Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Leaching Related Abstracts

28 Principles of Municipal Sewage Sludge Bioconversion into Biomineral Fertilizer

Authors: K. V. Kalinichenko, G. N. Nikovskaya


The efficiency of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge in bioleaching with heterotrophic, chemoautotrophic (sulphur-oxidizing) sludge cenoses and chemical leaching (in distilled water, weakly acidic or alkaline medium) was compared. The efficacy of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge varied from 83 % (Zn) up to 14 % (Cr) and followed the order: Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cr. The advantages of metals bioleaching process at heterotrophic metabolism was shown. A new process for bioconversation of sewage sludge into fertilizer at middle temperature after partial heavy metals removal was developed. This process is based on enhancing vital ability of heterotrophic microorganisms by adding easily metabolized nutrients and synthesis of metabolites by growing sludge cenoses. These metabolites possess the properties of heavy metals extractants and flocculants which provide sludge flocks sedimentation and concentration. The process results in biomineral fertilizer with immobilized sludge bioelements with prolonged action. The fertilizer obtained satisfied the EU limits for the sewage sludge of agricultural utilization. High efficiency of the biomineral fertilizers obtained has been demonstrated in vegetation experiments.

Keywords: fertilizer, Leaching, Heavy Metals, Sewage Sludge

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27 Analysis of Sulphur-Oxidizing Bacteria Attack on Concrete Based on Waste Materials

Authors: A. Eštoková, M. Kovalčíková, A. Luptáková, A. Sičáková, M. Ondová


Concrete durability as an important engineering property of concrete, determining the service life of concrete structures very significantly, can be threatened and even lost due to the interactions of concrete with external environment. Bio-corrosion process caused by presence and activities of microorganisms producing sulphuric acid is a special type of sulphate deterioration of concrete materials. The effects of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on various concrete samples, based on silica fume and zeolite, were investigated in laboratory during 180 days. A laboratory study was conducted to compare the performance of concrete samples in terms of the concrete deterioration influenced by the leaching of calcium and silicon compounds from the cement matrix. The changes in the elemental concentrations of calcium and silicon in both solid samples and liquid leachates were measured by using X – ray fluorescence method. Experimental studies confirmed the silica fume based concrete samples were found out to have the best performance in terms of both silicon and calcium ions leaching.

Keywords: Concrete, Leaching, Bacteria, biocorrosion

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26 Some Aspects of Study the Leaching and Acid Corrosion of Concrete

Authors: Adriana Estokova, Alena Sicakova


Although properly made concrete is inherently a durable material, there are many physical and chemical forces in the environment which can contribute to its deterioration. This paper deals with two aspects of concrete durability in chemical aggressive environment: degradation effect of particular aggressive exposure and role of particular mineral additives. Results of the study of leaching and acid corrosion processes in samples prepared with specific dosage of microsilica and zeolite are given in the paper. Corrosion progress after 60-day exposition is manifested by increasing rate of both Ca and Si release, what is identified by XRF method. Kind and dosage of additions used in experiment was found to be helpful for stabilization of concrete microstructure. The lowest concentration of mean elements in leachates was observed for mixture V1 (microsilica only) unlike the V2 (microsilica + zeolite). It is surprising in the terms of recommendations of zeolite application for acid exposure. Using microsilica only seems to be more effective.

Keywords: Durability, Concrete, Sustainability, Leaching, acid corrosion

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25 Modeling of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Concrete for Filling Trenches in Radioactive Waste Management

Authors: Ilija Plecas, Dalibor Arbutina


The leaching rate of 60Co from spent mix bead (anion and cation) exchange resins in a cement-bentonite matrix has been studied. Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a cement-bentonite matrix are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These are: the diffusion equation for a plane source, an equation for diffusion coupled to a first order equation and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The results presented in this paper are from a 25-year mortar and concrete testing project that will influence the design choices for radioactive waste packaging for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.

Keywords: Waste, Concrete, Radioactivity, Leaching, cement, Permeability, immobilization

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24 Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Smelted Low-Grade WEEE

Authors: Ewa Rudnik


Poster shows a comparison of hydrometallurgical routes of copper recovery from low-grade e-waste. Electronic scrap was smelted to produce Cu–Zn–Ag alloy. The alloy was then treated in the following ways: (a) anodic dissolution with simultaneous metal electrodeposition using ammoniacal and sulfuric acid solutions. This resulted in the separation of metals, where lead, silver and tin accumulated mainly in the slimes, while copper was transferred to the electrolyte and then recovered on the cathode. The best conditions of the alloy treatment were obtained in the sulfuric acid, where the final product was metal of high purity (99% Cu) at the current efficiency of 90%. (b) leaching in ammoniacal solutions of various compositions and then copper electrowinning. Alloy was leached in chloride, carbonate, sulfate and thiosulfate baths. This resulted in the separation of the metals, wherein copper and zinc were transferred to the electrolyte, while metallic tin and silver as well as lead salts remained in the slimes. Copper was selectively recovered from the ammoniacal solutions by the electrolysis, leaving zinc ions in the electrolyte. The best conditions of the alloy treatment were obtained in the ammonia-carbonate system, where the final product was copper of high purity (99.9%) at the current efficiency of 60%. Thiosulfate solution was not applicable for the leaching of the copper alloy due to secondary reactions of the formation of copper (I) thiosulfate complexes and precipitation of copper (I) sulfide.

