Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

length of stay Related Abstracts

7 Does Clinical Guidelines Affect Healthcare Quality and Populational Health: Quebec Colorectal Cancer Screening Program

Authors: Nizar Ghali, Bernard Fortin, Guy Lacroix


In Quebec, colonoscopies volumes have continued to rise in recent years in the absence of effective monitoring mechanism for the appropriateness and the quality of these exams. In 2010, November, Quebec Government introduced the colorectal cancer-screening program in the objective to control for volume and cost imperfection. This program is based on clinical standards and was initiated for first group of institutions. One year later, Government adds financial incentives for participants institutions. In this analysis, we want to assess for the causal effect of the two components of this program: clinical pathways and financial incentives. Especially we assess for the reform effect on healthcare quality and population health in the context that medical remuneration is not directly dependent on this additional funding offered by the program. We have data on admissions episodes and deaths for 8 years. We use multistate model analog to difference in difference approach to estimate reform effect on the transition probability between different states for each patient. Our results show that the reform reduced length of stay without deterioration in hospital mortality or readmission rate. In the other hand, the program contributed to decrease the hospitalization rate and a less invasive treatment approach for colorectal surgeries. This is a sign of healthcare quality and population health improvement. We demonstrate in this analysis that physicians’ behavior can be affected by both clinical standards and financial incentives even if offered to facilities.

Keywords: Healthcare Quality, transition probability, multi-state and multi-episode transition model, length of stay, difference in difference

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6 Consultation Time and Its Impact on Length of Stay in the Emergency Department

Authors: Esam Roshdy, Saleh AlRashdi, Turki Alharbi, Rawan Eskandarani, Zurina Cabilo


Introduction/ background: Consultation in the Emergency Department constitute a major part of the work flow every day. Any delay in the consultation process have a major impact on the length of stay and patient disposition and thus affect the total waiting time of patients in the ED. King Fahad medical City in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia is considered a major Tertiary hospital where there is high flow of patients of different categories visiting the ED. The importance of decreasing consultation time and decision for final disposition of patients was recognized and interpreted in this project to find ways to improve the patient flow in the department and thus the total patient disposition and outcome. Aim / Objectives: 1. To monitor the time of consultation for patients in the Emergency department and its impact on the length of stay of patients in the ED. 2. To detect and assess the problems that lead to long consultation times in the ED, and reach a targeted time of 2 hours for final disposition of patients, according to recognized international and our institutional consultation policy, to reach the final goal of decreasing total length of stay and thus improve the patient flow in the ED. Methods: Data was collected retrospectively for a 92 charts of consultations done in the ED over 2 month’s period. The data was analyzed to get the median of Total Consultation Time. A survey was conducted among all ED staff to determine the level of knowledge about the total consultation time and the compliance to the institutional policy target of 2 hours. A second Data sample of 168 chart was collected after awareness campaign and education of all ED staff about the importance of reaching the target consultation time and compliance to the institutional policy. Results: We have found that there is room for improvement in our overall consultation time. This was found to be more frequent with certain specialties. Our surveys have showed that many ED staff are not familiar or not compliant with our consultation policy which was not clear for everyone. Post-intervention data have showed that awareness of the importance to decrease the total consultation time and compliance alone to the targeted goal have had a huge impact on overall improvement and decreasing the time of final decision and disposition of the patient and the overall patient length of stay in the ED. Conclusion: Working on improving Consultation time in the Emergency Department is a major factor in improving overall length of stay and patient flow. This improvement helps in the overall patient disposition and satisfaction. Plan: As a continuation of our project we are planning to focus on the conflict of admission cases where more than one specialty is involved in the care of patients. We are planning to collect data on the time it takes to resolve and reach final disposition of those patients, and its impact on the length of stay and our department flow and the overall patient outcome and satisfaction.

Keywords: Impact, length of stay, consultation time, in the ED

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5 Correlation between Nutritional Status and Length of Stay and Hospital Costs in Critical Care and IPD Patients of Somdech Phra Debaratana Medical Center (SDMC), Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital

Authors: Nuttapimon Bhirommuang, Kulapong Jayanama


Background: Prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized patient is higher than general population. As a result of the unawareness of consequence and the more concerning in the other aspects of care, many patients with high risk of malnutrition are unrecognized. Even if malnutrition has been identified as affecting in many patient outcomes, the impact may differ in each population and group of patients. Objectives: The aims of this study were to examine the association between the nutritional status and the length of stay and hospital costs in hospitalized patients, to investigate the factors related these outcomes and to determine the frequency of malnutrition in hospitals. Method: This retrospective cohort study enrolled all patients aged 15 years old or older and admitted in SDMC, Ramathibodi Hospital between 1st January 2016 and 30th September 2016. The nutritional status assessment by Nutrition Alert Form (NAF) was performed by well-trained nurses in all patients at admission. Baseline characteristics were recorded. Length of stay and hospital costs were collected during their hospitalization. Univariate analysis, nonparametric rank test, Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare means in the case of nonnormally and noncontinuously distributed data. Chi-square used to analyze categorical variables, the nutritional status and the length of stay and hospital costs and identify possible confounding factors (data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0). Result: Of the 2,906 patients, 3.9% were severe malnutrition (NAF-C score > 10) and 11.4% were moderate malnutrition (NAF-B score 6 - 10). Both length of stay and hospital costs were found significantly higher in more severe malnutrition group (p < 0.001), NAF = A: 3.21 days, 95% CI 3.06-3.35 and 111,544.25 THB, 95% CI 106,994.41 – 116,094.1; NAF = B: 7.54 days, 95% CI 6.32 – 8.76 and 162,302.4 THB, 95% CI 129,557.88 – 195,046.92; NAF =C: 14.77 days, 95% CI 11.34 – 18.2 and 323,572.11 THB, 95% CI 226,958.1 – 420,096.13 (1 THB = 0.03019 USD). Age of each nutritional status group had also significant increase from NAF A to NAF C (p < 0.001): 55.07, 67.03 and 73.88 years old, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of malnutrition in Ramathibodi hospital is voluminous. Severe malnutrition screening by NAF is significantly correlated with worse clinical outcome, especially higher length of stay and hospital costs. Elderly is also a significant factor which correlates with malnutrition. The results of this study could change the awareness of health personnel and the practice protocol. Moreover, the further study concerning nutritional support in high-risk group of malnutrition is ongoing to confirm this hypothesis.

Keywords: Malnutrition, NaF, length of stay, hospital costs

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4 A Perspective on Emergency Care of Gunshot Injuries in Northern Taiwan

Authors: Liong-Rung Liu, Yu-Hui Chiu, Wen-Han Chang


Firearm injuries are high-energy injuries. The ballistic pathways could cause severe burns or chemical damages to vessels, musculoskeletal or other major organs. The high mortality rate is accompanied by complications such as sepsis. As laws prohibit gun possession, civilian gunshot wounds (GSW) are relatively rare in Taiwan. Our hospital, Mackay Memorial Hospital, located at the center of Taipei city is surrounded by nightclubs and red-light districts. Due to this unique location, our hospital becomes the first-line trauma center managing gunshot victims in Taiwan. To author’s best knowledge, there are few published research articles regarding this unique situation. We hereby analyze the distinct characteristics and length of stay (LOS) of GSW patients in the emergency room (ER) at Mackay Memorial Hospital. A 6-year retrospective analysis of 27 patients treated for GSW injuries from January 2012 to December 2017 was performed. The patients’ records were reviewed for the following analyses, 1) wound position and the correlated clinical presentations; 2) the LOS in ED of patients receiving emergency surgery for major organ or vascular injuries. We found males (96.3%) were injured by guns more often than females (3.7%) in all age groups. The most common injured site was in the extremities. With regards to the ER LOS, the average time were 72.2 ± 34.5 minutes for patients with triage I and 207.4 ± 143.9 minutes for patients with triage II. The ED LOS of patients whose ISS score were more than 15 was 59.9 ± 25.6 minutes, and 179.4 ± 119.8 minutes for patients whose ISS score were between 9 to 15, respectively. Among these 27 patients, 10 patients had emergency surgery and their average ED stay time was 104.5 ± 33.3 minutes. Even more, the average ED stay time could be shortened to 88.8 ± 32.3 minutes in the 5 patients with trauma team activation. In conclusion, trauma team activation in severe GSW patients indeed shortens the ED LOS and might initially improve the quality of patient care. This is the result of better trauma systems, including advances in care from emergency medical services and acute care surgical management.

Keywords: Trauma, Mortality, length of stay, gunshot

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3 The Impact of Hospital Strikes on Patient Care: Evidence from 135 Strikes in the Portuguese National Health System

Authors: Eduardo Costa


Hospital strikes in the Portuguese National Health Service (NHS) are becoming increasingly frequent, raising concerns in what respects patient safety. In fact, data shows that mortality rates for patients admitted during strikes are up to 30% higher than for patients admitted in other days. This paper analyses the effects of hospital strikes on patients’ outcomes. Specifically, it analyzes the impact of different strikes (physicians, nurses and other health professionals), on in-hospital mortality rates, readmission rates and length of stay. The paper uses patient-level data containing all NHS hospital admissions in mainland Portugal from 2012 to 2017, together with a comprehensive strike dataset comprising over 250 strike days (19 physicians-strike days, 150 nurses-strike days and 50 other health professionals-strike days) from 135 different strikes. The paper uses a linear probability model and controls for hospital and regional characteristics, time trends, and changes in patients’ composition and diagnoses. Preliminary results suggest a 6-7% increase in in-hospital mortality rates for patients exposed to physicians’ strikes. The effect is smaller for patients exposed to nurses’ strikes (2-5%). Patients exposed to nurses strikes during their stay have, on average, higher 30-days urgent readmission rates (4%). Length of stay also seems to increase for patients exposed to any strike. Results – conditional on further testing, namely on non-linear models - suggest that hospital operations and service levels are partially disrupted during strikes.

