Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

leptin Related Abstracts

11 Association of Gln223Arg Polymorphism of Gene LEPR, Levels of Leptin and Nourishing Habits in Mexican Adolescents with Morbid Obesity

Authors: Claudia Patricia Beltran Miranda, Mónica López Anaya, Mónica Navarro Meza, Maria Leonor Valderrama Chairez


Background: Mexico occupies the second world-wide place of morbid obese people (10- 12 million). Factors that predispose the development of MO are genetic, environmental, physiological, psycho-social and behavioral (nourishing habits). Objective: Associate Gln223Arg polymorphism of gene LEPR, levels of leptina and nourishing habits with the presence of morbid obesity in adolescents of the south of Jalisco (México). Methods: In 41 adolescents (18 normal weight and 23 morbid obesity) of 12 to 19 years of age, both sexes that were measure size and weight with tanita scale and stadimeter to determine IMC. Morbid obesity was determined by tables of the WHO and was established with a standard deviation >3. The Gln223Arg polymorphism have been identify by PCR and leptina levels by ELISA. Nourishing habits were evaluate by the questionnaire the Adolescent Food Habits Checklist. The statistical analysis was performed to compare mean scores obtained from the questionnaire when we compare morbid obesity vs. normal weight adolescents with p=0.03 and a significance of 95%. Results: frequencies alellics and genics were not stadistics significatives p= 0,011 and p=0,279 respectly when were compared between normal weight adolescents and morbib obesity Leptin levels and nourishing habits were associated with morbid obesity. The polymorphism not shown significance with morbid obesity. Conclusions: Dietary habits and leptin levels in adolescents are important factor that predisposes the development of obesity in adolescents. The presence of the polymorphism are not associated with morbid obesity in these subjects.

Keywords: Polymorphism, leptin, nourishing habits, morbid obesity

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10 Effects of Six Weeks of Moderate-Intensity Aerobic Training with a Pomegranate Juice on Plasma Leptin in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: A. Abdi, M. Golzade Gangraj, H.faraji


Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of six weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise with pomegranate juice (PJ) on plasma leptin in adult women selection of type-2 diabetes. Methods: Survey postmenopausal diabetic women aged 45 to 60 years in the city of Babylon, who coordinated Diabetes Association presented the city, among them 34 were selected as subjects were randomly divided into four groups: control, PJ, practice and PJ. Experimental groups consisted of 6 weeks of aerobic exercise training program three times a week for at least 45 minutes per meeting. Two days before and after the training period in the fasting state (12 h) blood samples from the brachial vein was performed in a sitting position. Results: Results showed that aerobic exercise with consumption of pomegranate juice alone and interaction with each significantly decrease levels of leptin plasma in older women with type 2 diabetes compared to control group. Conclusion: According to the research findings can be stated the exercise with pomegranate juice beneficially effects fat tissue and decreases plasma leptin in adult women with type 2 diabetes and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: Diabetes, Aerobic Exercise, pomegranate, leptin

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9 Effect of Leptin Gene Methylation on Colorectal Cancer Chemoresistance

Authors: Adel Gouri, Nizar M. Mhaidat, Wissem Abdaoui, Ilhem Mokhtari


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common tumors all over the world. Obesity, considered a risk factor of CRC, is characterized by a high level of secreted cytokines from adipose tissue. Among these inflammatory molecules, leptin is considered the key mediator for CRC cancer development and progression by activation of mitogenic and anti apoptotic signaling pathways. Gene expression can be significantly modulated by alterations in DNA methylation patterns. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of leptin gene methylation on CRC prognosis and sensitivity to chemotherapy. The study involved 70 CRC tissue samples collected from King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) from which only 53 was analyzed because of bisulfate fragmentation and low yield of DNA extracted from FFPE tissues. A total of 22 blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers and enrolled as a control group. Leptin promoter methylation was analyzed by methylation specific PCR after bisulfate conversion. Results revealed that the incidence of leptin gene methylation was significantly higher in CRC patients in comparison to that of controls (P < 0.05). The correlation between patient’s demographics and leptin gene methylation was not significant (P < 0.05). However, a significant correlation between leptin gene methylation status and early cancer stages (I, II and III) was found in male but not in female (p < 0.05). Moreover, a significant correlation was found between leptin promoter methylation and early tumor localization T1-2 (p < 0.05). The correlation between epigenetic regulation of leptin and chemosensitivity was not significant. Taken together, these results suggest the possibility to use leptin gene methylation as a biomarker for the evaluation of CRC prognosis and metastasis.