Keywords: Leaching, Electrolysis, E-Waste, alloy

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23 Contamination of the Groundwater by the Flow of the Discharge in Khouribga City (Morocco) and the Danger It Presents to the Health of the Surrounding Population.

Authors: Najih Amina


Our study focuses on monitoring the spatial evolution of a number of physico-chemical parameters of wells waters located at different distances from the discharge of the city of Khouribga (S0 upstream station, S1, S2 et S3 are respectively located at 5.5, 7.5, 11 Km away from solid waste discharge of the city). The absence of a source of drinking water in this region involves the population to feeding on its groundwater wells. Through the results, we note that most of the analyzed parameters exceed the potable water standards from S1. At this source of water, we find that the conductivity (1290 μmScm-1; Standard 1000 μmScm-1), Total Hardness TH (67.2°F/ Standard 50° F), Ca2 + (146 mg l-1 standard 60 mg l-1), Cl- (369 mg l-1 standard 150 mg l-1), NaCl (609 mgl-1), Methyl orange alakanity “M. alk” (280 mg l-1) greatly exceed the drinking water standards. By following these parameters, it is obvious that some values have decreased in the downstream stations, while others become important. We find that the conductivity is always higher than 950 μmScm-1; the TH registers 72°F in S3; Ca 2+ is in the range of 153 mg l-1 in S3, Cl- and NaCl- reached 426 mg l-1 and 702 mg l-1 respectively in S2, M alk becomes higher and reaches 430 to 350 in S3. At the wells S2, we found that the nitrites are well beyond the standard 1.05 mg l-1. Whereas, at the control station S0, the values are lower or at the limit of drinking water standards: conductivity (452 μmScm-1), TH (34 F°), Ca2+ (68 mg l-1), Cl- (157 mg l-1), NaCl- (258 mg l-1), M alk (220 mg l-1). Thus, the diagnosis reveals the presence of a high pollution caused by the leachates of the household waste discharge and by the effluents of the sewage waste water plant (SWWP). The phenomenon of the water hardness could, also, be generated by the processes of erosion, leaching and soil infiltration in the region (phosphate layers, intercalated layers of marl and limestone), phenomenons also caused by the acidity due to this surrounding pollution. The source S1 is the nearest surrounding site of the discharge and the most affected by the phenomenon of pollution, especially, it is near to a superficial water source S’1 polluted by the effluents coming from the sewage waste water plant of the city. In the light of these data, we can deduce that the consumption of this water from S1 does not conform the standards of drinking waters, and could affect the human health.

Keywords: Pollution, Human Health, Leaching, infiltration, physico-chemical parameters, ground water wells, leachate discharge effluent SWWP

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22 Leaching of Copper from Copper Ore Using Sulphuric Acid in the Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide as an Oxidizing Agent: An Optimized Process

Authors: Hilary Rutto


Leaching with acids are the most commonly reagents used to remove copper ions from its copper ores. It is important that the process conditions are optimized to improve the leaching efficiency. In the present study the effects of pH, oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide), stirring speed, solid to liquid ratio and acid concentration on the leaching of copper ions from it ore were investigated using a pH Stat apparatus. Copper ions were analyzed at the end of each experiment using Atomic Absorption (AAS) machine. Results showed that leaching efficiency improved with an increase in acid concentration, stirring speed, oxidizing agent, pH and decreased with an increase in the solid to liquid ratio.

Keywords: Leaching, Copper, pH stat apparatus, oxidizing agent

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21 Investigation of Parameters Affecting Copper Recovery from Brass Melting Dross

Authors: Sercan Basit, Muhlis N. Sarıdede


Metal amounts of copper based compounds in the various wastes have been recovered successfully by hydrometallurgical treatment methods in the literature. X-ray diffraction pattern of the brass melting slag demonstrates that it contains sufficient amount of recoverable copper. Recovery of copper from brass melting dross by sulfuric acid leaching and the effect of temperature and acid and oxidant concentration on recovery rate of copper have been investigated in this study. Experiments were performed in a temperature-controlled reactor in sulfuric acid solution in different molarities using solid liquid ratio of 100 g/L, with leaching time of 300 min. Temperature was changed between 25 °C and 80 °C and molarity was between 0.5 and 3M. The results obtained showed that temperature has important positive effect on recovery whereas it decreases with time. Also copper was recovered in larger amounts from brass dross in the presence of H2O2 as an oxidant according to the case that oxidant was not used.

