Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Leachate Related Abstracts

10 Treatment Process of Sludge from Leachate with an Activated Sludge System and Extended Aeration System

Authors: A. Chávez, A. Rodríguez, F. Pinzón


Society is concerned about measures of environmental, economic and social impacts generated in the solid waste disposal. These places of confinement, also known as landfills, are locations where problems of pollution and damage to human health are reduced. They are technically designed and operated, using engineering principles, storing the residue in a small area, compact it to reduce volume and covering them with soil layers. Problems preventing liquid (leachate) and gases produced by the decomposition of organic matter. Despite planning and site selection for disposal, monitoring and control of selected processes, remains the dilemma of the leachate as extreme concentration of pollutants, devastating soil, flora and fauna; aggressive processes requiring priority attention. A biological technology is the activated sludge system, used for tributaries with high pollutant loads. Since transforms biodegradable dissolved and particulate matter into CO2, H2O and sludge; transform suspended and no Settleable solids; change nutrients as nitrogen and phosphorous; and degrades heavy metals. The microorganisms that remove organic matter in the processes are in generally facultative heterotrophic bacteria, forming heterogeneous populations. Is possible to find unicellular fungi, algae, protozoa and rotifers, that process the organic carbon source and oxygen, as well as the nitrogen and phosphorus because are vital for cell synthesis. The mixture of the substrate, in this case sludge leachate, molasses and wastewater is maintained ventilated by mechanical aeration diffusers. Considering as the biological processes work to remove dissolved material (< 45 microns), generating biomass, easily obtained by decantation processes. The design consists of an artificial support and aeration pumps, favoring develop microorganisms (denitrifying) using oxygen (O) with nitrate, resulting in nitrogen (N) in the gas phase. Thus, avoiding negative effects of the presence of ammonia or phosphorus. Overall the activated sludge system includes about 8 hours of hydraulic retention time, which does not prevent the demand for nitrification, which occurs on average in a value of MLSS 3,000 mg/L. The extended aeration works with times greater than 24 hours detention; with ratio of organic load/biomass inventory under 0.1; and average stay time (sludge age) more than 8 days. This project developed a pilot system with sludge leachate from Doña Juana landfill - RSDJ –, located in Bogota, Colombia, where they will be subjected to a process of activated sludge and extended aeration through a sequential Bach reactor - SBR, to be dump in hydric sources, avoiding ecological collapse. The system worked with a dwell time of 8 days, 30 L capacity, mainly by removing values of BOD and COD above 90%, with initial data of 1720 mg/L and 6500 mg/L respectively. Motivating the deliberate nitrification is expected to be possible commercial use diffused aeration systems for sludge leachate from landfills.

Keywords: Leachate, Landfill, Sludge, SBR

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9 Optimization of Fenton Process for the Treatment of Young Municipal Leachate

Authors: Bouchra Wassate, Younes Karhat, Khadija El Falaki


Leachate is a source of surface water and groundwater contamination if it has not been pretreated. Indeed, due to its complex structure and its pollution load make its treatment extremely difficult to achieve the standard limits required. The objective of this work is to show the interest of advanced oxidation processes on leachate treatment of urban waste containing high concentrations of organic pollutants. The efficiency of Fenton (Fe2+ +H2O2 + H+) reagent for young leachate recovered from collection trucks household waste in the city of Casablanca, Morocco, was evaluated with the objectives of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and discoloration reductions. The optimization of certain physicochemical parameters (initial pH value, reaction time, and [Fe2+], [H2O2]/ [Fe2+] ratio) has yielded good results in terms of reduction of COD and discoloration of the leachate.

Keywords: Leachate, COD removal, color removal, Fenton process, oxidation process

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8 Estimation of Leachate Generation from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in Selangor

Authors: Tengku Nilam Baizura, Noor Zalina Mahmood


In Malaysia, landfilling is the most preferred method and most of it does not have the proper leachate treatment system which can cause environmental problems. Leachate is the major factor to river water pollution since most landfills are located near the river which is the main water resource for the country. The study aimed to estimate leachate production from landfills in Selangor. A simple mathematical modelling was used for the calculation of annual leachate volume. The estimate of identified landfill area (A) using Google Earth was multiplied by the annual rainfall (R). The product is expressed as volume (V). The data indicate that the leachate production is high even it is fully closed. It is important to design the efficient landfill and proper leachate treatment processes especially for the old/closed landfill. Extensive monitoring will be required to predict future impact.

