Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Learning disability Related Abstracts

9 The Identification of Instructional Approach for Enhancing Competency of Autism, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disability Groups

Authors: P. Srisuruk, P. Narot


The purpose of this research were 1) to develop the curriculum and instructional approach that are suitable for children with autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability as well as to arrange the instructional approach that can be integrated into inclusive classroom 2) to increase the competency of the children in these group. The research processes were to a) study related documents, b) arrange workshops to clarify fundamental issues in developing core curriculum among the researchers and experts in curriculum development, c) arrange workshops to develop the curriculum, submit it to the experts for criticism and editing, d) implement the instructional approach to examine its effectiveness, e) select the schools to participate in the project and arrange training programs for teachers in the selected school, f) implement the instruction approach in the selected schools in different regions. The research results were 1) the core curriculum to enhance the competency of children with autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability , and to be used as a guideline for teachers, and these group of children in order to arrange classrooms for students with special needs to study with normal students, 2) teaching and learning methods arranged for students with autism, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder and learning disability to study with normal students can be used as a framework for writing plans to help students with parallel problems by developing teaching materials as part of the instructional approach. However, the details of how to help the students in each skill or content differ according to the demand of development as well as the problems of individual students or group of students. Furthermore; it was found that most of target teacher could implement the instructional approach based on the guideline model developed by the research team. School in each region does not have much difference in their implementation. The good point of the developed instructional model is that teacher can construct a parallel lesson plan. So teacher did not fell that they have to do extra work it was also shown that students in regular classroom enjoyed studying with the developed instructional model as well.

Keywords: autism, Learning disability, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, instructional approach

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8 Relationship between the Level of Perceived Self-Efficacy of Children with Learning Disability and Their Mother’s Perception about the Efficacy of Their Child, and Children’s Academic Achievement

Authors: Payal Maheshwari, Maheaswari Brindavan


The present study aimed at studying the level of perceived self-efficacy of children with learning disability and their mother’s perception about the efficacy of the child and the relationship between the two. The study further aimed at finding out the relationship between the level of perceived self-efficacy of children with learning disability and their academic achievement and their mother’s perception about the Efficacy of the child and child’s Academic Achievement. The sample comprised of 80 respondents (40 children with learning disability and their mothers). Children with learning disability as their primary condition, belonging to middle or upper middle class, living with both the parents, residing in Mumbai and their mothers were selected. Purposive or judgmental and snowball sampling technique was used to select the sample for the present study. Proformas in the form of questionnaires were used to obtain the background information of the children with learning disability and their mother’s. A self-constructed Mother’s Perceived Efficacy of their Child Assessment Scale was used to measure mothers perceived level of efficacy of their child with learning disability. Self-constructed Child’s Perceived Self-Efficacy Assessment Scale was used to measure the level of child’s perceived self-efficacy. Academic scores of the child were collected from the child’s parents or teachers and were converted into percentage. The data were analyzed quantitatively using frequencies, mean and standard deviation. Correlations were computed to ascertain the relationships between the different variables. The findings revealed that majority of the mother’s perceived efficacy about their child with learning disability was above average as well as majority of the children with learning disability also perceived themselves as having above average level of self-efficacy. Further in the domains of self-regulated learning and emotional self-efficacy majority of the mothers perceived their child as having average or below average efficacy, 50% of the children also perceived their self-efficacy in the two domains at average or below average level. A significant (r=.322, p < .05) weak correlation (Spearman’s rho) was found between mother’s perceived efficacy about their child, and child’s perceived self-efficacy and a significant (r=.377, p < .01) weak correlation (Pearson Correlation) was also found between mother’s perceived efficacy about their child and child’s academic achievement. Significant weak positive correlation was found between child’s perceived self-efficacy and academic achievement (r=.332, p < .05). Based on the findings, the study discussed the need for intervention program for children in non-academic skills like self-regulation and emotional competence.

