Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Legislation Related Abstracts

20 Slovenian Spatial Legislation over Time and Its Issues

Authors: Andreja Benko


Article presents a short overview of the architects’ profession over time with outlined work of the architectural theoreticians. In the continuation is described a former affiliation of Slovenia as well as the spatial planning documents that were in use until the Slovenia joint Yugoslavia (last part in 1919). This legislation from former Austro-Hungarian monarchy was valid almost until 1950 in some parts of Yugoslavia even longer. Upon that will be mentioned some valid Slovenian spatial documents which will be compared with the German legislation. Analysed will be the number of architect and spatial planners in Slovenia and also their number upon certain region in Slovenia. Based on that will be given also the number from statistical office of Slovenia of the number of buildings between years 2007 and 2012, and described also the collapse of the major construction companies in Slovenia and consequences of that. At the end will be outlined the morality and ethics by spatial interventions and lack of the architectural law in Slovenia as well as the problematic of minimal collaboration between the Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning with the profession.

Keywords: History, Legislation, Slovenia, architect

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19 Examining Occupational Health and Safety Supervision in Turkey by Comparison to EU Countries

Authors: Nuray Gökçek Karaca


This study aims to examine the application of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey and EU countries in terms of legal regulations. The results of research reveal that occupational health and safety supervision in EU countries, whatever the understanding of welfare state, is effectively carried out and almost all legal regulations on this subject are consistent with the EU directives. On the other hand, there are serious problems in applications, not legal regulations, of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey by the side of EU countries. Indeed, Turkey has modern regulations on occupational health and safety supervision whereas there are several problems such as ignoring prevention policy on occupational health and safety supervision, understanding of monotype inspector, problems resulting from this understanding and dispersed structure of occupational health and safety organizations in workplaces. As a result, Turkey needs to carry out effective supervision mechanisms.

Keywords: supervision, Inspection, Occupational Health and Safety, Legislation, legal rules

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18 Prospects for an Integrated Public Transport System (IPTS) in Harare: An Institutional and Policy Analysis

Authors: Abdon O. Makore


The study analyses policy and institutional implications with regard to the successful implementation of IPTS in Harare. IPTS has widely been recommended as a rich solution to chaotic public transport operations, yet studies to determine the suitability or applicability of this concept have not been done in light of the existing transport institutions and policy framework in Harare. A predominantly qualitative research approach was employed backed by a deep scrutiny of the NTP and other subsidiary legislations and plans in place so as to ascertain the views and perceptions of various stakeholders regarding the proposed concept. As such, key informant interviews, unstructured interviews, and questionnaires were vital tools in gathering data and these were effectively buttressed by observations, photography, and documentary analysis. The study revealed from a policy perspective that there are high prospects for the implementation of IPTS in Harare as the existing NTP, subsidiary legislations and plans do have provisions for the concept backed by keen interest of all responsible urban public transport authorities. However, there is lack of coherent and systematic approach among other responsible institutions, as such recommendations formulated advocated for institutional integration and strong political will for the ultimate success of the concept.

Keywords: Policy, Institutions, Legislation, integrated public transport system

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17 The Modern Era in the Cricket World: How Far Have We Really Come?