Keywords: Leaching, Hydrogen Peroxide, brass dross, copper recovery

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20 The Effect of Amendment of Soil with Rice Husk Charcoal Coated Urea and Rice Straw Compost on Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Leaching

Authors: D. A. S. Gamage, W. A. J. M. de Costa, B. F. A. Basnayake


Agriculture plays an important and strategic role in the performance of Sri Lankan national economy. Rice is the staple food of Sri Lankans thus; rice cultivation is the major agricultural activity of the country. In Sri Lanka, out of the total rice production, a considerable amount of rice straw and rice husk goes wasted. Hence, there is a great potential of production of quality compost and rice husk charcoal. The concept of making rice straw compost and rice husk charcoal is practicable in Sri Lanka, where more than 40% of the farmers are engaged in rice cultivation. The application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer has become a burden to the country. Rice husk charcoal as a coating material to retain N fertilizer is a suitable solution to gradually release nitrogenous compounds. Objective of this study was to produce rice husk charcoal coated urea as a slow releasing fertilizer with rice straw compost and to compare the leaching losses of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium using leaching columns. Leaching column studies were prepared using 1.2 m tall PVC pipes with a diameter of 15 cm and a sampling port was attached to the bottom end of the column-cap. Leachates (100 ml/leaching column) were obtained from two sets of (each set has four leaching columns) leaching columns. The sampling was done once a week for 3 month period. Rice husk charcoal coated urea can potentially be used as a slow releasing nitrogen fertilizer which reduces leaching losses of urea. It also helps reduce the phosphate and potassium leaching. The cyclic effect of phosphate release is an important finding which could be the central issue in defining microbial behavior in soils. The fluctuations of phosphate may have cyclic effects of 28 days. In addition, rice straw compost and rice husk charcoal coating is less costly and contribute to mitigate pollution of water bodies by inorganic fertilizers.

Keywords: Leaching, mitigate, rice husk charcoal, slow releasing fertilizer

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19 Treatment of Leaden Sludge of Algiers Refinery by Electrooxidation

Authors: K. Ighilahriz, M. Taleb Ahmed, R. Maachi


Oil industries are responsible for most cases of contamination of our ecosystem by oil and heavy metals. They are toxic and considered carcinogenic and dangerous even when they exist in trace amounts. At Algiers refinery, production, transportation, and refining of crude oil generate considerable waste in storage tanks; these residues result from the gravitational settling. The composition of these residues is essentially a mixture of hydrocarbon and lead. We propose in this work the application of electrooxidation treatment for the leachate of the leaden sludge. The effect of pH, current density and the electrolysis time were studied, the effectiveness of the processes is evaluated by measuring the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The dissolution is the best way to mobilize pollutants from leaden mud, so we conducted leaching before starting the electrochemical treatment. The process was carried out in batch mode using graphite anode and a stainless steel cathode. The results clearly demonstrate the compatibility of the technique used with the type of pollution studied. In fact, it allowed COD removal about 80%.

Keywords: Leaching, oil Industry, electrooxidation, leaden sludge

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18 Recovery of Zn from Different Çinkur Leach Residues by Acidic Leaching

Authors: Mehmet Ali Topçu, Aydın Ruşen


Çinkur is the only plant in Turkey that produces zinc from primary ore containing zinc carbonate from its establishment until 1997. After this year, zinc concentrate coming from Iran was used in this plant. Therefore, there are two different leach residues namely Turkish leach residue (TLR) and Iranian leach residue (ILR), in Çinkur stock piles. This paper describes zinc recovery by sulphuric acid (H2SO4) treatment for each leach residue and includes comparison of blended of TLR and ILR. Before leach experiments; chemical, mineralogical and thermal analysis of three different leach residues was carried out by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), respectively. Leaching experiments were conducted at optimum conditions; 100 oC, 150 g/L H2SO4 and 2 hours. In the experiments, stirring rate was kept constant at 600 r/min which ensures complete mixing in leaching solution. Results show that zinc recovery for Iranian LR was higher than Turkish LR due to having different chemical composition from each other.

Keywords: Leaching, Metal Recovery, Hydrometallurgy, Metal Extraction

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17 Structural and Leaching Properties of Irradiated Lead Commercial Glass by Using XRD, Ultrasonic, UV-VIS and AAS Technique

Authors: S. A. Aziz, N. H. Alias, Y. Abdullah, H. M. Kamari, S. Sani, M. P. Ismail, N. U. Saidin, N. A. A. Salim, N. E. E. Abdullah


Gamma (γ) irradiation study has been investigated on the 6 rectangular shape of the standard X-Ray lead glass with 5/16” thick, providing 2.00 mm lead shielding value; at selected Sievert doses (C1; 0, C2; 0.07, C3; 0.035, C4; 0.07, C5; 0.105 and C6; 0.14) by using (XRD) X-ray Diffraction techniques, ultrasonic and (UV-VIS) Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy. Concentration of lead in 0.5 N acid nitric (HNO3) environments is then studied by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) as to observe the glass corrosion behavior after irradiation at room temperature. This type of commercial glass is commonly used as radiation shielding glass in medical application.