Keywords: Children, Academic Achievement, Learning disability, Mothers, perceived self efficacy

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7 Socio-Emotional Skills of Children with Learning Disability, Their Perceived Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement

Authors: P. Maheshwari, M. Brindavan


The present research aimed to study the level of socio-emotional skills and perceived self-efficacy of children with learning disability. The study further investigated the relationship between the levels of socio-emotional skills, perceived self-efficacy and academic achievement of children with learning disability. The sample comprised of 40 children with learning disability as their primary condition, belonging to middle or upper middle class, living with both the parents, residing in Mumbai. Purposive or Judgmental and snowball sampling technique was used to select the sample for the study. Proformas in the form of questionnaires were used to obtain the background information of the children with learning disability. A self-constructed Child’s Perceived Self-Efficacy Assessment Scale and Child’s Social and Emotional Skills Assessment Scale was used to measure the level of child’s perceived self-efficacy and their level of social and emotional skill respectively. Academic scores of the child were collected from the child’s parents or teachers and were converted into a percentage. The data was analyzed quantitatively using SPSS. Spearman rho or Pearson Product Moment correlation was used to ascertain the multiple relationships between child’s perceived self-efficacy, child’s social and emotional skills and child’s academic achievement. The findings revealed majority (27) of the children with learning disability perceived themselves having above average level of social and emotional skills while 13 out of 40 perceived their level of social and emotional skills at an average level. Domain wise analyses revealed that, in the domain of self- management (26) and relationship skills (22) more number of the children perceived themselves as having average or below average level of social and emotional skills indicating that they perceived themselves as having average or below average skills in regulating their emotions, thoughts, and behaviors effectively in different situations, establishing and maintaining healthy and rewarding relationships with diverse groups and individuals. With regard to perceived self-efficacy, the majority of the children with learning disability perceived themselves as having above average level of self-efficacy. Looking at the data domain wise it was found that, in the domains of self-regulated learning and emotional self-efficacy, 50% of the children perceived themselves at average or below average level, indicating that they perceived themselves as average on competencies like organizing academic activities, structuring environment to make it conducive for learning, expressing emotions in a socially acceptable manner. Further, the correlations were computed, and significant positive correlations were found between children’s social and emotional skills and academic achievement (r=.378, p < .01), and between children’s social and emotional skills and child’s perceived self-efficacy (r = .724, p < .01) and a positive significant correlation was also found between children’s perceived self-efficacy and academic achievement (r=.332, p < .05). Results of the study emphasize on planning intervention for children with learning disability focusing on improving self-management and relationship skills, self-regulated learning and emotional self-efficacy.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Learning disability, perceived self-efficacy, social and emotional skills

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6 Differentiated Instruction for All Learners: Strategies for Full Inclusion

Authors: Susan Dodd


This presentation details the methodology for teachers to identify and support a population of students who have historically been overlooked in regards to their educational needs. The twice exceptional (2e) student is a learner who is considered gifted and also has a learning disability, as defined by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Many of these students remain underserved throughout their educational careers because their exceptionalities may mask each other, resulting in a special population of students who are not achieving to their fullest potential. There are three common scenarios that may make the identification of a 2e student challenging. First, the student may have been identified as gifted, and her disability may go unnoticed. She could also be considered an under-achiever, or she may be able to compensate for her disability under the school works becomes more challenging. In the second scenario, the student may be identified as having a learning disability and is only receiving remedial services where his giftedness will not be highlighted. His overall IQ scores may be misleading because they were impacted by his learning disability. In the third scenario, the student is able to compensate for her ability well enough to maintain average scores, and she goes undetected as both gifted and learning disabled. Research in the area identifies the complexity involved in identifying 2e students, and how multiple forms of assessment are required. It is important for teachers to be aware of the common characteristics exhibited by many 2e students, so these learners can be identified and appropriately served. Once 2e students have been identified, teachers are then challenged to meet the varying needs of these exceptional learners. Strength-based teaching entails simultaneously providing gifted instruction as well as individualized accommodations for those students. Research in this field has yielded strategies that have proven helpful for teaching 2e students, as well as other students who may be struggling academically. Differentiated instruction, while necessary in all classrooms, is especially important for 2e students, as is encouragement for academic success. Teachers who take the time to really know their students will have a better understanding of each student’s strengths and areas for growth, and therefore tailor instruction to extend the intellectual capacities for optimal achievement. Teachers should also understand that some learning activities can prove very frustrating to students, and these activities can be modified based on individual student needs. Because 2e students can often become discouraged by their learning challenges, it is especially important for teachers to assist students in recognizing their own strengths and maintaining motivation for learning. Although research on the needs of 2e students has spanned across two decades, this population remains underserved in many educational institutions. Teacher awareness of the identification of and the support strategies for 2e students is critical for their success.

