Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Leukemia Related Abstracts

5 Molecular Detection of mRNA bcr-abl and Circulating Leukemic Stem Cells CD34+ in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and Its Association with Clinical Parameters

Authors: B. Gonzalez-Yebra, H. Barajas, P. Palomares, M. Hernandez, O. Torres, M. Ayala, A. L. González, G. Vazquez-Ortiz, M. L. Guzman

Abstract:

Leukemia arises by molecular alterations of the normal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transforming it into a leukemic stem cell (LSC) with high cell proliferation, self-renewal, and cell differentiation. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) originates from an LSC-leading to elevated proliferation of myeloid cells and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) originates from an LSC development leading to elevated proliferation of lymphoid cells. In both cases, LSC can be identified by multicolor flow cytometry using several antibodies. However, to date, LSC levels in peripheral blood (PB) are not established well enough in ALL and CML patients. On the other hand, the detection of the minimal residue disease (MRD) in leukemia is mainly based on the identification of the mRNA bcr-abl gene in CML patients and some other genes in ALL patients. There is no a properly biomarker to detect MDR in both types of leukemia. The objective of this study was to determine mRNA bcr-abl and the percentage of LSC in peripheral blood of patients with CML and ALL and identify a possible association between the amount of LSC in PB and clinical data. We included in this study 19 patients with Leukemia. A PB sample was collected per patient and leukocytes were obtained by Ficoll gradient. The immunophenotype for LSC CD34+ was done by flow cytometry analysis with CD33, CD2, CD14, CD16, CD64, HLA-DR, CD13, CD15, CD19, CD10, CD20, CD34, CD38, CD71, CD90, CD117, CD123 monoclonal antibodies. In addition, to identify the presence of the mRNA bcr-abl by RT-PCR, the RNA was isolated using TRIZOL reagent. Molecular (presence of mRNA bcr-abl and LSC CD34+) and clinical results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and a multiple regression analysis was performed to determine statistically significant association. In total, 19 patients (8 patients with ALL and 11 patients with CML) were analyzed, 9 patients with de novo leukemia (ALL = 6 and CML = 3) and 10 under treatment (ALL = 5 and CML = 5). The overall frequency of mRNA bcr-abl was 31% (6/19), and it was negative in ALL patients and positive in 80% in CML patients. On the other hand, LSC was determined in 16/19 leukemia patients (%LSC= 0.02-17.3). The Novo patients had higher percentage of LSC (0.26 to 17.3%) than patients under treatment (0 to 5.93%). The amount of LSC was significantly associated with the amount of LSC were: absence of treatment, the absence of splenomegaly, and a lower number of leukocytes, negative association for the clinical variables age, sex, blasts, and mRNA bcr-abl. In conclusion, patients with de novo leukemia had a higher percentage of circulating LSC than patients under treatment, and it was associated with clinical parameters as lack of treatment, absence of splenomegaly and a lower number of leukocytes. The mRNA bcr-abl detection was only possible in the series of patients with CML, and molecular detection of LSC could be identified in the peripheral blood of all leukemia patients, we believe the identification of circulating LSC may be used as biomarker for the detection of the MRD in leukemia patients.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Leukemia, Stem Cells, flow cytometry

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4 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak

Abstract:

A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated, characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Leukemia, Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, Optical Emission

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3 The Molecular Rationale for Steroid Based Therapy of Leukemia: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications

Authors: Eitan Yefenof

Abstract:

Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones, e.g. Dexamethasone and Prednisone, are widely used in the therapy of leukemia and lymphoma owing to their apoptogenic effect on lymphoid cells. However, the emergence of GC resistant cells during therapy is a major cause for treatment failure, urging the need for novel strategies that maintain leukemia sensitivity to the pro-apoptotic activity of GCs. GCs act by binding to the GC receptor (GR), which, in its inactive state, is sequestered in the cytosol by a multi-subunit complex of heat shock proteins. Upon ligand binding, the complex dissociates, allowing GR activation and translocation to the nucleus, where it regulates transcription of multiple genes. We demonstrated that in addition to gene expression, GR also regulates microRNA (miR) expression. Deep-sequencing analysis revealed 14 miRs that are regulated in GC-sensitive but resistant leukemias upon treatment with GC. GC up-regulates miR-103, miR-15~16 and miR-30e/d, while down-regulates miR-17, mir-18a, miR-19a, miR-19b, miR-20a and miR-92a (members of the miR-17∼92a multi-cistron). Upon transfection, miR-103 confers GC apoptotic sensitivity to otherwise GC-resistant cell. Furthermore, knocking down miR-103 expression reduces the GC apoptotic response of sensitive cells. miR-103 abrogates c-Myc expression, an oncogenic transcription factor which is deregulated in many cancers. In addition, miR-103 up-regulates Bim, a pro-apoptotic protein crucial for GC-induced death. Activated glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is also crucial for GC-induced apoptosis. GSK3 is active in GC-sensitive but not in GC-resistant cells. We found that GSK3 associates with the GR multi-subunit complex. Upon GC exposure, it dissociates from the GR and interacts with Bim to enable activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. miR-103 mediated c-Myc ablation is followed by down-regulation of the multi-cistron miR-17~92a, in particular miR-18a and miR-20a. miR-18a targets GR for degradation whereas miR-20a targets Bim degradation. Hence, miR-103 acts, in concert with Bim and GR, as a "tumor suppressor" that leads to reduced proliferation, cell-cycle arrest and cell death. We suggest that miR-103 can provide a diagnostic tool that predicts the sensitivity of leukemia to GC based therapy. Furthermore, exosomal delivery of miR-103 or up-regulation of the endogenous miR-103 could confer apoptotic sensitivity to resistant cells at the outset, thus becoming a useful therapeutic tool combined with GCs.

Keywords: Leukemia, apoptosis, Steroids, micro-RNA

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2 Effectiveness of Physiotherapy in Hand Dysfunction of Leukemia Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Graft versus Host Disease Post Bone Marrow Transplant

Authors: Mohua Chatterjee, Rajib De

Abstract:

Introduction: Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) is often performed to treat patients with various types of leukemia. A majority of these patients develop complications like chronic musculoskeletal GVHD post-BMT where patients get scleroderma, pain and restricted range of motion of joints of hand. If not treated early, it may cause permanent deformity of hand. This study was done to find the effectiveness of physiotherapy in hand dysfunction caused due to chronic musculoskeletal GVHD of leukemia patients after BMT. Methodology: 23 patients diagnosed with leukemia and having musculoskeletal GVHD were treated with a set of exercises including active exercises and stretching. The outcome was measured by Cochin Hand Function Scale (CHFS) at baseline and after four weeks of intervention. Results: Two patients were not able to carry out exercises beyond two weeks due to relapse of disease and one patient defaulted. It was found that all the patients who received physiotherapy had significant improvement in hand function. Mean CHFS decreased from 63.67 to 27.43 (P value < 0.001) indicating improvement in hand function after four weeks of physiotherapy. Conclusion: Early intervention of physiotherapy is effective in reducing hand dysfunction of leukemia patients with musculoskeletal GVHD post-BMT.

Keywords: Physiotherapy, Leukemia, bone marrow transplant, hand dysfunction, musculoskeletal graft versus host disease

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1 Serological Screening of Cytomegalovirus Infection among Sudanese Patients with Leukemia, Breast and Prostate Cancers at Radiation-Isotope Center in Khartoum

Authors: Abuelquasim. M. Hassan, Namarig .S. Mohammed, Samah F. Mohammed, Wafaa. A. Mohammed, Wafaa M. Edriss, Amel A. Ahmed, Elfadil M. Abass

Abstract:

Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a common virus, usually causes asymptomatic infections in immunocompetent hosts; however, it may lead to serious complications especially in cancer patients. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) among leukemia, breast and prostate cancer patients attending at Radiation Isotope-Center-Khartoum (RICK) from April to August 2016. Material and Methods: A total of 91 subjects were included: 30 leukemic, 22 breast cancer and 29 prostate cancer patients.10 of them were healthy and used as control group, serum samples were collected and tested for CMV IgG & IgM using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Result: Of the control group, 9/10 (9.9%) were seropositive for CMV IgG and 1/10 (1.09%) were sero positive for IgM. Also, all cancer groups demonstrated presence of IgG antibody classes as: The percentage of positive results in prostate, breast cancer and leukemia were 35.8 %, 37.2%, and 35.3% respectively. Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between leukemia, breast, prostate and HCMV.

Keywords: Leukemia, Breast Cancer, cytomegalovirus, serodiagnostic

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