Keywords: Structural, Leaching, gamma irradiation, lead glass

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16 Hydrometallurgical Production of Nickel Ores from Field Bugetkol

Authors: A. T. Zhakiyenova, E. E. Zhatkanbaev, Zh. K. Zhatkanbaeva


Nickel plays an important role in mechanical engineering and creation of military equipment; practically all steel are alloyed by nickel and other metals for receiving more durable, heat-resistant, corrosion-resistant steel and cast iron. There are many ways of processing of nickel in the world. Generally, it is igneous metallurgy methods. In this article, the review of majority existing ways of technologies of processing silicate nickel - cobalt ores is considered. Leaching of ores of a field Bugetkol is investigated by solution of sulfuric acid. We defined a specific consumption of sulfuric acid in relation to the mass of ore and to the mass of metal.

Keywords: Leaching, Hydrometallurgy, Nickel, matte, cobalt, degree of extraction, igneous metallurgy

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15 Investigation of Zeolite and Silica Fume Addition on Durability of Cement Composites

Authors: Adriana Estokova, Martina Kovalcikova


Today, concrete belongs to the most frequently used materials in the civil engineering industry for many years. Consuming energy in cement industry is very high and CO₂ emissions generated during the production of Portland cement has serious environmental threatens. Therefore, utilization of pozzolanic material as a supplementary cementitious material has a direct relationship with the sustainable development. The paper presents the results of the comparative study of the resistance of the Slovak origin zeolite based cement composites with addition of silica fume exposed to the sulfate environment. The various aggressive media were used for the experiment: sulfuric acid with pH 4, distilled water and magnesium sulfate solution with a concentration of 3 g/L of SO₄²−. The laboratory experiment proceeded during 180 days under model conditions. The changes in the elemental concentrations of calcium and silicon in liquid leachates were observed.

Keywords: Concrete, Leaching, Zeolite, silica fume, sulfuric acid

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14 Chromium-Leaching Study of Cements in Various Environments

Authors: Adriana Estokova, Lenka Palascakova, Martina Kovalcikova


Cement is a basic material used for building construction. Chromium as an indelible non-volatile trace element of raw materials occurs in cement clinker in the trivalent or hexavalent form. Hexavalent form of chromium is harmful and allergenic having very high water solubility and thus can easily come into contact with the human skin. The paper is aimed at analyzing the content of total chromium in Portland cements and leaching rate of hexavalent chromium in various leachants: Deionized water, Britton-Robinson buffer, used to simulate the natural environment, and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The concentration of total chromium in Portland cement samples was in a range from 173.2 to 218.5 mg/kg. The content of dissolved hexavalent chromium ranged 0.23-3.19, 2.0-5.78 and 8.88-16.25 mg/kg in deionized water, Britton-Robinson solution and hydrochloric acid, respectively. The calculated leachable fraction of Cr(VI) from cement samples was observed in the range 0.1--7.58 %.

Keywords: Environment, Leaching, cement, Chromium

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13 Thiosulfate Leaching of the Auriferous Ore from Castromil Deposit: A Case Study

Authors: Rui Sousa, Aurora Futuro, António Fiúza


The exploitation of gold ore deposits is highly dependent on efficient mineral processing methods, although actual perspectives based on life-cycle assessment introduce difficulties that were unforeseen in a very recent past. Cyanidation is the most applied gold processing method, but the potential environmental problems derived from the usage of cyanide as leaching reagent led to a demand for alternative methods. Ammoniacal thiosulfate leaching is one of the most important alternatives to cyanidation. In this article, some experimental studies carried out in order to assess the feasibility of thiosulfate as a leaching agent for the ore from the unexploited Portuguese gold mine of Castromil. It became clear that the process depends on the concentrations of ammonia, thiosulfate and copper. Based on this fact, a few leaching tests were performed in order to assess the best reagent prescription, and also the effects of different combination of these concentrations. Higher thiosulfate concentrations cause the decrease of gold dissolution. Lower concentrations of ammonia require higher thiosulfate concentrations, and higher ammonia concentrations require lower thiosulfate concentrations. The addition of copper increases the gold dissolution ratio. Subsequently, some alternative operatory conditions were tested such as variations in temperature and in the solid/liquid ratio as well as the application of a pre-treatment before the leaching stage. Finally, thiosulfate leaching was compared to cyanidation. Thiosulfate leaching showed to be an important alternative, although a pre-treatment is required to increase the yield of the gold dissolution.

