health among the elderlies. This was a quasi-experimental research using a pretest-posttest design with a control group conducted over a population including all the elderly people of Tehran in 2012-13. A randomized sampling method was used to select 30 elderly people living in Parham nursing home that were then randomly assigned into two control and experimental groups of 15 people each. The instruments used were Miller’s life expectancy and mental health test (SCL.90.R) standard questionnaires. Individuals in experimental group received 12 sessions of group spiritual therapy while those in control group did not receive any kind of therapy. The tests were performed again for all the subjects (30 individuals) at the end of the experiment. To test the hypotheses, the data collected by questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive methods through relevant tables and charts and also inferential methods through the analysis of covariance using the SPSS software. Results showed that group spiritual therapy leads to a significant increase in both mental health and life expectancy in the experimental group of elderlies living in Parham nursing home compared to those in the control group.

Keywords: Mental Health, Life Expectancy, spiritual therapy, elderlies

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7 There Is No Meaningful Opportunity in Meaningless Data: Why It Is Unconstitutional to Use Life Expectancy Tables in Post-Graham Sentences

Authors: Stacie Nelson Colling, Adele Cummings

Abstract:

The United States Supreme Court recently announced that it is unconstitutional to sentence a child to life without parole for non-homicide offenses, and that each child so situated must be afforded a meaningful opportunity for release from prison in his lifetime. The Court also declared that it is unconstitutional to impose a mandatory sentence of life without parole on a child for homicide offenses. Across the United States, attorneys and advocates continue to litigate issues surrounding the implementation of these legal principles. Some states have held that any sentence to a finite term of years, no matter how long, is not the same as ‘life’ and therefore does not violate the constitution. Other states have held that a sentence to a term of years that is less than the expected life of that particular child is not unconstitutional. In Colorado, the courts have routinely looked to life expectancy estimates from governmental organizations to determine how long a particular child is expected to live. They then compare that the date that the child is expected to be eligible for parole, and if the child is expected to still be living when he is eligible for parole, the sentence is deemed constitutional. This paper argues that it is inappropriate, reckless, unconstitutional and not scientifically sound to use such estimates in determining whether a child will have a meaningful opportunity for release from prison and life outside of prison before he dies. This paper argues that the opportunity for release must mean more than a probability that a child will be released before his death, and that it must include an opportunity for a meaningful life outside of prison (not just the opportunity to be released and then die on the outside). The paper further argues that life expectancy estimates cannot guide a court or a legislature in determining whether a sentence is or is not constitutional.

Keywords: Life Expectancy, life without parole, juvenile sentencing, meaningful opportunity for release from prison

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6 Assessing the Disability-Free Life Expectancy and Decomposition of Its Difference: A Gender Perspective on India over the Decade 2001-2011

Authors: Kajori Banerjee, Laxmi Kant Dwivedi

Abstract:

“Health transition” is defined to be “a process through which high levels of mortality, morbidity and disability are reduced to low levels by influencing cultural, social and behavioural factors”. Life expectancy in India has been on the rise and parallel the burden of disease and disability has also risen noticeably. Borrowing data from Indian Census (2001, 2011), this study identifies the gender-wise burden of disability by calculating disability free life expectancy (DFLE) and life lived with disability (LWD). Sullivan’s method of calculating DFLE using proportion of disabled is used for this purpose. The change in person years lived with disability in the decade 2001-11 is further decomposed using Arriaga’s method into mortality and disability effects (ME and DE) to check the magnitude and direction of contribution of mortality and disability. Nationally, along with DFLE, LWD has amplified too. Despite having the highest life expectancy and DFLE, LWD in Kerala, was highest for both sexes in 2001. But in 2011, the LWD was highest among the males of Orissa and females of Rajasthan. For the overall population, DE is positive for the prime working age groups of 20-40years indicating that there has been an increase in the disability proportion holding mortality constant for 2001-2011. Females exhibit higher positive DE implying greater loss of healthy years due to disability than males. The findings call for an immediate attention to the causes of rising disability burden among the working population, especially females, as this might heavily effect the availability of quality labour force and its relative economic output in the Indian labour market. This also hints at the degrading quality of the elongated life and needs to be given the required attention to enhance the quality of life lead in the Nation.

