Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Legal Related Abstracts

9 Fracking the UK's Shale Gas Regulatory Regime

Authors: Yanal Abul Failat


The production of oil and natural gas from shale formations is becoming a trend, and many countries with technically and economically recoverable unconventional resources are endeavoring to explore how shale formations may benefit the economy and achieve energy security. The trajectory of shale gas development in the UK is highly supported by the government; in the Gas Generation Strategy Paper published by the UK government on 5 December 2013, it is recognized that the shale gas production would decrease reliance on imports and thus enhance the UK’s energy security. Moreover, the UK Institute of Directors report on UK Shale Gas Potential explains that in the UK there is a potential of production peaking at around 1.13 trillion cubic feet (“tcf”) and a sector that could support around 70,000 jobs and secure net benefit to the Treasury in tax revenues. On this basis, there has been a growing interest in the benefits of exploring the UK’s shale gas but a combination of technical challenges faced in shale gas operations, a stern opposition by environmentalists and concerns on the adequacy of the legal framework have slowed the progress of the emerging UK shale industry.

Keywords: Energy, Oil and Gas, Legal, Shale Gas

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8 Cross Carpeting in Nigerian Politics: Some Legal and Moral Issues Generated

Authors: Agbana Olaseinde Julius, Opadere Olaolu Stephen


The concept of cross carpeting is as old as politics itself. Basically, it entails an individual leaving a political party/group, to join another. The reasons for which cross carpeting is embarked upon are diverse: ideological differences; ethnic and/or religious differences; access to actual or perceived better political opportunities; liberty of association; rancor; etc. The current democratic dispensation in Nigeria has experienced renewed and rather alarming rate of cross carpeting, for reasons including those enumerated above and others. Right to cross carpet is inherent in a democratic setting as well as the political stakeholder; so does it also comprise of the constitutional right of ‘freedom of association’. However, the current species of cross carpeting in Nigeria requires scrutiny, in view of some potential legal and moral challenges it poses for both the present and the future. Cross carpeting is considered both legal and constitutional, but the current spate raises the question of expediency, particularly in a nascent democracy. It is considered to have a propensity of negatively impacting political stability in a polity with fragile nerves. Importantly too, cross carpeting is considered a potential damage to the psyche of posterity with regards to a warped disposition to promises, honour and integrity. The perceived peculiar dimension of cross carpeting in Nigeria raises questions on the quality of leadership presently obtainable in the country, vis-à-vis greed, self-centeredness, disregard for the concern and interest of avowed followers/fans, entrenchment of distrust, etc. Thus, the study made use of primary and secondary sources of information. The primary sources included the Constitutions of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 (as amended); judicial decisions; and the Electoral Act, 2010 (as Amended). The secondary sources comprised of information from books, journals, newspapers, magazines and Internet documents. Data obtained from these sources were subjected to content analysis. Findings of this study show that though the act of cross carpeting may not be in breach of any Statute or Law, it however, in most cases, breaches the morals of expediency. The morality thereof is far from justifiable, and should be condemned in the interest of the present and posterity. There is a great and urgent need to embark on a re-entrenchment of the culture of political ideology in the Nigerian polity, as obtainable in developed democracies. In conclusion, the need to exercise the right of cross carpeting with caution cannot be overemphasized. Membership of a political group/party should be backed by commitment to well defined ideologies and values. Commitment to them should be regarded akin to that found in the family, which is not easily or flippantly jettisoned.

Keywords: Legal, Politics, Nigeria, cross-carpeting, moral issues

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7 Curbing Abuses of Legal Power in the Society

Authors: Tajudeen Ojo Ibraheem


In a world characterized by greed and the lust for power and its attendant trappings, abuse of legal power is nothing new to most of us. Legal abuses of power abound in all fields of human endeavour. Accounts of such abuses dominate the mass media and for the average individual, no single day goes by without his getting to hear about at least one such occurrence. This paper briefly looks at the meaning of legal power, what legal abuse is all about, its causes, and some of its manifestations in the society. Its consequences will also be discussed and some suggestions for reform will be made. In the course of the paper, references will be made to various jurisdictions around the world.