Keywords: Leaching, Pre-treatment, Gold, thiosulfate

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12 Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Three Different Orthodontic Latex Elastic Bands Leached with NaOH Solution

Authors: Surachai Dechkunakorn, Niwat Anuwongnukroh, Wassana Wichai, Thipsupar Pureprasert, Surapich Loykulanant, Chaveewan Kongkaew


Objective: Orthodontic elastic bands made from natural rubber continue to be commonly used due to their favorable characteristics. However, there are concerns associated cytotoxicity due to harmful components released during conventional vulcanization (sulfur-based method). With the co-operation of The National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC) and Faculty of Dentistry Mahidol University, a method was introduced to reduce toxic components by leaching the orthodontic elastic bands with NaOH solution. Objectives: To evaluate the mechanical properties of Thai and commercial orthodontic elastic brands (Ormco and W&H) leached with NaOH solution. Material and methods: Three elastic brands (N =30, size ¼ inch, 4.5 oz.) were tested for mechanical properties in terms of initial extension force, residual force, force loss, breaking strength and maximum displacement using a Universal Testing Machine. Results : Force loss significantly decreased in Thai-LEACH and W&H-LEACH, whereas the values increased in Ormco-LEACH (P < 0.05). The data exhibited a significantly decrease in breaking strength with Thai-LEACH and Ormco-LEACH, whereas all 3 brands revealed a significantly decrease in maximum displacement with the leaching process (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Leaching with NaOH solution is a new method, which can remove toxic components from orthodontic latex elastic bands. However, this process can affect their mechanical properties. Leached elastic bands from Thai had comparable properties with Ormco and have potential to be developed as a promising product.

Keywords: Leaching, Orthodontic, orthodontic elastics, natural rubber latex

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11 Environmental Risk Assessment for Beneficiary Use of Coal Combustion Residues Using Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework

Authors: Brajesh Dubey, D. V. S. Praneeth, V. R. Sankar Cheela


Coal Combustion (CC) residues are the major by-products from thermal power plants. The disposal of ash on to land creates havoc to environment and humans. The leaching of the constituent elements pollutes ground water. Beneficiary use of coal combustion residues in structural components is being investigated as a part of this study. This application reduces stress on the convention materials in the construction industry. The present study involves determination of leaching parameters of the CC residues. Batch and column studies are performed based on Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) protocol. The column studies are conducted to simulate the real time percolation conditions in the field. The structural and environmental studies are performed to determine the usability of CC residues as bricks. The physical, chemical, geo environmental and mechanical properties of the alternate materials are investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy tests were conducted to determine the characteristics of CC residue ash and bricks.

Keywords: Leaching, SEM, leaf, coal combustion residues

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10 Optimization of Leaching Properties of a Low-Grade Copper Ore Using Central Composite Design (CCD)

Authors: Hilary Rutto, Lawrence Koech, Olga Mothibedi


Worldwide demand for copper has led to intensive search for methods of extraction and recovery of copper from different sources. The study investigates the leaching properties of a low-grade copper ore by optimizing the leaching variables using response surface methodology. The effects of key parameters, i.e., temperature, solid to liquid ratio, stirring speed and pH, on the leaching rate constant was investigated using a pH stat apparatus. A Central Composite Design (CCD) of experiments was used to develop a quadratic model which specifically correlates the leaching variables and the rate constant. The results indicated that the model is in good agreement with the experimental data with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.93. The temperature and solid to liquid ratio were found to have the most substantial influence on the leaching rate constant. The optimum operating conditions for copper leaching from the ore were identified as temperature at 65C, solid to liquid ratio at 1.625 and stirring speed of 325 rpm which yielded an average leaching efficiency of 93.16%.

Keywords: Leaching, Copper, CCD, rate constant

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9 Comparative Evaluation of High Pure Mn3O4 Preparation Technique between the Conventional Process from Electrolytic Manganese and a Sustainable Approach Directly from Low-Grade Rhodochrosite

