Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Life Cycle Costing Related Abstracts

4 A Feasibility Study of Replacing High Pressure Mercury Vapor and Sodium Vapor Lamp Street Lighting Bulbs with LEDs in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

Authors: Olusola Olorunfemi Bamisile, Mustafa Dagbasi, Serkan Abbasoglu


Feasibility of an Energy Audit program is the main aim of this paper. LEDs are used to replace Sodium Vapor lamps and High Pressured Mercury Vapor lamps that are currently used for the street lighting system in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. 44% of the fossil fuels imported into Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus are used for electricity generation which makes the reduction in the consumption of electricity very important. This project will save as much as 40,206,210 kWh on site annually and 121,837,000 kWh can be saved from source. The economic environmental and fossil fuels saving of this project is also evaluated.

Keywords: Life Cycle Costing, LEDs, energy conservation management, sodium vapor, high pressure mercury vapor

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3 A Concept to Assess the Economic Importance of the On-Site Activities of ETICS

Authors: V. Sulakatko, F. U. Vogdt, I. Lill


Construction technology and on-site construction activities have a direct influence on the life cycle costs of energy efficiently renovated apartment buildings. The systematic inadequacies of the External Thermal Insulation Composite System (ETICS) which occur during the construction phase increase the risk for all stakeholders, reduce mechanical durability and increase the life cycle costs of the building. The economic effect of these shortcomings can be minimised if the risk of the most significant on-site activities is recognised. The objective of the presented ETICS economic assessment concept is to evaluate the economic influence of on-site shortcomings and reveal their significance to the foreseeable future repair costs. The model assembles repair techniques, discusses their direct cost calculation methods, argues over the proper usage of net present value over the life cycle of the building, and proposes a simulation tool to evaluate the risk of on-site activities. As the technique is dependent on the selected real interest rate, a sensitivity analysis is anticipated to determine the validity of the recommendations. After the verification of the model on the sample buildings by the industry, it is expected to increase economic rationality of resource allocation and reduce high-risk systematic shortcomings during the construction process of ETICS.

Keywords: Life Cycle Costing, Cost Estimation, ETICS, activity-based cost estimating

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2 Considering Uncertainties of Input Parameters on Energy, Environmental Impacts and Life Cycle Costing by Monte Carlo Simulation in the Decision Making Process

Authors: Johannes Gantner, Michael Held, Matthias Fischer


The refurbishment of the building stock in terms of energy supply and efficiency is one of the major challenges of the German turnaround in energy policy. As the building sector accounts for 40% of Germany’s total energy demand, additional insulation is key for energy efficient refurbished buildings. Nevertheless the energetic benefits often the environmental and economic performances of insulation materials are questioned. The methods Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as well as Life Cycle Costing (LCC) can form the standardized basis for answering this doubts and more and more become important for material producers due efforts such as Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) or Environmental Product Declarations (EPD). Due to increasing use of LCA and LCC information for decision support the robustness and resilience of the results become crucial especially for support of decision and policy makers. LCA and LCC results are based on respective models which depend on technical parameters like efficiencies, material and energy demand, product output, etc.. Nevertheless, the influence of parameter uncertainties on lifecycle results are usually not considered or just studied superficially. Anyhow the effect of parameter uncertainties cannot be neglected. Based on the example of an exterior wall the overall lifecycle results are varying by a magnitude of more than three. As a result simple best case worst case analyses used in practice are not sufficient. These analyses allow for a first rude view on the results but are not taking effects into account such as error propagation. Thereby LCA practitioners cannot provide further guidance for decision makers. Probabilistic analyses enable LCA practitioners to gain deeper understanding of the LCA and LCC results and provide a better decision support. Within this study, the environmental and economic impacts of an exterior wall system over its whole lifecycle are illustrated, and the effect of different uncertainty analysis on the interpretation in terms of resilience and robustness are shown. Hereby the approaches of error propagation and Monte Carlo Simulations are applied and combined with statistical methods in order to allow for a deeper understanding and interpretation. All in all this study emphasis the need for a deeper and more detailed probabilistic evaluation based on statistical methods. Just by this, misleading interpretations can be avoided, and the results can be used for resilient and robust decisions.

Keywords: Life Cycle Costing, Uncertainty, Life Cycle Assessment, Monte Carlo Simulation

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1 A Techno-Economic Simulation Model to Reveal the Relevance of Construction Process Impact Factors for External Thermal Insulation Composite System (ETICS)

Authors: Virgo Sulakatko


The reduction of energy consumption of the built environment has been one of the topics tackled by European Commission during the last decade. Increased energy efficiency requirements have increased the renovation rate of apartment buildings covered with External Thermal Insulation Composite System (ETICS). Due to fast and optimized application process, a large extent of quality assurance is depending on the specific activities of artisans and are often not controlled. The on-site degradation factors (DF) have the technical influence to the façade and cause future costs to the owner. Besides the thermal conductivity, the building envelope needs to ensure the mechanical resistance and stability, fire-, noise-, corrosion and weather protection, and long-term durability. As the shortcomings of the construction phase become problematic after some years, the common value of the renovation is reduced. Previous work on the subject has identified and rated the relevance of DF to the technical requirements and developed a method to reveal the economic value of repair works. The future costs can be traded off to increased the quality assurance during the construction process. The proposed framework is describing the joint simulation of the technical importance and economic value of the on-site DFs of ETICS. The model is providing new knowledge to improve the resource allocation during the construction process by enabling to identify and diminish the most relevant degradation factors and increase economic value to the owner.

Keywords: Construction Management, Construction Technology, Life Cycle Costing, ETICS

Procedia PDF Downloads 302