Keywords: Society, Power, Legal, abuse

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6 Increasing Number of NGOs and Their Conduct: A Case Study of Far Western Region of Nepal

Authors: Raju Thapa


Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are conducting activities in Nepal with the overall objective to strengthen peace, progress and prosperity in the society. Based on the research objectives, this study has tried to trace out the reasons behind massive growth of NGOs and the trends that have shaped the handling and functioning of NGOs in the Kailali district. The outcomes of this research are quite embarrassing for NGOs officials. Based on the findings of this research, NGOs are expected to review their guiding principal, integrity and conduct for the betterment of the society.

Keywords: Networking, Financial, Governance, Human Resources, Legal, Collaboration, Integrity, Trends, conduct, NGO, increasing, guiding principle, public trust

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5 Legal Means for Access to Information Management

Authors: Sameut Bouhaik Mostafa


Information Act is the Canadian law gives the right of access to information for the institution of government. It declares the availability of government information to the public, but that exceptions should be limited and the necessary right of access to be specific, and also states the need to constantly re-examine the decisions on the disclosure of any government information independently from the government. By 1982, it enacted a dozen countries, including France, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands and the United States (1966) newly legally to access the information. It entered access to Canadian information into force of the Act of 1983, under the government of Pierre Trudeau, allowing Canadians to recover information from government files, and the development of what can be accessed from the information, and the imposition of timetables to respond. It has been applied by the Information Commissioner in Canada.

Keywords: Management, Information, Law, Legal

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4 Surrogacy in India: Emerging Business or Disguised Human Trafficking

Authors: Priya Sepaha


Commercial Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy for intended parents. There are two types of surrogacy; first, Traditional Surrogacy, in which, sperm of the donor or father is artificially inseminated in the women and carries the fetus till birth. Second, Gestational Surrogacy, in which the egg and sperm of the intended parent are collected for artificial fertilization through In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) technique and after the embryo formation, it is transferred into the womb of a surrogate mother with the help of Assisted Reproductive Technique. Surrogacy has become so widespread in India that it has now been nicknamed the "rent-a-womb" capital of the world due to relatively low cost and lack of stringent regulatory legalisation. The legal aspects surrounding surrogacy are complex, diverse and mostly unsettled. Although this appears to be beneficial for the parties concerned, there are certain sensitive issues which need to be addressed to ensure ample protection to all stakeholders. Commercial surrogacy is an emerging business and a new means of human trafficking particularly in India. Poor and illiterate women are often lured in such deals by their spouse or broker for earning easy money. Traffickers also use force, fraud, or coercion at times to intimidate the probable surrogate mothers. A major chunk of money received from covert surrogacy agreement is taken away by the brokers. The Law Commission of India has specifically reviewed the issue as India is emerging as a major global surrogacy destination. The Supreme Court of India held in the Manji's case in 2008, that commercial surrogacy can be permitted with certain restrictions but had directed the Legislature to pass an appropriate Law for governing Surrogacy in India. The draft Assisted Reproductive Technique (ART) Bill, 2010 is still pending for approval. At present, the Surrogacy Contract between the parties and the ART Clinics Guidelines are perhaps the only guiding force. The Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act (ITPA), 1956 and Sections 366(A) and 372 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 are perhaps the only existing laws, which deal with human trafficking. Yet, none of these provisions specifically deal with the serious issue of trafficking for the purpose of Commercial Surrogacy. India remains one of the few countries that still allow commercial surrogacy. International Surrogacy involves bilateral issues, where the laws of both the nations have to be at par in order to ensure that the concerns and interests of parties involved get amicably resolved. There is urgent need to pass a comprehensive law by incorporating the latest developments in this field in order to make it ethical on the one hand and to curb disguised human trafficking on the other.