Keywords: Learning disability, gifted, special needs, twice exceptional

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5 The Engagement of Students with Learning Disabilities in Regular Public Primary School in Indonesia

Authors: Costrie Ganes Widayanti


Learning Disabilities (LDs) are less understood by the Indonesia’s educational practitioners. As a result, students with LDs are at risk of being outcast from the learning process that requires participation, which potentially disconnects them academically and socially. Its objective is to raise the voice of students with LDs regarding their engagement in the classroom. This research is conducted in two urban regular public primary schools in Indonesia. The study uses an ethnographic case study research design, which explores the views and experiences of four (4) students with LDs. The data were collected using participant observations and interviews. The preliminary findings highlighted two areas: 1) the stigmatization about LDs; and 2) perceived membership. Having LDs was a barrier to fully engage in the academic and social life. Interestingly, they were more likely dependent on each other for support as limited assistance was offered by teachers and peers. Their peers did not take a keen interest in helping them when they found difficulties with the assignments. Furthermore, due to their low academic performance, they were not in favor of being nominated as a group member. In a situation that required them to do a group assignment, they were not expected to give a contribution, positioning themselves as incompatible. These findings indicated that such practices legitimate the hegemony of the superior over those who are powerless and left behind.

Keywords: Engagement, Learning disability, Experiences, qualitative design

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4 A Cognitive Training Program in Learning Disability: A Program Evaluation and Follow-Up Study

Authors: Krisztina Bohacs, Klaudia Markus


To author’s best knowledge we are in absence of studies on cognitive program evaluation and we are certainly short of programs that prove to have high effect sizes with strong retention results. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of a comprehensive cognitive training program, namely BrainRx. This cognitive rehabilitation program target and remediate seven core cognitive skills and related systems of sub-skills through repeated engagement in game-like mental procedures delivered one-on-one by a clinician, supplemented by digital training. A larger sample of children with learning disability were given pretest and post-test cognitive assessments. The experimental group completed a twenty-week cognitive training program in a BrainRx center. A matched control group received another twenty-week intervention with Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment programs. A second matched control group did not receive training. As for pre- and post-test, we used a general intelligence test to assess IQ and a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the experimental BrainRx treatment group had statistically significant higher outcomes in attention, working memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, auditory processing, visual processing and long-term memory compared to the non-treatment control group with very large effect sizes. With the exception of logic and reasoning, the BrainRx treatment group realized significantly greater gains in six of the above given seven cognitive measures compared to the Feuerstein control group. Our one-year retention measures showed that all the cognitive training gains were above ninety percent with the greatest retention skills in visual processing, auditory processing, logic, and reasoning. The BrainRx program may be an effective tool to establish long-term cognitive changes in case of students with learning disabilities. Recommendations are made for treatment centers and special education institutions on the cognitive training of students with special needs. The importance of our study is that targeted, systematic, progressively loaded and intensive brain training approach may significantly change learning disabilities.

Keywords: Learning disability, cognitive skills, cognitive rehabilitation training, permanent structural cognitive changes

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3 Parents and Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Early Reading Intervention Implemented as a Curriculum for Children with Learning Disabilities

Authors: Bander Mohayya Alotaibi


The valuable partnerships between parents and teachers may develop positive and effective interactions between home and school. This will help these stakeholders share information and resources regarding student academics during ongoing interactions. Thus, partnerships will build a solid foundation for both families and schools to help children succeed in school. Parental involvement can be seen as an effective tool that can change homes and communities and not just schools’ systems. Seeking parents and stakeholders’ attitudes toward learning and learners can help schools design a curriculum. Subsequently, this information can be used to find ways to help improve the academic performance of students, especially in low performing schools. There may be some conflicts when designing curriculum. In addition, designing curriculum might bring more educational expectations to all the sides. There is a lack of research that targets the specific attitude of parents toward specific concepts on curriculum contents. More research is needed to study the perspective that parents of children with learning disabilities (LD) have regarding early reading curriculum. Parents and stakeholders’ perspectives on early reading intervention implemented as a curriculum for children with LD was studied through an advanced quantitative research. The purpose of this study seeks to understand stakeholders and parents’ perspectives of key concepts and essential early reading skills that impact the design of curriculum that will serve as an intervention for early struggler readers who have LD. Those concepts or stages include phonics, phonological awareness, and reading fluency as well as strategies used in house by parents. A survey instrument was used to gather the data. Participants were recruited through 29 schools and districts of the metropolitan area of the northern part of Saudi Arabia. Participants were stakeholders including parents of children with learning disability. Data were collected using distribution of paper and pen survey to schools. Psychometric properties of the instrument were evaluated for the validity and reliability of the survey; face validity, content validity, and construct validity including an Exploratory Factor Analysis were used to shape and reevaluate the structure of the instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) used to find differences between the variables. The study reported the results of the perspectives of stakeholders toward reading strategies, phonics, phonological awareness, and reading fluency. Also, suggestions and limitations are discussed.