Keywords: Obesity, Chemoresistance, colorectal cancer, DNA Methylation, Disease Prognosis, leptin, bisulfate conversion

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8 Association of Leptin Gene T3469C Polymorphism on Reproductive Performance of Purebred Sows

Authors: Mariedel Autriz, Angel Lambio, Renato Vega, Severino Capitan, Rita Laude


The study was conducted to associate genetic polymorphism of the leptin gene T3469C with reproductive performance in purebred sows. DNA were isolated from hair follicles of 29 Landrace and 24 Large White sows. Amplification of the leptin gene was done followed by Hinf1digestion to determine the base at the T3469C site. Electrophoresis of the digestion products revealed that there were 25 Landrace and 15 Large White sows with the TT genotype while there were 3 Landrace and 6 Large White TC. There was 1 CC for Landrace and 3 for Large White. Significant genotype associations were observed for total litter size born and total born alive. Significant breed differences, on the other hand, was observed for gestation length and average birth weight. Significant breed by genotype interaction was observed in litter size total born and litter size born alive.

Keywords: Swine, genetic polymorphism, leptin, T3469C

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7 Markers for Predicting Overweight or Obesity of Riding Egyptian Broodmares Mares

Authors: Amal Abo El-Maaty, Amira Mohamed, Nashwa Abu-Aita, Hisham Morgan


For estimating markers of overweight or obesity of brood mares used for riding and training, 17 mares of different body conditions were subjected to blood sampling and ultrasound examination to measure rump fat thickness and monitor ovulation for six consecutive weeks. Also length (L), heart girth (G) and withers height (H) were measured to estimate body weight (BW), body fat %, body fat mass (BFM) and body mass index (BMI). Mares were classified into three groups according to both body condition score (BCS) and rump back fat (BF). Overweight mares (O) were having BCS > 7 and BF thickness >7mm, moderate body condition (M) mares were having BCS >3and ≤7and BF <3and <7mm, and emaciated mares (E) were having BCS ≤3 and BF ≤3mm. glucose, triglycerides, nitric oxide, ovarian, thyroid, insulin, insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-1), and leptin hormones were measured. Results revealed that BCS, G, L, L*G*H, BW, BF, fat %, BFM were significantly (P<0.0001) decreasing linearly from O to E. T4 concentrations of E were significantly high (P=0.04) compared to M and O but T3 concentrations tended to decrease in E (P>0.05). Insulin and IGF-1 concentrations tended to be high in O (P>0.05) and decrease with the decrease of body condition. M had (P=0.007) the highest leptin, but E mares had the lowest P4 concentrations (P=0.01). Concentrations of glucose and NO decreased with the decrease of BCS and BF but triglycerides of O were insignificantly high. In conclusion, exercise could prevent the development of metabolic syndrome in horses and back fat and morphometric measurements were the easiest and simple assessment of overweight and deviation to obesity.

Keywords: insulin, mares, leptin, body condition score, rump fat

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6 The Effect of Physical Activity and Responses of Leptin

Authors: M. J. Pourvaghar, Sh. Khoshemehry, M. E. Bahram


In modern life, daily physical activity is relatively reduced, which is why the incidence of some diseases associated with overweight and obesity, such as hypertension, diabetes and other chronic illnesses, even in young people are observed. Obesity and overweight is one of the most common metabolic disorders in industrialized countries and in developing countries. One consequence of pathological obesity is cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. In the past, it was believed that adipose tissue was ineffective and served only for storing triglycerides. In this review article, it was tried to refer to the esteemed scientific sources about physical activity and responses of leptin.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Obesity, Disease, leptin

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5 Leptin Levels in Cord Blood and Their Associations with the Birth of Small, Large and Appropriate for Gestational Age Infants in Southern Sri Lanka