Authors: Fang Lian, Zefang Chenli, Laijun Ma, Lei Mao


Up to now, electrolytic process is a popular way to prepare Mn and MnO2 (EMD) with high purity. However, the conventional preparation process of manganese oxide such as Mn3O4 with high purity from electrolytic manganese metal is characterized by long production-cycle, high-pollution discharge and high energy consumption especially initially from low-grade rhodochrosite, the main resources for exploitation and applications in China. Moreover, Mn3O4 prepared from electrolytic manganese shows large particles, single morphology beyond the control and weak chemical activity. On the other hand, hydrometallurgical method combined with thermal decomposition, hydrothermal synthesis and sol-gel processes has been widely studied because of its high efficiency, low consumption and low cost. But the key problem in direct preparation of manganese oxide series from low-grade rhodochrosite is to remove completely the multiple impurities such as iron, silicon, calcium and magnesium. It is urgent to develop a sustainable approach to high pure manganese oxide series with character of short process, high efficiency, environmentally friendly and economical benefit. In our work, the preparation technique of high pure Mn3O4 directly from low-grade rhodochrosite ore (13.86%) was studied and improved intensively, including the effective leaching process and the short purifying process. Based on the same ion effect, the repeated leaching of rhodochrosite with sulfuric acid is proposed to improve the solubility of Mn2+ and inhibit the dissolution of the impurities Ca2+ and Mg2+. Moreover, the repeated leaching process could make full use of sulfuric acid and lower the cost of the raw material. With the aid of theoretical calculation, Ba(OH)2 was chosen to adjust the pH value of manganese sulfate solution and BaF2 to remove Ca2+ and Mg2+ completely in the process of purifying. Herein, the recovery ratio of manganese and removal ratio of the impurity were evaluated via chemical titration and ICP analysis, respectively. Comparison between conventional preparation technique from electrolytic manganese and a sustainable approach directly from low-grade rhodochrosite have also been done herein. The results demonstrate that the extraction ratio and the recovery ratio of manganese reached 94.3% and 92.7%, respectively. The heavy metal impurities has been decreased to less than 1ppm, and the content of calcium, magnesium and sodium has been decreased to less than 20ppm, which meet standards of high pure reagent for energy and electronic materials. In compare with conventional technique from electrolytic manganese, the power consumption has been reduced to ≤2000 kWh/t(product) in our short-process approach. Moreover, comprehensive recovery rate of manganese increases significantly, and the wastewater generated from our short-process approach contains low content of ammonia/ nitrogen about 500 mg/t(product) and no toxic emissions. Our study contributes to the sustainable application of low-grade manganese ore. Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to the National Science and Technology Support Program of China (No.2015BAB01B02) for financial support to the work.

Keywords: Leaching, manganese oxide, high purity, low-grade rhodochrosite, purifying process, recovery ratio

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8 Ionometallurgy for Recycling Silver in Silicon Solar Panel

Authors: Emmanuel Billy


This work is in the CABRISS project (H2020 projects) which aims at developing innovative cost-effective methods for the extraction of materials from the different sources of PV waste: Si based panels, thin film panels or Si water diluted slurries. Aluminum, silicon, indium, and silver will especially be extracted from these wastes in order to constitute materials feedstock which can be used later in a closed-loop process. The extraction of metals from silicon solar cells is often an energy-intensive process. It requires either smelting or leaching at elevated temperature, or the use of large quantities of strong acids or bases that require energy to produce. The energy input equates to a significant cost and an associated CO2 footprint, both of which it would be desirable to reduce. Thus there is a need to develop more energy-efficient and environmentally-compatible processes. Thus, ‘ionometallurgy’ could offer a new set of environmentally-benign process for metallurgy. This work demonstrates that ionic liquids provide one such method since they can be used to dissolve and recover silver. The overall process associates leaching, recovery and the possibility to re-use the solution in closed-loop process. This study aims to evaluate and compare different ionic liquids to leach and recover silver. An electrochemical analysis is first implemented to define the best system for the Ag dissolution. Effects of temperature, concentration and oxidizing agent are evaluated by this approach. Further, a comparative study between conventional approach (nitric acid, thiourea) and the ionic liquids (Cu and Al) focused on the leaching efficiency is conducted. A specific attention has been paid to the selection of the Ionic Liquids. Electrolytes composed of chelating anions are used to facilitate the lixiviation (Cl, Br, I,), avoid problems dealing with solubility issues of metallic species and of classical additional ligands. This approach reduces the cost of the process and facilitates the re-use of the leaching medium. To define the most suitable ionic liquids, electrochemical experiments have been carried out to evaluate the oxidation potential of silver include in the crystalline solar cells. Then, chemical dissolution of metals for crystalline solar cells have been performed for the most promising ionic liquids. After the chemical dissolution, electrodeposition has been performed to recover silver under a metallic form.

Keywords: Recycling, Leaching, Silver, electrodeposition, ionometallurgy

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7 A Study on Leaching of Toxic Elements of High Strength Concrete Containing Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass as Coarse Aggregate

Authors: Nurul Noraziemah Mohd Pauzi, Muhammad Fauzi Mohd Zain


The rapid advance in the electronic industry has led to the increase amount of the waste cathode ray tube (CRT) devices. The management of CRT waste upon disposal haves become a major issue of environmental concern as it contains toxic elements (i.e. lead, barium, zinc, etc.) which has a risk of leaching if it is not managed appropriately. Past studies have reported regarding the possible use of CRT glass as a part of aggregate in concrete production. However, incorporating waste CRT glass may present an environmental risk via leachability of toxic elements. Accordingly, the preventive measures for reducing the risk was proposed. The current work presented the experimental results regarding potential leaching of toxic elements from four types of concrete mixed, each compromising waste CRT glass as coarse aggregate with different shape and properties. Concentrations of detected elements are measure in the leachates by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Results indicate that the concentration of detected elements were found to be below applicable risk, despite the higher content of toxic elements in CRT glass. Therefore, the used of waste CRT glass as coarse aggregate in hardened concrete does not pose any risk of leachate of heavy metals to the environment.