Keywords: Curriculum, Intervention, Perspectives, Learning disability, Stakeholders, Parents, early reading

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2 Challenges Faced by Teachers during Teaching with Developmental Disable Students at Primary Level in Lahore

Authors: Zikra Faiz, Nisar Abid, Muhammad Waqas


This study aim to examine the challenges faced by teachers during teaching to those students who are intellectually disable, suffering from autism spectrum disorder, learning disability, and ADHD at the primary level. The descriptive research design of quantitative approach was adopted to conduct this study; a cross-sectional survey method was used to collect data. The sample was comprised of 258 (43 male and 215 female) teachers who teach at special education institutes of Lahore district selected through proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Self-developed questionnaire was used which was comprised of 22 closed-ended items. Collected data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistical techniques by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Results show that teachers faced problems during group activities, to handle bad behavior and different disabilities of students. It is concluded that there was a significant difference between male and female teachers perceptions about challenges faced during teaching with developmental disable students. Furthermore, there was a significant difference exist in the perceptions of teachers regarding challenges faced during teaching to students with developmental disabilities in term of teachers’ age and area of specialization. It is recommended that developmentally disable student require extra attention so that, teacher should trained through pre-service and in-service training to teach developmentally disabled students.

Keywords: ADHD, Intellectual Disability, Autism spectrum disorder, Learning disability

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1 College Faculty Perceptions of Instructional Strategies That Are Effective for Students with Dyslexia

Authors: Samantha R. Dutra


There are many issues that students face in college, such as academic-based struggles, financial issues, family responsibilities, and vocational problems. Students with dyslexia struggle even more with these problems compared to other students. This qualitative study examines faculty perceptions of instructing students with dyslexia. This study is important to the human services and post-secondary educational fields due to the increase in disabled students enrolled in college. This study is also substantial because of the reported bias faced by students with dyslexia and their academic failure. When students with LDs such as dyslexia experience bias, discrimination, and isolation, they are more apt to not seek accommodations, lack communication with faculty, and are more likely to drop out or fail. College students with dyslexia often take longer to complete their post-secondary education and are more likely to withdraw or drop out without earning a degree. Faculty attitudes and academic cultures are major barriers to the success and use of accommodations as well as modified instruction for students with disabilities, which leads to student success. Faculty members are often uneducated or misinformed regarding students with dyslexia. More importantly, many faculty members are unaware of the many ethical and legal implications that they face regarding accommodating students with dyslexia. Instructor expectations can generally be defined as the understanding and perceptions of students regarding their academic success. Skewed instructor expectations can affect how instructors interact with their students and can also affect student success. This is true for students with dyslexia in that instructors may have lower and biased expectations of these students and, therefore, directly impact students’ academic successes and failures. It is vital to understand how instructor attitudes affect the academic achievement of dyslexic students. This study will examine faculty perceptions of instructing students with dyslexia and faculty attitudes towards accommodations and institutional support. The literature concludes that students with dyslexia have many deficits and several learning needs. Furthermore, these are the students with the highest dropout and failure rates, as well as the lowest retention rates. Disabled students generally have many reasons why accommodations and supports just do not help. Some research suggests that accommodations do help students and show positive outcomes. Many improvements need to be made between student support service personnel, faculty, and administrators regarding providing access and adequate supports for students with dyslexia. As the research also suggests, providing more efficient and effective accommodations may increase positive student as well as faculty attitudes in college, and may improve student outcomes overall.

Keywords: Higher Education, Dyslexia, Learning disability, faculty perception

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