Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

lidocaine Related Abstracts

3 Surfactant-Free O/W-Emulsion as Drug Delivery System

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, J.-P. Krause, S. Bürk

Abstract:

Most of the drugs used for pharmaceutical purposes are poorly water-soluble drugs. About 40% of all newly discovered drugs are lipophilic and the numbers of lipophilic drugs seem to increase more and more. Drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, micelles or liposomes are applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Besides various techniques of solubilization, oil-in-water emulsions are often used to incorporate lipophilic drugs into the oil phase. To stabilize emulsions surface active substances (surfactants) are generally used. An alternative method to avoid the application of surfactants was of great interest. One possibility is to develop O/W-emulsion without any addition of surface active agents or the so called “surfactant-free emulsion or SFE”. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize SFE as a drug carrier by varying the production conditions. Lidocaine base was used as a model drug. The injection method was developed. Effects of ultrasound as well as of temperature on the properties of the emulsion were studied. Particle sizes and release were determined. The long-term stability up to 30 days was performed. The results showed that the surfactant-free O/W emulsions with pharmaceutical oil as drug carrier can be produced.

Keywords: Stability, Ultrasound, injection, surfactant, release, emulsion, lidocaine, Miglyol, size, light scattering

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
2 Lidocaine-Bupivacaine Block Improve Analgesia in Cats Undergoing Orchiectomy

Authors: H. C. Chen, T. C. Ng, R. Radzi, T. K. Ng

Abstract:

The analgesic effects of lidocaine-bupivacaine block in cats undergoing routine orchiectomy were determined in this controlled, randomized, and blinded study. Twelve cats were randomly assigned to two groups. Cats in local block group received subcutaneous infiltration of 1 mg/kg of 2% lidocaine and 1 mg/kg of 0.5% bupivacaine into the scrotal sac. Cats in control group received equivolume of saline. Both groups were induced with mixture of ketamine (15 mg/kg) and acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg) intramuscularly and maintained on sevoflurane via facemask. Non-invasive blood pressures (BP), heart (HR), and respiratory rate (RR) were measured intra-operatively at specific events. Post-operatively, all cats received meloxicam, 0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously. Pain scores were determined at 4, 8, and 24 hours postoperatively. Mechanical pressure thresholds (MPT) at the perineum and metatarsus were determined at 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours postoperatively. Intra-operatively, the BP and HR tended to be higher in the control group. The increment in HR peaked during traction and autoligation of the spermatic cord in the control group. There was no treatment difference in RR. Post-operatively, pain scores in the group given local blocks were lower than the control group at 4 hour post-operation. There was no treatment difference in the post-operative HR, RR, BP and MPT values. In conclusion, subcutaneous infiltration of lidocaine-bupivacaine into the scrotal sac before orchiectomy improved intra-operative hemodynamic stability and provided better analgesia up to 4 hours post-surgery.

Keywords: Analgesia, Cat, lidocaine, bupivacaine, local block, orchiectomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
1 Postmortem Analysis of Lidocaine in Women Died of Criminal Abortion

Authors: Mohammed A. Arishy, Sultan M. Alharbi, Mohammed A. Hakami, Farid M. Abualsail, Mohammad A. Attafi, Riyadh M. Tobaiqi, Hussain M. Alsalem, Ibraheem M. Attafi

Abstract:

Lidocaine is the most common local anesthetics used for para cervical block to reduce pain associated with surgical abortion. A 25-year-old pregnant woman who. She died before reaching hospital, and she was undergoing criminal abortion during the first trimester. In post-mortem investigations and autopsy shows no clear finding; therefore, toxic substances must be suspected and searched for routinely toxicology analysis. In this case report, the postmortem concentration of lidocaine was detected blood, brain, liver, kidney, and stomach. For lidocaine identification and quantification, sample was extracted using solid phase extraction and analyzed by GC-MS (Shimadzu, Japan). Initial screening and confirmatory analysis results showed that only lidocaine was detected in all collected samples, and no other toxic substances or alcohol were detected. The concentrations of lidocaine in samples were 19, 17, 14, 7, and 3 ug/m in the brain, blood, kidney, liver, and stomach, respectively. Lidocaine blood concentration (17 ug/ml) was toxic level and may result in death. Among the tissues, brain showed the highest level of lidocaine, followed by the kidney, liver, and stomach.

Keywords: Forensic Toxicology, GC-MS, lidocaine, postmortem

Procedia PDF Downloads 1