Authors: Habib Noorbhai


History of Cricket: Cricket has a known history spanning from the 16th century till present, with international matches having been played since 1844. The game of cricket arrived in Australia as soon as colonization began in 1788. Cricketers started playing on turf wickets in the late 1800’s and dimensions for both the boundary and pitch later became assimilated. As the years evolved, cricket bats and balls, protective equipment, playing surfaces and the three formats of the game adapted to the playing conditions and laws of cricket. Business of Cricket: During the late 1900's, the shorter version of the game (T20) was introduced in order to attract the crowds to stadiums and television viewers for broadcasting rights. One could argue if this was merely a business venture or a platform for enhancing the performance of cricketers. Between the 16th and 20th century, cricket was a common sport played for passion and pure enjoyment. Industries saw a potential in diversified business ventures in the game (as well as other sports played globally) and cricket subsequently became a career for players, administrators and coaches, the media, health professionals, managers and the corporate world. Pros and Cons of Cricket Developments: At present, the game has significantly gained from the use of technology, sports sciences and varied mechanisms to optimize the performances and forecast frameworks for injury prevention in cricket players. Unfortunately, these had not been utilized in the earlier times of cricket and it would prove interesting to observe how the greats of the game would have benefited with such developments. Cricketers in the 21st century are faced with many overwhelming commitments. One of these is playing cricket for 11 months in a year, making it more than 250 days away from home and their families. As the demand of player contracts increase, the supply of commitment and performances from players increase. Way Forward and Future Implications: The questions are: Are such disadvantages contributing to the overload and injury risks of players? How far have we really come in the cricketing world or has everything since the game’s inception become institutionalized with a business model? These are the fundamental questions which need to be addressed and legislation, policies and ethical considerations need to be drafted and implemented. These will ensure that there is equilibrium of effective transitions and management of not only the players, but also the credibility of the wonderful game.

Keywords: Technology, Legislation, Credibility, enterprising business of cricket

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16 Protection and Safeguarding of Groundwater in Algeria between Law and Right to Use

Authors: Aziez Ouahiba, Remini Boualem, Habi Mohamed


The growth and the development of a pay are strongly related to the existence or the absence of water in this area, the sedentary lifestyle of the population makes that water demand is increasing and the different brandishing (dams, tablecloths or other) are increasingly solicited. In normal time rain and snow of the winter period reloads the slicks and the wadis that fill dams. Over these two decades, Global warming fact that temperature is increasingly high and rainfall is increasingly low, which induces a charge less and less important tablecloths, add to that the strong demand in irrigation. Our study will focus on the variation of rainfall and irrigation, Their effects on the degree of pollution of the groundwater in this area based on statistical analyses by the Xlstat (ACP, correlation...) software for a better explanation of these results and determine the hydrochemistry of different groups or polluted areas pou be able to offer adequate solutions for each area.

Keywords: Pollution, Legislation, water in the basement, over exploitation, water prices

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15 Marketing and Pharmaceutical Analysis of Medical Cosmetics in Bulgaria and Japan

Authors: V. Petkova, V. Valchanova, D. Grekova, K. Andreevska, S. T. Geurguiev, V. Madgarov, D. Grekov


Introduction: Production, distribution and sale of cosmetics is a global industry, which played a key role in the European Union (EU), the US and Japan. A major participant EU whose market cosmetics is greater than in the US and 2 times greater than that in Japan. The output value of the cosmetics industry in the EU is estimated at about € 35 billion in 2001. Nearly 5 billion cosmetic products (number of packages) are sold annually in the EU, and the main markets are France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. The aim of the study is legal and marketing analysis of cosmetic products dispensed in a pharmacy. Materials and methodology: Historical legislative analysis - the method is applied in the analysis of changes in the legislative regulation of the activities of cosmetic products in Japan and Bulgaria Comparative legislative analysis - the method is applied when comparing the legislative requirements for cosmetic products in the already mentioned countries. Both methods are applied to the following regulations: 1) Japanese Pharmaceuticals Affairs Law, Tokyo, Japan, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare; 2) Law on Medicinal Products for Human Use; effective from 3.01.2014. Results: The legislative framework for cosmetic products in Bulgaria and Japan is close and generally includes general guidelines: Definition of a medicinal product; Categorization of drugs (with differences in sub-categories); Pre-registration and marketing approval of the competent authorities; Compulsory compliance with gmp (unlike cosmetics); Regulatory focus on product quality, efficacy and safety; Obligations for labeling of such products; Created systems Pharmacovigilance and commitment of all parties - industry and health professionals; The main similarities in the regulation of products classified as cosmetics are in the following segments: Full producer responsibility for product safety; Surveillance of market regulatory authorities; No need for pre-registration or pre-marketing approval (a basic requirement for notification); Without restrictions on sales channels; GMP manuals for cosmetics; Regulatory focus on product safety (than over efficiency); General requirements in labeling: The main differences in the regulation of products classified as cosmetics are in the following segments: Details in the regulation of cosmetic products; Future convergence of regulatory frameworks can contribute to the removal of barriers to trade, to encourage innovation, while simultaneously ensuring a high level of protection of consumer safety.