Keywords: Leachate, Landfill, Waste Disposal, municipal solid waste management

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7 Municipal Leachate Treatment by Using Polyaluminium Chloride as a Coagulant

Authors: Syeda Azeem Unnisa


The present study was undertaken at Jawaharnagar Solid Waste Municipal Dumpsite, Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, Telangana State, India in 2017 which generates 90,000 litres of leachate per day. The main objective of the leachate treatment was to remove organic compounds like color, suspended solids, ammonia and COD by coagulation-flocculation using polyaluminum chloride (PAC) as coagulant which has higher coagulant efficiency and relative low cost compared to the conventional coagulants. Jar test apparatus was used to conduct experiments for pH 7, rapid mixing speed 150 rpm for 3 minute, slow mixing speed 30 rpm for 20 minute and the settling time of 30 minute for different dosage of PAC (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0 g/L). The highest percentage of removal of suspended solids, color, COD and ammonical nitrogen are 97%, 96%, 60% and 37% with PAC optimum dose of 2.0 g/l. The results indicate that the PAC was effective in leachate treatment which is very much suitable for high toxicity of waste and economically feasible for Indian conditions. The treated water can be utilized for other purpose apart from drinking.

Keywords: treatment, Leachate, coagulant, polyaluminium chloride

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6 Assessment of Surface Water Quality near Landfill Sites Using a Water Pollution Index

Authors: Alejandro Cittadino, David Allende


Landfilling of municipal solid waste is a common waste management practice in Argentina as in many parts of the world. There is extensive scientific literature on the potential negative effects of landfill leachates on the environment, so it’s necessary to be rigorous with the control and monitoring systems. Due to the specific municipal solid waste composition in Argentina, local landfill leachates contain large amounts of organic matter (biodegradable, but also refractory to biodegradation), as well as ammonia-nitrogen, small trace of some heavy metals, and inorganic salts. In order to investigate the surface water quality in the Reconquista river adjacent to the Norte III landfill, water samples both upstream and downstream the dumpsite are quarterly collected and analyzed for 43 parameters including organic matter, heavy metals, and inorganic salts, as required by the local standards. The objective of this study is to apply a water quality index that considers the leachate characteristics in order to determine the quality status of the watercourse through the landfill. The water pollution index method has been widely used in water quality assessments, particularly rivers, and it has played an increasingly important role in water resource management, since it provides a number simple enough for the public to understand, that states the overall water quality at a certain location and time. The chosen water quality index (ICA) is based on the values of six parameters: dissolved oxygen (in mg/l and percent saturation), temperature, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), ammonia-nitrogen and chloride (Cl-) concentration. The index 'ICA' was determined both upstream and downstream the Reconquista river, being the rating scale between 0 (very poor water quality) and 10 (excellent water quality). The monitoring results indicated that the water quality was unaffected by possible leachate runoff since the index scores upstream and downstream were ranked in the same category, although in general, most of the samples were classified as having poor water quality according to the index’s scale. The annual averaged ICA index scores (computed quarterly) were 4.9, 3.9, 4.4 and 5.0 upstream and 3.9, 5.0, 5.1 and 5.0 downstream the river during the study period between 2014 and 2017. Additionally, the water quality seemed to exhibit distinct seasonal variations, probably due to annual precipitation patterns in the study area. The ICA water quality index appears to be appropriate to evaluate landfill impacts since it accounts mainly for organic pollution and inorganic salts and the absence of heavy metals in the local leachate composition, however, the inclusion of other parameters could be more decisive in discerning the affected stream reaches from the landfill activities. A future work may consider adding to the index other parameters like total organic carbon (TOC) and total suspended solids (TSS) since they are present in the leachate in high concentrations.