Keywords: Physical Properties, Leaching, Toxic Elements, recycled CRT glass, coarse aggregate

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6 Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Abu Ghalaga Ilmenite Ore

Authors: I. A. Ibrahim, T. A. Elbarbary, N. Abdelaty, A. T. Kandil, H. K. Farhan


The present work aims to study the leaching of Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore by hydrochloric acid and simultaneous reduction by iron powder method to dissolve its titanium and iron contents. Iron content in the produced liquor is separated by solvent extraction using TBP as a solvent. All parameters affecting the efficiency of the dissolution process were separately studied including the acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio which controls the ilmenite/acid molar ratio, temperature, time and grain size. The optimum conditions at which maximum leaching occur are 30% HCl acid with a solid/liquid ratio of 1/30 at 80 °C for 4 h using ore ground to -350 mesh size. At the same time, all parameters affecting on solvent extraction and stripping of iron content from the produced liquor were studied. Results show that the best extraction is at solvent/solution 1/1 by shaking at 240 RPM for 45 minutes at 30 °C whereas best striping of iron at H₂O/solvent 2/1.

Keywords: Leaching, ilmenite ore, titanium solvent extraction, Abu Ghalaga ilmenite ore

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5 Determination of Optimum Conditions for the Leaching of Oxidized Copper Ores with Ammonium Nitrate

Authors: Javier Paul Montalvo Andia, Adriana Larrea Valdivia, Adolfo Pillihuaman Zambrano


The most common lixiviant in the leaching process of copper minerals is H₂SO₄, however, the current situation requires more environmentally friendly reagents and in certain situations that have a lower consumption due to the presence of undesirable gangue as muscovite or kaolinite that can make the process unfeasible. The present work studied the leaching of an oxidized copper mineral in an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate, in order to obtain the optimum leaching conditions of the copper contained in the malachite mineral from Peru. The copper ore studied comes from a deposit in southern Peru and was characterized by X-ray diffractometer, inductively coupled-plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The experiments were developed in batch reactor of 600 mL where the parameters as; temperature, pH, ammonium nitrate concentration, particle size and stirring speed were controlled according to experimental planning. The sample solution was analyzed for copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). A simulation in the HSC Chemistry 6.0 program showed that the predominance of the copper compounds of a Cu-H₂O aqueous system is altered by the presence in the system of ammonium complexes, the compound being thermodynamically more stable Cu(NH3)₄²⁺, which predominates in pH ranges from 8.5 to 10 at a temperature of 25 °C. The optimum conditions for copper leaching of the malachite mineral were a stirring speed of 600 rpm, an ammonium nitrate concentration of 4M, a particle diameter of 53 um and temperature of 62 °C. These results showed that the leaching of copper increases with increasing concentration of the ammonium solution, increasing the stirring rate, increasing the temperature and decreasing the particle diameter. Finally, the recovery of copper in optimum conditions was above 80%.

Keywords: Leaching, copper oxide, malachite, ammonium nitrate

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4 The Interactions between Phosphorus Leaching and Lime Application in Undisturbed Soil Columns with Different Soil Textures

Authors: Faezeh Eslamian, Zhiming Qi, Michael J. Tate


Phosphorus losses from agricultural fields through leaching is one of the main contributors to eutrophication of lakes in Quebec as well as North America. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the application of high calcium hydrated lime as a soil amendment in reducing the subsurface transport of phosphorus to water bodies by studying the interactions between phosphorus leaching and lime application in three common agricultural soil textures (sandy loam, loam and clay loam) in Quebec. For this purpose, 6 intact soil columns of 10 cm diameter and 20 cm deep were taken from each of the three different soil textured agricultural fields. Lime (high calcium hydrated lime) was applied to the top 5 cm of half of the intact soil columns while the rest were left as controls. The columns were leached with artificial rainwater in-consecutively at a rate of 3 mm h-1 over a 90-day period. The total amount of water added was equal to the average total rainfall of the region in fall. The leachate samples were collected daily and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron. The results showed that lime was able to significantly reduce dissolved reactive phosphorus concentrations in the leachates by 70 and 40 percent in sandy loam and loam soil columns, respectively, while phosphorus concentration in the clay loam soil leachates were increased by 40 percent. The calcium in lime has P-binding capabilities. Soil chemical properties in sandy and loamy soils can affect phosphorus leaching, whereas, transport mechanisms in clay soils with macropores dominate phosphorus leaching behaviors. The presence of preferential pathways and cracks in the clay soil columns has led to a quick transport of phosphorus through the soil and the less contact time with the soil matrix, therefore, causing less opportunity for P sorption and larger P release. Application of lime to agricultural fields can be considered as a promising measure in mitigating phosphorus loss from sandy loam and loam soils.