Keywords: Cosmetics, Legislation, Comparative Analysis, Japan, Bulgaria

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14 Protection of Minor's Privacy in Bosnian Herzegovinian Media (Legal Regulation and Current Media Reporting)

Authors: Ilija Musa


Positive legal regulation of juvenile privacy protection, current state of showing a child in BH media and possibilities of a child’s privacy protection by more adequate media legislature which should be arranged in accordance to recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Privacy of the minors in Bosnian-Herzegovinian media is insufficiently legally arranged. Due to the fact that there is no law on media area arrangement at the state level, electronic media are under jurisdiction of Communications regulatory agency, which at least partially, regulated the sector of radio and television broadcasting by adequate protection of child’s privacy. However, print and online media are under jurisdiction of non-governmental association Print and online media council in B&H which is not authorized to punish violators of this body’s Codex, what points out the necessity of passing the unique media law which would enable sanctioning the child’s privacy violation. The analysis of media content, which is a common violation of the child's privacy, analysis of positive legislation which regulates the media, confirmed the working hypothesis by which the minor’s protection policy in BH media is not protected at the appropriate level. Taking this into consideration, in the conclusion of this article the author gives recommendations for the regulation of legal protection of minor’s privacy in BH media.

Keywords: Media, Children, Legislation, Privacy Protection, Bosnia Herzegovina

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13 Averting a Financial Crisis through Regulation, Including Legislation

Authors: Maria Krambia-Kapardis, Andreas Kapardis


The paper discusses regulatory and legislative measures implemented by various nations in an effort to avert another financial crisis. More specifically, to address the financial crisis, the European Commission followed the practice of other developed countries and implemented a European Economic Recovery Plan in an attempt to overhaul the regulatory and supervisory framework of the financial sector. In 2010 the Commission introduced the European Systemic Risk Board and in 2011 the European System of Financial Supervision. Some experts advocated that the type and extent of financial regulation introduced in the European crisis in the wake of the 2008 crisis has been excessive and counterproductive. In considering how different countries responded to the financial crisis, global regulators have shown a more focused commitment to combat industry misconduct and to pre-empt abusive behavior. Regulators have also increased funding and resources at their disposal; have increased regulatory fines, with an increasing trend towards action against individuals; and, finally, have focused on market abuse and market conduct issues. Financial regulation can be effected, first of all, through legislation. However, neither ex ante or ex post regulation is by itself effective in reducing systemic risk. Consequently, to avert a financial crisis, in their endeavor to achieve both economic efficiency and financial stability, governments need to balance the two approaches to financial regulation. Fiduciary duty is another means by which the behavior of actors in the financial world is constrained and, thus, regulated. Furthermore, fiduciary duties extend over and above other existing requirements set out by statute and/or common law and cover allegations of breach of fiduciary duty, negligence or fraud. Careful analysis of the etiology of the 2008 financial crisis demonstrates the great importance of corporate governance as a way of regulating boardroom behavior. In addition, the regulation of professions including accountants and auditors plays a crucial role as far as the financial management of companies is concerned. In the US, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 established the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board in order to protect investors from financial accounting fraud. In most countries around the world, however, accounting regulation consists of a legal framework, international standards, education, and licensure. Accounting regulation is necessary because of the information asymmetry and the conflict of interest that exists between managers and users of financial information. If a holistic approach is to be taken then one cannot ignore the regulation of legislators themselves which can take the form of hard or soft legislation. The science of averting a financial crisis is yet to be perfected and this, as shown by the preceding discussion, is unlikely to be achieved in the foreseeable future as ‘disaster myopia’ may be reduced but will not be eliminated. It is easier, of course, to be wise in hindsight and regulating unreasonably risky decisions and unethical or outright criminal behavior in the financial world remains major challenges for governments, corporations, and professions alike.