Keywords: Life Expectancy, disability-free life expectancy, disability effect, mortality effect

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5 A Study of Life Expectancy in an Urban Set up of North-Eastern India under Dynamic Consideration Incorporating Cause Specific Mortality

Authors: Mompi Sharma, Labananda Choudhury, Anjana M. Saikia

Abstract:

Background: The period life table is entirely based on the assumption that the mortality patterns of the population existing in the given period will persist throughout their lives. However, it has been observed that the mortality rate continues to decline. As such, if the rates of change of probabilities of death are considered in a life table then we get a dynamic life table. Although, mortality has been declining in all parts of India, one may be interested to know whether these declines had appeared more in an urban area of underdeveloped regions like North-Eastern India. So, attempt has been made to know the mortality pattern and the life expectancy under dynamic scenario in Guwahati, the biggest city of North Eastern India. Further, if the probabilities of death changes then there is a possibility that its different constituent probabilities will also change. Since cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Guwahati. Therefore, an attempt has also been made to formulate dynamic cause specific death ratio and probabilities of death due to CVD. Objectives: To construct dynamic life table for Guwahati for the year 2011 based on the rates of change of probabilities of death over the previous 10 and 25 years (i.e.,2001 and 1986) and to compute corresponding dynamic cause specific death ratio and probabilities of death due to CVD. Methodology and Data: The study uses the method proposed by Denton and Spencer (2011) to construct dynamic life table for Guwahati. So, the data from the Office of the Birth and Death, Guwahati Municipal Corporation for the years 1986, 2001 and 2011 are taken. The population based data are taken from 2001 and 2011 census (India). However, the population data for 1986 has been estimated. Also, the cause of death ratio and probabilities of death due to CVD are computed for the aforementioned years and then extended to dynamic set up for the year 2011 by considering the rates of change of those probabilities over the previous 10 and 25 years. Findings: The dynamic life expectancy at birth (LEB) for Guwahati is found to be higher than the corresponding values in the period table by 3.28 (5.65) years for males and 8.30 (6.37) years for females during the period of 10 (25) years. The life expectancies under dynamic consideration in all the other age groups are also seen higher than the usual life expectancies, which may be possible due to gradual decline in probabilities of death since 1986-2011. Further, a continuous decline has also been observed in death ratio due to CVD along with cause specific probabilities of death for both sexes. As a consequence, dynamic cause of death probability due to CVD is found to be less in comparison to usual procedure. Conclusion: Since incorporation of changing mortality rates in period life table for Guwahati resulted in higher life expectancies and lower probabilities of death due to CVD, this would possibly bring out the real situation of deaths prevailing in the city.

Keywords: Dynamic, Life Expectancy, cause specific death ratio, cause specific probabilities of death

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4 A Study of Status of Women by Incorporating Literacy and Employment in India and Some Selected States

Authors: Labananda Choudhury, Barnali Thakuria

Abstract:

Gender equality and women’s empowerment is one of the components of eight Millennium Development Goal (MDG).Literacy and employment are the parameters which reflect the empowerment of women. But in a developing country like India, literacy and working status among the females are not satisfactory. Both literacy and employment technically can be measured by Literate Life Expectancy (LLE) and Working Life Expectancy (WLE).One can also combine both the factors literacy and working to get a better new measure. The proposed indicator can be called literate-working life expectancy (LWLE). LLE gives an average number of years a person lives in a literate state under current mortality and literacy conditions while WLE defined as average number of years a person lives in a working state if current mortality and working condition prevails. Similarly, LWLE gives number of expected years by a person living under both literate and working state. The situation of females cannot be figured out without comparing both the sexes. In the present paper an attempt has been made to estimate LLE and WLE in India along with some selected states from various zones of India namely Assam from the North-East, Gujarat from the West, Kerala from the South, Rajasthan from the North, Uttar Pradesh from the Central and West Bengal from the East respectively for both the sexes based on 2011 census. Furthermore, we have also developed a formula for a new indicator namely Literate-Working Life Expectancy (LWLE) and the proposed index has been applied in India and the selected states mentioned above for both males and females. Data has been extracted from SRS(Sample Registration System) based Abridged Life Table and Census of India. The computation of LLE follows the method developed by Lutz while WLE has followed the method developed by Saw Swee Hock. By combining both the factors literacy and employment, the new indicator LWLE also follows the method like LLE and WLE. Contrasted results have been found in different parts of India. The result shows that LLE at birth is highest(lowest) in the state Kerala(Uttar Pradesh) with 61.66 (39.51) years among the males. A similar situation is also observed among the females with 62.58 years and 25.11 years respectively. But male WLE at birth is highest (lowest) in Rajasthan(Kerala) with 37.11 (32.64) years. Highest female WLE at birth is also observed in Rajasthan with 23.51 years and the lowest is concentrated in Uttar Pradesh with 11.76 years. It is also found that Kerala’s performance is exceptionally good in terms of LWLE at birth while the lowest LWLE at birth prevails in the state Uttar Pradesh among the males. Female LWLE at birth is highest(lowest) in Kerala(Uttar Pradesh) with 19.73(4.77)years. The corresponding value of the index increases as the number of factors involved in the life expectancy decrease. It is found that women are lagging behind in terms of both literacy and employment. Findings of the study will help the planners to take necessary steps to improve the position of women.

Keywords: Literacy, Life Expectancy, literate life expectancy, working life expectancy

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3 A Study on the Method of Accelerated Life Test to Electric Rotating System

Authors: Youn-Hwan Kim, Jae-Won Moon, Hae-Joong Kim

Abstract:

This paper introduces the study on the method of accelerated life test to electrical rotating system. In recent years, as well as efficiency for motors and generators, there is a growing need for research on the life expectancy. It is considered impossible to calculate the acceleration coefficient by increasing the rotational load or temperature load as the acceleration stress in the motor system because the temperature of the copper exceeds the wire thermal class rating. In this paper, the accelerated life test methods of the electrical rotating system are classified according to the application. This paper describes the development of the test procedure for the highly accelerated life test (HALT) of the 100kW permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) of electric vehicle. Finally, it explains how to select acceleration load for vibration, temperature, bearing load, etc. for accelerated life test.

Keywords: Vibration, Life Expectancy, acceleration coefficient, electric vehicle motor, HALT

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2 A Study on the Application of Accelerated Life Test to Electric Motor for Machine Tools

Authors: Youn-Hwan Kim, Jae-Won Moon, Hae-Joong Kim

Abstract:

This paper introduces the results of the study on the development of accelerated life test methods for the motor used in machine tools. In recent years, as well as efficiency for motors, there is a growing need for research on life expectancy of motors. It is considered impossible to calculate the acceleration coefficient by increasing the rotational load or temperature load as the acceleration stress in the motor system because the temperature of the copper exceeds the wire thermal class rating. This paper describes the equipment development procedure for the highly accelerated life test (HALT) of the 12kW three-phase squirrel-cage induction motors (SCIMs). After the test, the lifetime analysis was carried out, and it is compared with the life expectancy by finite element method (FEM) and bearing theory.

Keywords: Life Expectancy, bearing, motor, acceleration coefficient, HALT

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1 A Study on the Calculation of Bearing Life of Electric Motor Using Accelerated Life Test

Authors: Youn-Hwan Kim, Jae-Won Moon, Hae-Joong Kim

Abstract:

This paper introduces the results of the study on the development of accelerated life test methods for the motor used in machine tools. In recent years, as well as efficiency for motors, there is a growing need for research on life expectancy of motors. It is considered impossible to calculate the acceleration coefficient by increasing the rotational load or temperature load as the acceleration stress in the motor system because the temperature of the copper exceeds the wire thermal class rating. This paper describes the equipment development procedure for the highly accelerated life test (HALT) of the 12kW three-phase squirrel-cage induction motors (SCIMs). After the test, the lifetime analysis was carried out and it is compared with the bearing life expectancy by ISO 281.

Keywords: Life Expectancy, bearing, motor, acceleration coefficient, HALT

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