Keywords: Leachate, Landfill, Surface Water, water quality index

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5 Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Groundwater Due to Leachate Migration from an Open Dumping Site

Authors: Kali Prasad Sarma


Indiscriminate disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in open dumping site is a common scenario in developing countries like India which poses a risk to the environment as well as human health. The objective of the present investigation was to find out the concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Cd) and other physicochemical parameters of leachate and soil collected from an open dumping site of Tezpur town, Assam, India and its associated potential ecological risk. Tezpur is an urban agglomeration coming under the category of Class I UAs/Towns with a population of 105,377 as per data released by Government of India for Census 2011. Impact of the leachate on the groundwater was also addressed in our study. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined using ICP-OES. Energy dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDS) microanalysis was also conducted to see the presence of the studied metals in the soil. X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were also used to identify dominant minerals present in the soil samples. The trend of measured heavy metals in the soil samples was found in the following order: Mn > Pb > Cu > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cd. The assessment of heavy metal contamination in the soil was carried out by calculating enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (Cfi), degree of contamination (Cd), pollution load index (PLI) and ecological risk factor (Eri). The study showed that the concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Cd were much higher than their respective average shale value and the EF of the soil samples depicted very severe enrichment for Pb, Cu, and Cd; moderate enrichment for Cr and Zn. Calculated Igeo values indicated that the soil is moderate to strongly contaminated with Pb and uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with Cd and Cu. The Cfi value for Pb indicates a very strong contamination level of the metal in the soil. The Cfi values for Cu and Cd were 2.37 and 1.65 respectively indicating moderate contamination level. To apportion the possible sources of heavy metal contamination in soil, principal components analysis (PCA) has been adopted. From the leachate, heavy metals are accumulated at the dumping site soil which could easily percolate through the soil and reach the groundwater. The possible relation of groundwater contamination due to leachate percolation was examined by analyzing the heavy metal concentrations in groundwater with respect to distance from the dumping site. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in groundwater (at a distance of 20m from dumping site) exceeded the permissible limit for drinking water as set by WHO. Occurrence of elevated concentration of potentially toxic heavy metals such as Pb and Cd in groundwater and soil are much environmental concern as it is detrimental to human health and ecosystem.

Keywords: Groundwater, Leachate, heavy metal contamination, open dumping site

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4 Effect of Leachate Presence on Shear Strength Parameters of Bentonite-Amended Zeolite Soil

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Keshavarz Hedayati


Over recent years, due to increased population and increased waste production, groundwater protection has become more important, therefore, designing engineered barrier systems such as landfill liners to prevent the entry of leachate into groundwater should be done with greater accuracy. These measures generally involve the application of low permeability soils such as clays. Bentonite is a natural clay with low permeability which makes it a suitable soil for using in liners. Also zeolite with high cation exchange capacity can help to reduce of hazardous materials risk. Bentonite expands when wet, absorbing as much as several times its dry mass in water. This property may effect on some structural properties of soil such as shear strength. In present study, shear strength parameters are determined by both leachates polluted and not polluted bentonite-amended zeolite soil with mixing rates (B/Z) of 5%-10% and 20% with unconfined compression test to obtain the differences. It is shown that leachate presence causes reduction in resistance in general.

Keywords: Leachate, bentonite, unconfined compression test, shear strength parameters

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3 Geospatial and Statistical Evidences of Non-Engineered Landfill Leachate Effects on Groundwater Quality in a Highly Urbanised Area of Nigeria

Authors: David A. Olasehinde, Peter I. Olasehinde, Segun M. A. Adelana, Dapo O. Olasehinde