Keywords: Regulation, Legislation, Financial Crisis, Financial Regulation

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12 Whistleblowing a Contemporary Topic Concerning Businesses

Authors: Andreas Kapardis, Maria Krambia-Kapardis, Sofia Michaelides-Mateou


Corruption and economic crime is a serious problem affecting the sustainability of businesses in the 21st century. Nowadays, many corruption or fraud cases come to light thanks to whistleblowers. This article will first discuss the concept of whistleblowing as well as some relevant legislation enacted around the world. Secondly, it will discuss the findings of a survey of whistleblowers or could-have-been whistleblowers. Finally, suggestions for the development of a comprehensive whistleblowing framework will be considered. Whistleblowing can be described as expressing a concern about a wrongdoing within an organization, such as a corporation, an association, an institution or a union. Such concern must be in the public interest and in good faith and should relate to the cover up of matters that could potentially result in a miscarriage of justice, a crime, criminal offence and threats to health and safety. Whistleblowing has proven to be an effective anti-corruption mechanism and a powerful tool that helps deterring fraud, violations, and malpractices within organizations, corporations and the public sector. Research in the field of whistleblowing has concentrated on the reasons for whistleblowing and financial bounties; the effectiveness of whistleblowing; whistleblowing being a prosocial behavior with a psychological perspective and consequences; as a tool in protecting shareholders, saving lives and billions of dollars of public funds. Whilst, no other study of whistleblowing has been carried out on whistleblowers or intended whistleblowers. The study reported in the current paper analyses the findings of 74 whistleblowers or intended whistleblowers, the reasons behind their decision to blow the whistle, or not to proceed to blow the whistle and any regrets they may have had. In addition a profile of a whistleblower is developed concerning their age, gender, marital and family status and position in an organization. Lessons learned from the intended whistleblowers and in response to the questions if they would be willing to blow the whistle again show that enacting legislation to protect the whistleblower is not enough. Similarly, rewarding the whistleblower does not appear to provide the whistleblower with an incentive since the majority noted that “work ethics is more important than financial rewards”. We recommend the development of a comprehensive and holistic framework for the protection of the whistleblower and to ensure that remedial actions are immediately taken once a whistleblower comes forward. The suggested framework comprises (a) hard legislation in ensuring the whistleblowers follow certain principles when blowing the whistle and, in return, are protected for a period of 5 years from being fired, dismissed, bullied, harassed; (b) soft legislation in establishing an agency to firstly ensure psychological and legal advice is provided to the whistleblowers and secondly any required remedial action is immediately taken to avert the undesirable events reported by a whistleblower from occurring and, finally; (c) mechanisms to ensure the coordination of actions taken.

Keywords: Business, Business Ethics, Legislation, whistleblowing

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11 The Hindrances Associated with Internet Banking Services in Nigeria: The Lagos State Perspective

Authors: Patience Oluchi Silas, Yemi Adeshina


Financial transactions involving the use of the internet has become an important practice among commercial banks in Nigeria with the introduction of internet banking and this has improved banking efficiency in rending services to customers. However, customers in Lagos State are enslaved in the fear of insecurity, technical failure, inadequate operational facilities, including improper telecommunications and poor power supply. It is in line with this that this paper explores the obstacles faced by Lagosians, tourists, small scale business owners, companies, customers and the government's attitude in addressing the challenges associated with online banking system in Nigeria through relevant legislations. Internet banking has the potential to transform economic activity and achieve developmental goals. If the associated Challenges are addressed quickly, then it will have the desired impact on the Nigerian economy. In this study, Respondents, mostly bank employees and customers were issued well designed and structured questionnaires to effectively examine the new developments brought about by the introduction of Internet banking and the challenges inhibiting its adoption. Hypotheses were formulated to test assumptions and claims generated from the study. The results were statistically analyzed to address the issues of errors and chances, and at the end, the result of the statistical analysis shows that all especially insecurity, inadequate operational facilities and poor power supply are the significant factors affecting the adoption of internet banking services in Nigeria. The study recommends that for internet banking to assume a developmental dimension in Nigeria and for the country to be fully integrated and respected in global financial environment, the prevalent level of frauds in Lagos State and among Nigerians must first be addressed and the relevant local laws should be put in place and in consonance with international laws and conventions; get the citizens well educated on the intricacies of Internet usage and frauds.