Authors: R. P. Hewawasam, M. H. A. D. de Silva, M. A. G. Iresha


In recent years childhood obesity has increased to pan-epidemic proportions along with a concomitant increase in obesity-associated morbidity. Birth weight is an important determinant of later adult health, with neonates at both ends of the birth weight spectrum at risk of future health complications. Consequently, infants who are born large for gestational age (LGA) are more likely to be obese in childhood and adolescence and are at risk of cardiovascular and metabolic complications later in life. Adipose tissue plays a role in linking events in fetal growth to the subsequent development of adult diseases. In addition to its role as a storage depot for fat, adipose tissue produces and secrets a number of hormones of importance in modulating metabolism and energy homeostasis. Cord blood leptin level has been positively correlated with fetal adiposity at birth. It is established that Asians have lower skeletal muscle mass, low bone mineral content and excess body fat for a given body mass index indicating a genetic predisposition in the occurrence of obesity. To our knowledge, studies have never been conducted in Sri Lanka to determine the relationship between adipocytokine profile in cord blood and anthropometric parameters in newborns. Thus, the objective of this study is to establish the above relationship for the Sri Lankan population to implement awareness programs to minimize childhood obesity in the future. Umbilical cord blood was collected from 90 newborns (Male 40, Female 50; gestational age 35-42 weeks) after double clamping the umbilical cord before separation of the placenta and the concentration of leptin was measured by ELISA technique. Anthropometric parameters of the newborn such as birth weight, length, ponderal index, occipital frontal, chest, hip and calf circumferences were measured. Pearson’s correlation was used to assess the relationship between leptin and anthropometric parameters while the Mann-Whitney U test was used to assess the differences in cord blood leptin levels between small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and LGA infants. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the cord blood leptin concentrations of LGA infants (12.67 ng/mL ± 2.34) and AGA infants (7.10 ng/mL ± 0.90). However, a significant difference was not observed between leptin levels of SGA infants (8.86 ng/mL ± 0.70) and AGA infants. In both male and female neonates, umbilical leptin levels showed significant positive correlations (P < 0.05) with birth weight of the newborn, pre-pregnancy maternal weight and pre pregnancy BMI between the infants of large and appropriate for gestational ages. Increased concentrations of leptin levels in the cord blood of large for gestational age infants suggest that they may be involved in regulating fetal growth. Leptin concentration of Sri Lankan population was not significantly deviated from published data of Asian populations. Fetal leptin may be an important predictor of neonatal adiposity; however, interventional studies are required to assess its impact on the possible risk of childhood obesity.

Keywords: Childhood Obesity, Anthropometry, leptin, appropriate for gestational age

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4 Cardiotrophin-1 and Leptin in Male Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Authors: Isil Cakir, Mustafa Uluhan


Elevated serum Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) and leptin levels are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been reported to increase the risk of CVDs, too. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of serum CT-1 and leptin in these patients and whether their possible association with the disease severity. Fifty newly diagnosed patients with OSAS and thirty nonapneic snoring subjects were participated in this study. The mean ages of patients and control groups were 47.40±13.30 and 43.23±10.50 years, respectively (P=0.128). Fasting serum triglyseride, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, also CT-1 and leptin levels were evaluated. A significant difference was found in the serum CT-1 and leptin levels between the patients and the controls:serum median CT-1 levels in patients and control groups, respectively, were 19.47 and 8.23 pg/mL (P < 0.001) and leptin levels were 2.07 and 1.29 ng/mL (P < 0.001). In severe patients group (n=39), serum median CT-1 level was found statistically significantly higher than the median level in mild/moderate patients (n=11) group. Patients CT-1 concentrations were not associated with lipoprotein levels and there was no correlation between patients’ leptin and lipid profile parameters. Two risk factors for CVDs, CT-1 and leptin, have significantly elevated and they were associated with OSAS. Furthermore, CT-1 was associated with the severity of disease. We recommend the use of increased serum CT-1 and leptin concentrations as markers of the presence and severity of OSAS.They can be used as early markers in male OSAS patients without known CVDs.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease, leptin, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, cardiotrophin-1

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3 Concentrations of Leptin, C-Peptide and Insulin in Cord Blood as Fetal Origins of Insulin Resistance and Their Effect on the Birth Weight of the Newborn

Authors: R. P. Hewawasam, M. H. A. D. de Silva, M. A. G. Iresha


Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance. Insulin resistance often progresses to type-2 diabetes mellitus and is linked to a wide variety of other pathophysiological features including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis (metabolic syndrome) and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Macrosomia is common in infants born to not only women with gestational diabetes mellitus but also non-diabetic obese women. During the past two decades, obesity in children and adolescents has risen significantly in Asian populations including Sri Lanka. There is increasing evidence to believe that infants who are born large for gestational age (LGA) are more likely to be obese in childhood. It is also established from previous studies that Asian populations have higher percentage body fat at a lower body mass index compared to Caucasians. High leptin levels in cord blood have been reported to correlate with fetal adiposity at birth. Previous studies have also shown that cord blood C-peptide and insulin levels are significantly and positively correlated with birth weight. Therefore, the objective of this preliminary study was to determine the relationship between parameters of fetal insulin resistance such as leptin, C-peptide and insulin and the birth weight of the newborn in a study population in Southern Sri Lanka. Umbilical cord blood was collected from 90 newborns and the concentration of insulin, leptin, and C-peptide were measured by ELISA technique. Birth weight, length, occipital frontal, chest, hip and calf circumferences of newborns were measured and characteristics of the mother such as age, height, weight before pregnancy and weight gain were collected. The relationship between insulin, leptin, C-peptide, and anthropometrics were assessed by Pearson’s correlation while the Mann-Whitney U test was used to assess the differences in cord blood leptin, C-peptide, and insulin levels between groups. A significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed between the insulin levels of infants born LGA (18.73 ± 0.64 µlU/ml) and AGA (13.08 ± 0.43 µlU/ml). Consistently, A significant increase in concentration (p < 0.001) was observed in C-peptide levels of infants born LGA (9.32 ± 0.77 ng/ml) compared to AGA (5.44 ± 0.19 ng/ml). Cord blood leptin concentration of LGA infants (12.67 ng/mL ± 1.62) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to the AGA infants (7.10 ng/mL ± 0.97). Significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) were observed among cord leptin levels and the birth weight, pre-pregnancy maternal weight and BMI between the infants of AGA and LGA. Consistently, a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between the birth weight and the C peptide concentration. Significantly high concentrations of leptin, C-peptide and insulin levels in the cord blood of LGA infants suggest that they may be involved in regulating fetal growth. Although previous studies suggest comparatively high levels of body fat in the Asian population, values obtained in this study are not significantly different from values previously reported from Caucasian populations. According to this preliminary study, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and weight may contribute as significant indicators of cord blood parameters of insulin resistance and possibly the birth weight of the newborn.