An investigation was carried out on underground water system dynamics within Ilorin metropolis to monitor the subsurface flow and its corresponding pollution. Africa population growth rate is the highest among the regions of the world, especially in urban areas. A corresponding increase in waste generation and a change in waste composition from predominantly organic to non-organic waste has also been observed. Percolation of leachate from non-engineered landfills, the chief means of waste disposal in many of its cities, constitutes a threat to the underground water bodies. Ilorin city, a transboundary town in southwestern Nigeria, is a ready microcosm of Africa’s unique challenge. In spite of the fact that groundwater is naturally protected from common contaminants such as bacteria as the subsurface provides natural attenuation process, groundwater samples have been noted to however possesses relatively higher dissolved chemical contaminants such as bicarbonate, sodium, and chloride which poses a great threat to environmental receptors and human consumption. The Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool to illustrate, subsurface dynamics and the corresponding pollutant indicators. Forty-four sampling points were selected around known groundwater pollutant, major old dumpsites without landfill liners. The results of the groundwater flow directions and the corresponding contaminant transport were presented using expert geospatial software. The experimental results were subjected to four descriptive statistical analyses, namely: principal component analysis, Pearson correlation analysis, scree plot analysis, and Ward cluster analysis. Regression model was also developed aimed at finding functional relationships that can adequately relate or describe the behaviour of water qualities and the hypothetical factors landfill characteristics that may influence them namely; distance of source of water body from dumpsites, static water level of groundwater, subsurface permeability (inferred from hydraulic gradient), and soil infiltration. The regression equations developed were validated using the graphical approach. Underground water seems to flow from the northern portion of Ilorin metropolis down southwards transporting contaminants. Pollution pattern in the study area generally assumed a bimodal pattern with the major concentration of the chemical pollutants in the underground watershed and the recharge. The correlation between contaminant concentrations and the spread of pollution indicates that areas of lower subsurface permeability display a higher concentration of dissolved chemical content. The principal component analysis showed that conductivity, suspended solids, calcium hardness, total dissolved solids, total coliforms, and coliforms were the chief contaminant indicators in the underground water system in the study area. Pearson correlation revealed a high correlation of electrical conductivity for many parameters analyzed. In the same vein, the regression models suggest that the heavier the molecular weight of a chemical contaminant of a pollutant from a point source, the greater the pollution of the underground water system at a short distance. The study concludes that the associative properties of landfill have a significant effect on groundwater quality in the study area.

Keywords: Leachate, Groundwater Pollution, Linear Regression, principal component, dumpsite

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2 Effect of Naameh Landfill (Lebanon) on Groundwater Quality of the Surrounding Area

Authors: Rana Sawaya, Jalal Halwani, Isam Bashour, Nada Nehme


Mismanagement of municipal solid wastes in Lebanon might lead to serious environmental problems, especially that a big portion of mixed wastes including putrescible is transferred to Naameh landfill. One of the consequences of municipal solid waste deposition is the production of landfill leachate, which if unproperly treated will threaten the main crucial matrices such as soil, water, and air. The main aim of this one of a kind study is to assess the risk posed to groundwater as a result of leachate infiltration on off-site wells especially after stoppage of Naameh landfill's operation end of the year 2016 and initiation of the capping process which is still ongoing and will be finalized in December 2019. For this purpose, nine representative points around the landfill were selected to undergo physicochemical and microbial analysis on a seasonal basis (every three months). The study extended from the year 2014 until the end of the year 2016 (closure of Naameh landfill). The preliminary data obtained are statistically analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and was found in conformity with international and Lebanese norms. Thus, the study will be extended an additional year, especially after the finalization of capping and the results obtained, will enable us to propose new techniques and tools (treatment systems) in water resources management depending on the direction of its usage (domestic, irrigation, drinking).

Keywords: Groundwater, Leachate, Solid Waste, Contamination, Lebanon

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1 Preliminary Geophysical Assessment of Soil Contaminants around Wacot Rice Factory Argungu, North-Western Nigeria

Authors: A. I. Augie, Y. Alhassan, U. Z. Magawata


Geophysical investigation was carried out at wacot rice factory Argungu north-western Nigeria, using the 2D electrical resistivity method. The area falls between latitude 12˚44′23ʺN to 12˚44′50ʺN and longitude 4032′18′′E to 4032′39′′E covering a total area of about 1.85 km. Two profiles were carried out with Wenner configuration using resistivity meter (Ohmega). The data obtained from the study area were modeled using RES2DIVN software which gave an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity data. The inverse resistivity models of the profiles show the high resistivity values ranging from 208 Ωm to 651 Ωm. These high resistivity values in the overburden were due to dryness and compactness of the strata that lead to consolidation, which is an indication that the area is free from leachate contaminations. However, from the inverse model, there are regions of low resistivity values (1 Ωm to 18 Ωm), these zones were observed and identified as clayey and the most contaminated zones. The regions of low resistivity thereby indicated the leachate plume or the highly leachate concentrated zones due to similar resistivity values in both clayey and leachate. The regions of leachate are mainly from the factory into the surrounding area and its groundwater. The maximum leachate infiltration was found at depths 1 m to 15.9 m (P1) and 6 m to 15.9 m (P2) vertically, as well as distance along the profiles from 67 m to 75 m (P1), 155 m to 180 m (P1), and 115 m to 192 m (P2) laterally.

Keywords: Electrical, Groundwater, Soil, Leachate, resistivity, contaminant

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