Keywords: Statistics, Challenges, Legislation, Fraud, Adoption, Lagos state, insecurity, internet-banking

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10 The Impact of Legislation on Waste and Losses in the Food Processing Sector in the UK/EU

Authors: David Lloyd, David Owen, Martin Jardine


Introduction: European weight regulations with respect to food products require a full understanding of regulation guidelines to assure regulatory compliance. It is suggested that the complexity of regulation leads to practices which result to over filling of food packages by food processors. Purpose: To establish current practices by food processors and the financial, sustainable and societal impacts on the food supply chain of ineffective food production practices. Methods: An analysis of food packing controls with 10 companies of varying food categories and quantitative based research of a further 15 food processes on the confidence in weight control analysis of finished food packs within their organisation. Results: A process floor analysis of manufacturing operations focussing on 10 products found over fill of packages ranging from 4.8% to 20.2%. Standard deviation figures for all products showed a potential for reducing average weight of the pack whilst still retain the legal status of the product. In 20% of cases, an automatic weight analysis machine was in situ however weight packs were still significantly overweight. Collateral impacts noted included the effect of overfill on raw material purchase and added food miles often on a global basis with one raw material alone creating 10,000 extra food miles due to the poor weight control of the processing unit. A case study of a meat and bakery product will be discussed with the impact of poor controls resulting from complex legislation. The case studies will highlight extra energy costs in production and the impact of the extra weight on fuel usage. If successful a risk assessment model used primarily on food safety but adapted to identify waste /sustainability risks will be discussed within the presentation.

Keywords: Waste, Legislation, profile, overfill

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9 Measures for Limiting Corruption upon Migration Wave in Europe

Authors: Jordan Georgiev Deliversky


Fight against migrant smuggling has been put as a priority issues at the European Union policy agenda for more than a decade. The trafficked person, who has been targeted as the object of criminal exploitation, is specifically unique for human trafficking. Generally, the beginning of human trafficking activities is related to profit from the victim’s exploitation. The objective of this paper is to present measures that could result in the limitation of corruption mainly through analyzing the existing legislation framework against corruption in Europe. The analysis is focused on exploring the multiple origins of factors influencing migration processes in Europe, as corruption could be characterized as one of the most significant reasons for refugees to flee their countries. The main results show that law enforcement must turn the focus on the financing of the organized crime groups that are involved in migrant smuggling activities. Corruption has a significant role in managing smuggling operations and in particular when criminal organizations and networks are involved. Illegal migrants and refugees usually represent significant sources of additional income for officials involved in the process of boarding protection and immigration control within the European Union borders.

Keywords: Migration, Corruption, Legislation, Human Smuggling, influence

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8 Illegal Migration and Refugee Crisis as a Threat to National Security, Economic and Social System: The Bulgarian Case

Authors: Jordan Deliversky


Unlike all conventional forms of migration, migration crisis and migratory processes provide pressure to governments and are being expressed as different phenomenon in relation to nature and forms. The objective of this paper is to present the migration and refugee crisis as revealing numerous challenges faced by authorities responsible for the social and economic stability in Bulgaria as well as those providing conditions for reinforcement of the high level of national security in Bulgaria. The analysis is focused on exploring the multiple origins of factors influencing migration processes in Europe, in the light of the measures provided by the Bulgarian state authorities. The main results show that the society itself is facing the challenge of integrating refugees and migrants, so to be able to comply with the principles and values associated with tolerance to social, religious and cultural differences, and not allowing migrants to become marginalized community. Migration pressure creates a number of risks and threats to the Bulgarian national security. Our country has the capacity and resources to meet these potential threats, as a main factor for minimizing the risks to national security is the improvement of coordination and coherence of actions between various actors serving to the security sector.

