Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Lexicon Related Abstracts

5 Sociolinguistic Aspects and Language Contact, Lexical Consequences in Francoprovençal Settings

Authors: Carmela Perta


In Italy the coexistence of standard language, its varieties and different minority languages - historical and migration languages - has been a way to study language contact in different directions; the focus of most of the studies is either the relations among the languages of the social repertoire, or the study of contact phenomena occurring in a particular structural level. However, studies on contact facts in relation to a given sociolinguistic situation of the speech community are still not present in literature. As regard the language level to investigate from the perspective of contact, it is commonly claimed that the lexicon is the most volatile part of language and most likely to undergo change due to superstrate influence, indeed first lexical features are borrowed, then, under long term cultural pressure, structural features may also be borrowed. The aim of this paper is to analyse language contact in two historical minority communities where Francoprovençal is spoken, in relation to their sociolinguistic situation. In this perspective, firstly lexical borrowings present in speakers’ speech production will be examined, trying to find a possible correlation between this part of the lexicon and informants’ sociolinguistic variables; secondly a possible correlation between a particular community sociolinguistic situation and lexical borrowing will be found. Methods used to collect data are based on the results obtained from 24 speakers in both the villages; the speaker group in the two communities consisted of 3 males and 3 females in each of four age groups, ranging in age from 9 to 85, and then divided into five groups according to their occupations. Speakers were asked to describe a sequence of pictures naming common objects and then describing scenes when they used these objects: they are common objects, frequently pronounced and belonging to semantic areas which are usually resistant and which are thought to survive. A subset of this task, involving 19 items with Italian source is examined here: in order to determine the significance of the independent variables (social factors) on the dependent variable (lexical variation) the statistical package SPSS, particularly the linear regression, was used.

Keywords: language change, Lexicon, borrowing, Francoprovençal

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4 Grammatically Coded Corpus of Spoken Lithuanian: Methodology and Development

Authors: L. Kamandulytė-Merfeldienė


The paper deals with the main issues of methodology of the Corpus of Spoken Lithuanian which was started to be developed in 2006. At present, the corpus consists of 300,000 grammatically annotated word forms. The creation of the corpus consists of three main stages: collecting the data, the transcription of the recorded data, and the grammatical annotation. Collecting the data was based on the principles of balance and naturality. The recorded speech was transcribed according to the CHAT requirements of CHILDES. The transcripts were double-checked and annotated grammatically using CHILDES. The development of the Corpus of Spoken Lithuanian has led to the constant increase in studies on spontaneous communication, and various papers have dealt with a distribution of parts of speech, use of different grammatical forms, variation of inflectional paradigms, distribution of fillers, syntactic functions of adjectives, the mean length of utterances.

Keywords: Lexicon, CHILDES, corpus of spoken Lithuanian, grammatical annotation, grammatical disambiguation, Lithuanian

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3 Descriptive Analysis of Variations in Maguindanaon Language

Authors: Fhajema Kunso


People who live in the same region and who seemed to speak the same language still vary in some aspects of their language. The variation may occur in terms of pronunciation, lexicon, morphology, and syntax. This qualitative study described the phonological, morphological, and lexical variations of the Maguindanaon language among the ten Maguindanao municipalities. Purposive sampling, in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and sorting and classifying of words according to phonological and morphological as well as lexical structures in data analysis were employed. The variations occurred through phonemic changes and other phonological processes and morphological processes. Phonological processes consisted of vowel lengthening and deletion while morphological processes included affixation, borrowing, and coinage. In the phonological variation, it was observed that there were phonemic changes in one dialect to another. For example, there was a change of phoneme /r/ to /l/. The phoneme /r/ was most likely to occur in Kabuntalan like /biru/, /kurIt/, and /kɘmɅr/ whereas in the rest of the dialects these were /bilu/, /kuIɪt/, and /kɘmɅl/ respectively. Morphologically, the affixation was the main way to know the tenses. For example, the root sarig (expect) when inserted with im becomes simarig, i.e. s + im + arig = simarig (expected). Lexical variation also existed in the Maguindanaon language. Results revealed that the variation in phonology, morphology, and lexicon were observed to be associated primarily on geographic distribution.

Keywords: Applied Linguistics, Morphology, Language, Phonology, Qualitative, Processes, Lexicon, Variation, Philippines, Maguindanao

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2 Arabic Lexicon Learning to Analyze Sentiment in Microblogs

Authors: Mahmoud B. Rokaya


The study of opinion mining and sentiment analysis includes analysis of opinions, sentiments, evaluations, attitudes, and emotions. The rapid growth of social media, social networks, reviews, forum discussions, microblogs, and Twitter, leads to a parallel growth in the field of sentiment analysis. The field of sentiment analysis tries to develop effective tools to make it possible to capture the trends of people. There are two approaches in the field, lexicon-based and corpus-based methods. A lexicon-based method uses a sentiment lexicon which includes sentiment words and phrases with assigned numeric scores. These scores reveal if sentiment phrases are positive or negative, their intensity, and/or their emotional orientations. Creation of manual lexicons is hard. This brings the need for adaptive automated methods for generating a lexicon. The proposed method generates dynamic lexicons based on the corpus and then classifies text using these lexicons. In the proposed method, different approaches are combined to generate lexicons from text. The proposed method classifies the tweets into 5 classes instead of +ve or –ve classes. The sentiment classification problem is written as an optimization problem, finding optimum sentiment lexicons are the goal of the optimization process. The solution was produced based on mathematical programming approaches to find the best lexicon to classify texts. A genetic algorithm was written to find the optimal lexicon. Then, extraction of a meta-level feature was done based on the optimal lexicon. The experiments were conducted on several datasets. Results, in terms of accuracy, recall and F measure, outperformed the state-of-the-art methods proposed in the literature in some of the datasets. A better understanding of the Arabic language and culture of Arab Twitter users and sentiment orientation of words in different contexts can be achieved based on the sentiment lexicons proposed by the algorithm.

Keywords: Social Media, Evolutionary Computation, Lexicon, Genetic Algorithm, sentiment analysis, Twitter sentiment

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1 Comparative between Different Methodological Procedures Used to Obtain Information on the First Lexical Development in Bilingual Basque-Spanish Children

Authors: Asier Romero Andonegi, Irati De Pablo Delgado


The objective of this study is to explore the different methodological procedures that are used to obtain information on the early linguistic development of children. To this end, two different methodological procedures were carried out on the same sample: on the one hand, the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, in its adaptations in Spanish and Basque; and on the other hand, longitudinal observation through professional software: ELAN and CHAT. The sample consists of 8 Basque children/ages 16 to 30 months with different mother tongue (L1). The results show the usefulness of inventories in obtaining information on the development of early communication and language skills, but also their limitations mostly focused on the interpretive overvaluation of their children’s lexical development.

Keywords: Lexicon, early language development, language evaluation, MacArthur-Bates communicative development inventories

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