Keywords: Business, Legal, Human trafficking, surrogacy

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3 The Role of DNA Evidence in Determining Paternity in India: A Study of Cases from the Legal and Scientific Perspective

Authors: Pratyusha Das


A paradigm shift has been noticed in the interpretation of DNA evidence for determining paternity. Sometimes DNA evidence has been accepted while sometimes it was rejected by the Indian Courts. Courts have forwarded various justifications for acceptance and rejection of such evidence through legal and scientific means. Laws have also been changed to accommodate the necessities of society. Balances between both the legal and scientific approaches are required, to make the best possible use of DNA evidence for the well-being of the society. Specifications are to be framed as to when such evidence can be used in the future by pointing out the pros and cons. Judicial trend is to be formulated to find out the present situation. The study of cases of superior courts of India using an analytical and theoretical approach is driving the questions regarding the shared identity of the legal and scientific approaches. To assimilate the differences between the two approaches, the basic differences between them have to be formulated. Revelations are required to access the favorable decisions using the DNA evidence. Reasons are to be forwarded for the unfavorable decisions and the approach preferred in such cases. The outcome of the two methods has to be assessed in relation to the parties to the dispute, the society at large, the researcher and from the judicial point of view. The dependability of the two methods is to be studied in relation to the justice delivery system. A highlight of the chronological study of cases along with the changes in the laws with the aid of presumptions will address the questions of necessity of a method according to the facts and situations. Address is required in this respect whether the legal and scientific forces converge somewhere pushing the traditional identification of paternity towards a fundamental change.

Keywords: Legal, Scientific, evidence, cases

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
2 Increasing Abundance of Jellyfish in the Shorelines of Bangladesh: Analyzing the Policy Framework for Facing the Challenges

Authors: Md Mizanur Rahman, M. Aslam Alam, Muhammad Abu Yusuf


The abundance of Jellyfish across the coasts of the Bay of Bengal is increasing sharply due to marine pollution, increased sea acidification and climate change. Jellyfish draws our attention to address the local and global stressors. This also indicates that something wrong is happening in this bay behind the scenes. This study aimed to investigate how the policy framework governing the sea can be reformed. To do so, this study evaluated the existing policy, regulatory and institutional framework. Empirical data were collected from the middle coastal zone of Bangladesh. The secondary literature on policy, legal documents, and institutional arrangements were reviewed. The causes of poor coordination among different public sectors and non-compliance of laws were identified. The key findings show that despite the existing of Department of Environment, poor coordination with other departments, and lack of logistics and technical staffs have resulted in severe marine pollution and degradation of coastal and marine living resources. The existing policies had no monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. Non-compliance of the existing laws has been fueling the problems. This study provides an integrated policy and a guideline for updating the legal and institutional mechanism to manage coastal and marine living resources sustainably in Bangladesh to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 14.

Keywords: Legal, framework, institutional, jellyfish

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1 Virtual Container Yard: Assessing the Perceived Impact of Legal Implications to Container Carriers

Authors: P. Mukherjee, L. Edirisinghe, H. Edirisinghe


Virtual Container Yard (VCY) is a modern concept that helps to reduce the empty container repositioning cost of carriers. The concept of VCY is based on container interchange between shipping lines. Although this mechanism has been theoretically accepted by the shipping community as a feasible solution, it has not yet achieved the necessary momentum among container shipping lines (CSL). This paper investigates whether there is any legal influence on this industry myopia about the VCY. It is believed that this is the first publication that focuses on the legal aspects of container exchange between carriers. Not much literature on this subject is available. This study establishes with statistical evidence that there is a phobia prevailing in the shipping industry that exchanging containers with other carriers may lead to various legal implications. The complexity of exchange is two faceted. CSLs assume that offering a container to another carrier (obviously, a competitor in terms of commercial context) or using a container offered by another carrier may lead to undue legal implications. This research reveals that this fear is reflected through four types of perceived components, namely: shipping associate; warehouse associate; network associate; and trading associate. These components carry eighteen subcomponents that comprehensively cover the entire process of a container shipment. The statistical explanation has been supported through regression analysis; INCO terms were used to illustrate the shipping process.

Keywords: Legal, Inventory, Maritime Law, virtual container yard

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