Keywords: Security, Terrorism, Refugees, Legislation, migrants

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7 Investigating the Effect of the Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 on the Incidence of Adverse Medical Events in Her Majesty’s Prison (HMP) Leeds

Authors: Hayley Boal, Chloe Bromley, John Fairfield


Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) are synthetic compounds designed to reproduce effects of illicit drugs. Cheap, potent, and readily available on UK highstreets from so-called ‘head shops’, in recent years their use has surged and with it have emerged side effects including seizures, aggression, palpitations, coma, and death. Rapid development of new substances has vastly outpaced pre-existing drug legislation but the Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 rendered all but tobacco, alcohol, and amyl nitrates, illegal. Drug use has long been rife within prisons, but the absence of a reliable screening tool alongside the availability of NPS makes them ideal for prison use. Here we examine the occurrence of NPS-related adverse side effects within HMP Leeds, comparing May-September of 2015 and 2017 using daily reports distributed amongst prison staff summarising medical and behavioural incidents of the previous day. There was a statistically-significant rise of over 200% in the use of NPS between 2015 and 2017: 0.562 and 1.149 incidents per day respectively. In 2017, 38.46% incidents required ambulances, fallen from 51.02% in 2015. Although the most common descriptions in both years were ‘seizure’ and ‘unresponsive’, by 2017 ‘inhalation by staff’ had emerged. Patterns of NPS consumption mirrored the prison regime, peaking when cell doors opened, and prisoners could socialise. Despite limited data, the Psychoactive Substances Act has clearly been an insufficient deterrent to the prison population; more must be done to understand and address substance misuse in prison. NPS remains a significant risk to prisoners’ health and wellbeing.

Keywords: Legislation, spice, prison, novel psychoactive substances

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6 Management of Urban Watering: A Study of Appliance of Technologies and Legislation in Goiania, Brazil

Authors: Vinicius Marzall, Jussanã Milograna


The urban drainwatering remains a major challenge for most of the Brazilian cities. Not so different of the most part, Goiania, a state capital located in Midwest of the country has few legislations about the subject matter and only one registered solution of compensative techniques for drainwater. This paper clam to show some solutions which are adopted in other Brazilian cities with consolidated legislation, suggesting technics about detention tanks in a building sit. This study analyzed and compared the legislation of Curitiba, Porto Alegre e Sao Paulo, with the actual legislation and politics of Goiania. After this, were created models with adopted data for dimensioning the size of detention tanks using the envelope curve method considering synthetic series for intense precipitations and building sits between 250 m² and 600 m², with an impermeabilization tax of 50%. The results showed great differences between the legislation of Goiania and the documentation of the others cities analyzed, like the number of techniques for drainwatering applied to the reality of the cities, educational actions to awareness the population about care the water courses and political management by having a specified funds for drainwater subjects, for example. Besides, the use of detention tank showed itself practicable, have seen that the occupation of the tank is minor than 3% of the building sit, whatever the size of the terrain, granting the exit flow to pre-occupational taxes in extreme rainfall events. Also, was developed a linear equation to measure the detention tank based in the size of the building sit in Goiania, making simpler the calculation and implementation for non-specialized people.

Keywords: Legislation, Clean technology, rainwater management, urban drainwater

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5 The Impact of Internal Dynamics of Standing Committees on Legislative Productivity in the Korean National Assembly

Authors: Lee Da Hyun


The purpose of this study is to explore the relation between the internal dynamics of standing committees and legislative productivity of the Korean National Assembly using statistical methods. Studies on legislation in South Korea have been largely revolved around political parties due to the uniqueness of its political context including strong party cohesion and party’s nomination right. However, as standing committees have been at the center of legislatures since the 6th National Assembly, there is a growing need for studying the operation and effectiveness of standing committees in legislation process. Thus, through panel data analysis for the sixteen standing committees across the four terms of the Korean National Assembly-from the 16th to the 19th-this article attempts to reveal that legislators’ bill passing rate is not a sole function of factors pertaining to political party as the existing studies have believed. By measuring the ideological distribution within a committee and the bill passing rate, this article provides differentiated interpretation from established theories of standing committees and presents compelling evidence describing complex interactions and independent operation of the standing committees with the subsequent legislative results.