Keywords: length of stay, readmission rate, health sector strikes, in-hospital mortality rate

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2 Capacity for Care: A Management Model for Increasing Animal Live Release Rates, Reducing Animal Intake and Euthanasia Rates in an Australian Open Admission Animal Shelter

Authors: Ann Enright


More than ever, animal shelters need to identify ways to reduce the number of animals entering shelter facilities and the incidence of euthanasia. Managing animal overpopulation using euthanasia can have detrimental health and emotional consequences for the shelter staff involved. There are also community expectations with moral and financial implications to consider. To achieve the goals of reducing animal intake and the incidence of euthanasia, shelter best practice involves combining programs, procedures and partnerships to increase live release rates (LRR), reduce the incidence of disease, length of stay (LOS) and shelter intake whilst overall remaining financially viable. Analysing daily processes, tracking outcomes and implementing simple strategies enabled shelter staff to more effectively focus their efforts and achieve amazing results. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the effect of implementing the capacity for care (C4C) management model. Data focusing on the average daily number of animals on site for a two year period (2016 – 2017) was exported from a shelter management system, Customer Logic (CL) Vet to Excel for manipulation and comparison. Following the implementation of C4C practices the average daily number of animals on site was reduced by >50%, (2016 average 103 compared to 2017 average 49), average LOS reduced by 50% from 8 weeks to 4 weeks and incidence of disease reduced from ≥ 70% to less than 2% of the cats on site at the completion of the study. The total number of stray cats entering the shelter due to council contracts reduced by 50% (486 to 248). Improved cat outcomes were attributed to strategies that increased adoptions and reduced euthanasia of poorly socialized cats, including foster programs. To continue to achieve improvements in LRR and LOS, strategies to decrease intake further would be beneficial, for example, targeted sterilisation programs. In conclusion, the study highlighted the benefits of using C4C as a management tool, delivering a significant reduction in animal intake and euthanasia with positive emotional, financial and community outcomes.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Euthanasia, Cat, shelter, length of stay, capacity for care, managed intake

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1 Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation towards Length of Stay and IL-6 Level on Community-Acquired Pneumonia Patients

Authors: Iin Noor Chozin, Santony Santony, Teguh Rahayu Sartono


Introduction: Pneumonia is acute inflammation on lung parenchyma which is caused by bacteria, virus, fungi, or parasite. In Indonesia, Pneumonia is among the ten inpatient cases. Length of stay is related to the increased morbidity rate, nosocomial infection, and costs. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on the difference in length of stay and the level of Interleukin 6 (IL-6) as an inflammation biomarker for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients in non-intensive rooms. Therefore, pulmonary rehabilitation as adjunctive therapy can be routinely exercised in order to shorten the length of stay, along with the decrease in IL-6 level. Methods: This study was conducted from May to October 2019 at Saiful Anwar General Hospital, Malang. 40 community-acquired pneumonia patients in non-intensive rooms were divided into two groups. 20 patients in the treatment group and 20 patients in the control group, all of them were selected through both inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study used simple consecutive random sampling. In the treatment group, pulmonary rehabilitation performed was composed of breathing exercise, effective coughing technique, clapping (percussion), postural drainage, as well as respiratory muscle training using incentive spirometry device. Pulmonary rehabilitation was conducted twice over five days with a minimum duration of 15 minutes. Blood samples were taken both on the first and the fifth day of the treatment to measure IL-6 level as an inflammation biomarker. Result: For the treatment group, the length of stay was 5.35 days whereas the control group 7.6 days. It can be seen that the treatment group had a shorter length of stay by 2.25 days (P<0,001). The IL-6 level on the first day for the treatment group was 36.27 pg/ml, whereas on the fifth day was 34.36 pg/ml. There was a decrease in IL-6 level on the fifth day of treatment even though it was not statistically significant (P=0.628). IL-6 level on the control group for the first day was 67.76 pg/ml, and after the fifth day, the level decreased to 54.43 pg/ml. There seemed to be a decrease in the IL-6, but it was not statistically significant (P=0.502). On the fifth day, the treatment group showed an average IL-6 level of 34.36 pg/ml. This value was lower than that of the control group which did not receive pulmonary rehabilitation having an IL-6 level of 54.43 pg/ml, even though it was not statistically significant (p=0.221). Conclusion: This study concluded that pulmonary rehabilitation as an adjunctive therapy shortened length of stay by 2.25 days for community-acquired pneumonia patients in a non-intensive room. Both groups experienced a decrease in IL-6 level on the fifth day in comparison with the first day even though it was not statistically significant P>0,05. IL-6 level as an inflammation biomarker decreased on the fifth day of treatment which was in accordance with improvement on pneumonia patients.

Keywords: Pulmonary rehabilitation, community-acquired pneumonia, length of stay, interleukin-6

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