Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

leakage current Related Abstracts

6 Design and Analysis of Highly Efficient and Reliable Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter for PV Systems

Authors: L. Ashok Kumar, N. Sujith Kumar

Abstract:

Most of the PV systems are designed with transformer for safety purpose with galvanic isolation. However, the transformer is big, heavy and expensive. Also, it reduces the overall frequency of the conversion stage. Generally PV inverter with transformer is having efficiency around 92%–94% only. To overcome these problems, transformerless PV system is introduced. It is smaller, lighter, cheaper and higher in efficiency. However, dangerous leakage current will flow between PV array and the grid due to the stray capacitance. There are different types of configurations available for transformerless inverters like H5, H6, HERIC, oH5, and Dual paralleled buck inverter. But each configuration is suffering from its own disadvantages like high conduction losses, shoot-through issues of switches, dead-time requirements at zero crossing instants of grid voltage to avoid grid shoot-through faults and MOSFET reverse recovery issues. The main objective of the proposed transformerless inverter is to address two key issues: One key issue for a transformerless inverter is that it is necessary to achieve high efficiency compared to other existing inverter topologies. Another key issue is that the inverter configuration should not have any shoot-through issues for higher reliability.

Keywords: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), grid-connected, photovoltaic (PV) systems, transformerless inverter, stray capacitance, common-mode, leakage current

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5 Leakage Current Analysis of FinFET Based 7T SRAM at 32nm Technology

Authors: Chhavi Saxena

Abstract:

FinFETs can be a replacement for bulk-CMOS transistors in many different designs. Its low leakage/standby power property makes FinFETs a desirable option for memory sub-systems. Memory modules are widely used in most digital and computer systems. Leakage power is very important in memory cells since most memory applications access only one or very few memory rows at a given time. As technology scales down, the importance of leakage current and power analysis for memory design is increasing. In this paper, we discover an option for low power interconnect synthesis at the 32nm node and beyond, using Fin-type Field-Effect Transistors (FinFETs) which are a promising substitute for bulk CMOS at the considered gate lengths. We consider a mechanism for improving FinFETs efficiency, called variable supply voltage schemes. In this paper, we’ve illustrated the design and implementation of FinFET based 4x4 SRAM cell array by means of one bit 7T SRAM. FinFET based 7T SRAM has been designed and analysis have been carried out for leakage current, dynamic power and delay. For the validation of our design approach, the output of FinFET SRAM array have been compared with standard CMOS SRAM and significant improvements are obtained in proposed model.

Keywords: delay, FinFET, leakage current

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4 A Double PWM Source Inverter Technique with Reduced Leakage Current for Application on Standalone Systems

Authors: T. S. Gunawan, Md.Noman Habib Khan, M. S. Tajul Islam, M. Hasanuzzaman

Abstract:

The photovoltaic (PV) panel with no galvanic isolation system is well-known technique in the world which is effective and deliver power with enhanced efficiency. The PV generation presented here is for stand-alone system installed in remote areas when as the resulting power gets connected to electronic load installation instead of being tied to the grid. Though very small, even then transformer-less topology is shown to be with leakage in pico-ampere range. By using PWM technique PWM, leakage current in different situations is shown. The results that are demonstrated in this paper show how the pico-ampere current is reduced to femto-ampere through use of inductors and capacitors of suitable values of inductor and capacitors with the load.

Keywords: leakage current, photovoltaic (PV) panel, duty cycle, pulse duration modulation (PDM)

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3 Characterization of Leakage Current on the Surface of Porcelain Insulator under Contaminated Conditions

Authors: Abdelhafid Bayadi, Hocine Terrab, Adel Kara, Ayman El-Hag

Abstract:

Insulator flashover under polluted conditions has been a serious threat on the reliability of power systems. It is known that the flashover process is mainly affected by the environmental conditions such as; the pollution level and humidity. Those are the essential parameters influencing the wetting process. This paper presents an investigation of the characteristics of leakage current (LC) developed on the surface of porcelain insulator at contaminated conditions under AC voltage. The study is done in an artificial fog chamber and the LC is characterized for different stages; dry, wetted and presence of discharge activities. Time-frequency and spectral analysis are adopted to calculate the evolution of LC characteristics with various stages prior to flashover occurrence. The preliminary results could be used in analysing the LC to develop more effective diagnosis of early signs of dry band arcing as an indication for insulation washing.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, leakage current, flashover, harmonic components, phase angle

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2 Design and Implementation of 3kVA Grid-Tied Transformerless Power Inverter for Solar Photovoltaic Application

Authors: Daniel O. Johnson, Abiodun A. Ogunseye, Aaron Aransiola, Majors Samuel

Abstract:

Power Inverter is a very important device in renewable energy use particularly for solar photovoltaic power application because it is the effective interface between the DC power generator and the load or the grid. Transformerless inverter is getting more and more preferred to the power converter with galvanic isolation transformer and may eventually supplant it. Transformerless inverter offers advantages of improved DC to AC conversion and power delivery efficiency; and reduced system cost, weight and complexity. This work presents thorough analysis of the design and prototyping of 3KVA grid-tie transformerless inverter. The inverter employs electronic switching method with minimised heat generation in the system and operates based on the principle of pulse-width modulation (PWM). The design is such that it can take two inputs, one from PV arrays and the other from Battery Energy Storage BES and addresses the safety challenge of leakage current. The inverter system was designed around microcontroller system, modeled with Proteus® software for simulation and testing of the viability of the designed inverter circuit. The firmware governing the operation of the grid-tied inverter is written in C language and was developed using MicroC software by Mikroelectronica® for writing sine wave signal code for synchronization to the grid. The simulation results show that the designed inverter circuit performs excellently with very high efficiency, good quality sinusoidal output waveform, negligible harmonics and gives very stable performance under voltage variation from 36VDC to 60VDC input. The prototype confirmed the simulated results and was successfully synchronized with the utility supply. The comprehensive analyses of the circuit design, the prototype and explanation on overall performance will be presented.

Keywords: power electronic, Photovoltaic System, transformerless inverter, leakage current, grid-tied inverter

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1 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho

Abstract:

Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: Sensor, Magnetic Field, Transmission Lines, leakage current, insulator, direct current, live line

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