Keywords: insulin, leptin, C-peptide, large for gestational age

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2 Correlation of Leptin with Clinico-Pathological Features of Breast Cancer

Authors: Saad Al-Shibli, Nasser Amjad, Muna Al Kubaisi, Norra Harun, Shaikh Mizan


Leptin is a multifunctional hormone produced mainly by adipocyte. Leptin and its receptor have long been found associated with breast cancer. The main aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between Leptin/Leptin receptor and the clinicopathological features of breast cancer. Blood samples for ELISA, tissue samples from tumors and adjacent breast tissue were taken from 51 women with breast cancer with a control group of 40 women with a negative mammogram. Leptin and Leptin receptor in the tissues were estimated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). They were localized at the subcellular level by immunocytochemistry using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed significant difference in serum leptin level between control and the patient group, but no difference between pre and post-operative serum leptin levels in the patient group. By IHC, we found that the majority of the breast cancer cells studied, stained positively for leptin and leptin receptors with co-expression of leptin and its receptors. No significant correlation was found between leptin/leptin receptors expression with the race, menopausal status, lymph node metastasis, estrogen receptor expression, progesterone receptor expression, HER2 expression and tumor size. Majority of the patients with distant metastasis were associated with high leptin and leptin receptor expression. TEM views both Leptin and Leptin receptor were found highly concentrated within and around the nucleus of the cancer breast cells, indicating nucleus is their principal seat of actions while the adjacent breast epithelial cells showed that leptin gold particles are scattered all over the cell with much less than that of the cancerous cells. However, presence of high concentration of leptin does not necessarily prove its over-expression, because it could be internalized from outside by leptin receptor in the cells. In contrast, leptin receptor is definitely over-expressed in the ductal breast cancer cells. We conclude that reducing leptin levels, blocking its downstream tissue specific signal transduction, and/or blocking the upstream leptin receptor pathway might help in prevention and therapy of breast cancer.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Expression, leptin, leptin receptors

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1 Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Leptin and Leptin Receptors with Oral Cancer

Authors: Chia-Jui Weng, Chiung-Man Tsai


Leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) both play a crucial role in the mediation of physiological reactions and carcinogenesis and may serve as a candidate biomarker of oral cancer. The present case-control study aimed to examine the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LEP -2548 G/A (rs7799039), LEPR K109R (rs1137100), and LEPR Q223R (rs1137101) with or without interacting to environmental carcinogens on the risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The SNPs of three genetic allele, from 567 patients with oral cancer and 560 healthy controls in Taiwan were analyzed. All of The three genetic polymorphisms exhibited insignificant (P > .05) effects on the risk to have oral cancer. However, the patients with polymorphic allele of LEP -2548 have a significant low risk for the development of clinical stage (A/G, AOR = 0.670, 95% CI = 0.454–0.988, P < .05; A/G+G/G, AOR = 0.676, 95% CI = 0.467–0.978, P < .05) compared to patients with ancestral homozygous A/A genotype. Additionally, an interesting result was found that the impact of LEP -2548 G/A SNP on oral carcinogenesis in subjects without tobacco consumption (A/G, AOR=2.078, 95% CI: 1.161-3.720, p=0.014; A/G+G/G, AOR=2.002, 95% CI: 1.143-3.505, p=0.015) is higher than subjects with tobacco consumption. These results suggest that the genetic polymorphism of LEP -2548 G/A (rs7799039), LEPR K109R (rs1137100), and LEPR Q223R (rs1137101) were not associated with the susceptibility of oral cancer; SNP in LEP -2548 G/A showed a poor clinicopathological development of oral cancer; Population without tobacco consumption and with polymorphic LEP -2548 G/A gene may significantly increase the risk to have oral cancer.

Keywords: Carcinogen, single nucleotide polymorphism, leptin, oral squamous cell carcinoma, leptin receptor

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