Keywords: Legislation, collective decision-making, lawmaking, political polarization, standing committees

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4 Accountants and Anti-Money Laundering Compliance in the Real Estate Sector

Authors: Mark E. Lokanan, Liz Lee


This paper aims to examine the role of accountants as gatekeepers in anti-money laundering compliance in real estate transactions. The paper seeks to answer questions on ways in which accountants are involved in real estate transactions and mandatory compliance with regulatory authorities in Canada. The data for the study came from semi-structured interviews with accountants, lawyers, and government officials. Preliminary results reveal that there is a conflict between accountants’ obligation to disclose and loyalty to their clients. Accountants often do not see why they are obligated to disclose their clients' information to government agencies. The importance of the client in terms of the amount of revenue contributed to the accounting firm also plays a significant role in accountants' reporting decision-making process. Although the involvement of accountants in real estate purchase and sale transactions is limited to lawyers or notaries, they are often involved in designing financing schemes, which may involve money laundering activities. The paper is of wider public policy interests to both accountants and regulators. It is hard not to see Chartered Professional Accountant (CPA) Canada and government regulators using the findings to better understand the decision-making processes of accountants in their reporting practices to regulatory authorities.

Keywords: Real Estate, Compliance, Money Laundering, Legislation, disclosure

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3 Regulation Aspects for a Radioisotope Production Installation in Brazil

Authors: Rian O. Miranda, Lidia V. de Sa, Julio C. Suita


The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) is the main manufacturer of radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil. The Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN), located at Rio de Janeiro, is one of its main centers of research and production, attending public and private hospitals in the state. This radiopharmaceutical production is used in diagnostic and therapy procedures and allows one and a half million nuclear medicine procedures annually. Despite this, the country is not self-sufficient to meet national demand, creating the need for importation and consequent dependence on other countries. However, IEN facilities were designed in the 60's, and today its structure is inadequate in relation to the good manufacturing practices established by sanitary regulator (ANVISA) and radiological protection leading to the need for a new project. In order to adapt and increase production in the country, a new plant will be built and integrated to the existing facilities with a new 30 MeV Cyclotron that is actually in project detailing process. Thus, it is proposed to survey current CNEN and ANVISA standards for radiopharmaceutical production facilities, as well as the radiological protection analysis of each area of the plant, following good manufacturing practices recommendations adopted nationally besides licensing exigencies for radioactive facilities. In this way, the main requirements for proper operation, equipment location, building materials, area classification, and maintenance program have been implemented. The access controls, interlocks, segregation zones and pass-through boxes integrated into the project were also analyzed. As a result, IEN will in future have the flexibility to produce all necessary radioisotopes for nuclear medicine application, more efficiently by simultaneously bombarding two targets, allowing the simultaneous production of two different radioisotopes, minimizing radiation exposure and saving operating costs.

Keywords: Production, Radiopharmaceuticals, norms, Legislation, cyclotron

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2 Inclusion Advances of Disabled People in Higher Education: Possible Alignment with the Brazilian Statute of the Person with Disabilities