Keywords: Leaching, lime, Phosphorus, soil texture

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3 Stabilization of Medical Waste Incineration Fly Ash in Cement Mortar Matrix

Authors: Tanvir Ahmed, Musfira Rahman, Rumpa Chowdhury


We performed laboratory experiments to assess the suitability of using medical waste incineration fly ash in cement as a construction material based on the engineering properties of fly ash-cement matrix and the leaching potential of toxic heavy metals from the stabilized mix. Fly ash-cement samples were prepared with different proportions of fly ash (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight) in the laboratory controlled conditions. The solidified matrix exhibited a compressive strength from 3950 to 4980 psi when fly ash is mixed in varying proportions. The 28-day compressive strength has been found to decrease with the increase in fly ash content, but it meets the minimum requirement of compressive strength for cement-mortar. Soundness test results for cement-mortar mixes having up to 15% fly ash. Final and initial setting times of cement have been found to generally increase with fly ash content. Water requirement (for normal consistency) also increased with the increase in fly ash content in cement. Based on physical properties of the cement-mortar matrix it is recommended that up to 10% (by weight) medical waste incineration fly ash can be incorporated for producing cement-mortar of optimum quality. Leaching behaviours of several targeted heavy metals (As, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg and Zn) were analyzed using Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) on fly ash and solidified fly ash-cement matrix. It was found that the leached concentrations of As, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn were reduced by 80.13%, 89.47%, 33.33% and 23.9% respectively for 10% fly ash incorporated cement-mortar matrix compared to that of original fly ash. The leached concentrations of heavy metals were from the matrix were far below the EPA land disposal limits. These results suggest that the solidified fly ash incorporated cement-mortar matrix can effectively confine and immobilize the heavy metals contained in the fly ash.

Keywords: Waste Management, Leaching, fly ash, cement-mortar

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2 Recovery of Au and Other Metals from Old Electronic Components by Leaching and Liquid Extraction Process

Authors: Tomasz Smolinski, Irena Herdzik-Koniecko, Marta Pyszynska, M. Rogowski


Old electronic components can be easily found nowadays. Significant quantities of valuable metals such as gold, silver or copper are used for the production of advanced electronic devices. Old useless electronic device slowly became a new source of precious metals, very often more efficient than natural. For example, it is possible to recover more gold from 1-ton personal computers than seventeen tons of gold ore. It makes urban mining industry very profitable and necessary for sustainable development. For the recovery of metals from waste of electronic equipment, various treatment options based on conventional physical, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes are available. In this group hydrometallurgy processes with their relatively low capital cost, low environmental impact, potential for high metal recoveries and suitability for small scale applications, are very promising options. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology has great experience in hydrometallurgy processes especially focused on recovery metals from industrial and agricultural wastes. At the moment, urban mining project is carried out. The method of effective recovery of valuable metals from central processing units (CPU) components has been developed. The principal processes such as acidic leaching and solvent extraction were used for precious metals recovery from old processors and graphic cards. Electronic components were treated by acidic solution at various conditions. Optimal acid concentration, time of the process and temperature were selected. Precious metals have been extracted to the aqueous phase. At the next step, metals were selectively extracted by organic solvents such as oximes or tributyl phosphate (TBP) etc. Multistage mixer-settler equipment was used. The process was optimized.

Keywords: Leaching, Metal Recovery, Hydrometallurgy, Electronic Waste, solvent extraction

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1 The Leaching Kinetics of Zinc from Industrial Zinc Slag Waste

Authors: Hilary Rutto


The investigation was aimed at determining the extent at which the zinc will be extracted from secondary sources generated from galvanising process using dilute sulphuric acid under controlled laboratory conditions of temperature, solid-liquid ratio, and agitation rate. The leaching experiment was conducted for a period of 2 hours and to total zinc extracted calculated in relation to the amount of zinc dissolved at a unit time in comparison to the initial zinc content of the zinc ash. Sulphuric acid was found to be an effective leaching agent with an overall extraction of 91.1% when concentration is at 2M, and solid/liquid ratio kept at 1g/200mL leaching solution and temperature set at 65ᵒC while slurry agitation is at 450rpm. The leaching mechanism of zinc ash with sulphuric acid was conformed well to the shrinking core model.

Keywords: Leaching, Kinetics, shrinking core model, zinc slag

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