Authors: Maria Cristina Tommaso, Maria Das Graças L. Silva, Carlos Jose Pacheco


Have the advances of the Brazilian legislation reflected or have been consonant with the inclusion of PwD in higher education? In 1990 the World Declaration on Education for All, a document organized by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), stated that the basic learning needs of people with disabilities, as they were called, required special attention. Since then, legislation in signatory countries such as Brazil has made considerable progress in guaranteeing, in a gradual and increasing manner, the rights of persons with disabilities to education. Principles, policies, and practices of special educational needs were created and guided action at the regional, national and international levels on the structure of action in Special Education such as administration, recruitment of educators and community involvement. Brazilian Education Law No. 3.284 of 2003 ensures inclusion of people with disabilities in Brazilian higher education institutions and also in 2015 the Law 13,146/2015 - Brazilian Law on the Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities (Statute of the Person with Disabilities) regulates the inclusion of PwD by the guarantee of their rights. This study analyses data related to people with disability inclusion in High Education in the south region of Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil during the period between 2008 and 2018, based in its correlation with the changes in the Brazilian legislation in the last ten years that were subjected by PwD inclusion processes in the Brazilian High Education Systems. The region studied is composed by sixteen cities and this research refers to the largest one, Volta Redonda that represents 25 percent of the total regional population. The PwD reception process had the dicing data at the Volta Redonda University Center with 35 percent of high education students in this territorial area. The research methodology analyzed the changes occurring in the legislation about the inclusion of people with disability in High Education in the last ten years and its impacts on the samples of this study during the period between 2008 and 2018. It was verified an expressive increasing of the number of PwD students, from two in 2008 to 190 PwD students in 2018. The data conclusions are presented in quantitative terms and the aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of the PwD inclusion in High Education, allowing visibility of this social group. This study verified that the fundamental human rights guarantees have a strong relation to the advances of legislation and the State as a guarantor instance of the rights of the people with disability and must be considered a mean of consolidation of their education opportunities isonomy. The recognition of full rights and the inclusion of people with disabilities requires the efforts of those who have decision-making power. This study aimed to demonstrate that legislative evolution is an effective instrument in the social integration of people with disabilities. The study confirms the fundamental role of the state in guaranteeing human rights and demonstrates that legislation not only protects the interests of vulnerable social groups, but can also, and this is perhaps its main mission, to change behavior patterns and provoke the social transformation necessary to the reduction of inequality of opportunity.

Keywords: Inclusion, Legislation, people with disability, high education

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1 Ideal Posture in Regulating Legal Regulations in Indonesia

Authors: M Jeffri Arlinandes Chandra, Puwaningdyah Murti Wahyuni, Dewi Mutiara M Jeffri Arlinandes Chandra, Puwaningdyah Murti Wahyuni, Dewi Mutiara


Indonesia is a state of the law in accordance with article 1 paragraph 3 of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia (1945 Constitution), namely, 'the State of Indonesia is a state of law'. The consequences of the rule of law are making the law as the main commanding officer or making the law as a basis for carrying out an action taken by the state. The types of regulations and procedures for the formation of legislation in Indonesia are contained in Law Number 12 of 2011 concerning the Formation of Legislation. Various attempts were made to make quality regulations both in the formal hierarchy and material hierarchy such as synchronization and harmonization in the formation of laws and regulations so that there is no conflict between equal and hierarchical laws, but the fact is that there are still many conflicting regulations found between one another. This can be seen clearly in the many laws and regulations that were sued to judicial institutions such as the Constitutional Court (MK) and the Supreme Court (MA). Therefore, it is necessary to have a formulation regarding the governance of the formation of laws and regulations so as to minimize the occurrence of lawsuits to the court so that positive law can be realized which can be used today and for the future (ius constituendum). The research method that will be used in this research is a combination of normative research (library research) supported by empirical data from field research so that it can formulate concepts and answer the challenges being faced. First, the structuring of laws and regulations in Indonesia must start from the inventory of laws and regulations, whether they can be classified based on the type of legislation, what are they set about, the year of manufacture, etc. so that they can be clearly traced to the regulations relating to the formation of laws and regulations. Second, the search and revocation/revocation of laws and regulations that do not exist in the state registration system. Third, the periodic evaluation system is carried out at every level of the hierarchy of laws and regulations. These steps will form an ideal model of laws and regulations in Indonesia both in terms of content and material so that the instructions can be codified and clearly inventoried so that they can be accessed by the wider community as a concrete manifestation of the principle that all people know the law (presumptio iures de iure).

Keywords: Evaluation, Reconstruction, Legislation, review

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