Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

lattice Boltzmann method Related Abstracts

11 Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer in Laser Irradiated Biological Samplebased on Dual-Phase-Lag Heat Conduction Model Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Shashank Patidar, Sumit Kumar, Atul Srivastava, Suneet Singh


Present work is concerned with the numerical investigation of thermal response of biological tissues during laser-based photo-thermal therapy for destroying cancerous/abnormal cells with minimal damage to the surrounding normal cells. Light propagation through the biological sample is mathematically modelled by transient radiative transfer equation. In the present work, application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method is extended to analyze transport of short-pulse radiation in a participating medium.In order to determine the two-dimensional temperature distribution inside the tissue medium, the RTE has been coupled with Penne’s bio-heat transfer equation based on Fourier’s law by several researchers in last few years.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, transient radiation transfer equation, dual phase lag model

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10 Sinusoidal Roughness Elements in a Square Cavity

Authors: Muhammad Yousaf, Shoaib Usman


Numerical studies were conducted using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the natural convection in a square cavity in the presence of roughness. An algorithm basedon a single relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was developed. Roughness was introduced on both the hot and cold walls in the form of sinusoidal roughness elements. The study was conducted for a Newtonian fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The range of Ra number was explored from 103 to 106 in a laminar region. Thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of fluid was analyzed using a differentially heated square cavity with roughness elements present on both the hot and cold wall. Neumann boundary conditions were introduced on horizontal walls with vertical walls as isothermal. The roughness elements were at the same boundary condition as corresponding walls. Computational algorithm was validated against previous benchmark studies performed with different numerical methods, and a good agreement was found to exist. Results indicate that the maximum reduction in the average heat transfer was16.66 percent at Ra number 105.

Keywords: natural convection, roughness, Rayleigh number, nusselt number, lattice Boltzmann method

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9 Effects of Roughness Elements on Heat Transfer During Natural Convection

Authors: M. Yousaf, S. Usman


The present study focused on the investigation of the effects of roughness elements on heat transfer during natural convection in a rectangular cavity using a numerical technique. Roughness elements were introduced on the bottom hot wall with a normalized amplitude (A*/H) of 0.1. Thermal and hydrodynamic behavior was studied using a computational method based on Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Numerical studies were performed for a laminar natural convection in the range of Rayleigh number (Ra) from 103 to 106 for a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio (L/H) 2 with a fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The presence of the sinusoidal roughness elements caused a minimum to the maximum decrease in the heat transfer as 7% to 17% respectively compared to the smooth enclosure. The results are presented for mean Nusselt number (Nu), isotherms, and streamlines.

Keywords: natural convection, surface roughness, Rayleigh number, nusselt number, lattice Boltzmann method

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8 Coupling of Two Discretization Schemes for the Lattice Boltzmann Equation

Authors: Tobias Horstmann, Thomas Le Garrec, Daniel-Ciprian Mincu, Emmanuel Lévêque


Despite the efficiency and low dissipation of the stream-collide formulation of the Lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm, which is nowadays implemented in many commercial LBM solvers, there are certain situations, e.g. mesh transition, in which a classical finite-volume or finite-difference formulation of the LB algorithm still bear advantages. In this paper, we present an algorithm that combines the node-based streaming of the distribution functions with a second-order finite volume discretization of the advection term of the BGK-LB equation on a uniform D2Q9 lattice. It is shown that such a coupling is possible for a multi-domain approach as long as the overlap, or buffer zone, between two domains, is achieved on at least 2Δx. This also implies that a direct coupling (without buffer zone) of a stream-collide and finite-volume LB algorithm on a single grid is not stable. The critical parameter in the coupling is the CFL number equal to 1 that is imposed by the stream-collide algorithm. Nevertheless, an explicit filtering step on the finite-volume domain can stabilize the solution. In a further investigation, we demonstrate how such a coupling can be used for mesh transition, resulting in an intrinsic conservation of mass over the interface.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, algorithm coupling, finite volume formulation, grid refinement

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7 Parametric Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Abir Yahya, Hacen Dhahri, Khalifa Slimi


The present paper deals with a numerical simulation of temperature field inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components. The temperature distribution is investigated using a co-flow planar SOFC comprising the air and fuel channel and two-ceramic electrodes, anode and cathode, separated by a dense ceramic electrolyte. The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used for the numerical simulation of the physical problem. The effects of inlet temperature, anode thermal conductivity and current density on temperature distribution are discussed. It was found that temperature distribution is very sensitive to the inlet temperature and the current density.

Keywords: temperature, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, lattice Boltzmann method, heat sources

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6 Investigating the Effects of Thermal and Surface Energy on the Two-Dimensional Flow Characteristics of Oil in Water Mixture between Two Parallel Plates: A Lattice Boltzmann Method Study

Authors: W. Hasan, H. Farhat


A hybrid quasi-steady thermal lattice Boltzmann model was used to study the combined effects of temperature and contact angle on the movement of slugs and droplets of oil in water (O/W) system flowing between two parallel plates. The model static contact angle due to the deposition of the O/W droplet on a flat surface with simulated hydrophilic characteristic at different fluid temperatures, matched very well the proposed theoretical calculation. Furthermore, the model was used to simulate the dynamic behavior of droplets and slugs deposited on the domain’s upper and lower surfaces, while subjected to parabolic flow conditions. The model accurately simulated the contact angle hysteresis for the dynamic droplets cases. It was also shown that at elevated temperatures the required power to transport the mixture diminished remarkably.

Keywords: Thermal, Contact angle, lattice Boltzmann method, Gunstensen model, high viscosity ratio

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5 Solid Particles Transport and Deposition Prediction in a Turbulent Impinging Jet Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method and a Probabilistic Model on GPU

Authors: Ali Abdul Kadhim, Fue Lien


Solid particle distribution on an impingement surface has been simulated utilizing a graphical processing unit (GPU). In-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code has been developed to investigate a 3D turbulent impinging jet using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) in conjunction with large eddy simulation (LES) and the multiple relaxation time (MRT) models. This paper proposed an improvement in the LBM-cellular automata (LBM-CA) probabilistic method. In the current model, the fluid flow utilizes the D3Q19 lattice, while the particle model employs the D3Q27 lattice. The particle numbers are defined at the same regular LBM nodes, and transport of particles from one node to its neighboring nodes are determined in accordance with the particle bulk density and velocity by considering all the external forces. The previous models distribute particles at each time step without considering the local velocity and the number of particles at each node. The present model overcomes the deficiencies of the previous LBM-CA models and, therefore, can better capture the dynamic interaction between particles and the surrounding turbulent flow field. Despite the increasing popularity of LBM-MRT-CA model in simulating complex multiphase fluid flows, this approach is still expensive in term of memory size and computational time required to perform 3D simulations. To improve the throughput of each simulation, a single GeForce GTX TITAN X GPU is used in the present work. The CUDA parallel programming platform and the CuRAND library are utilized to form an efficient LBM-CA algorithm. The methodology was first validated against a benchmark test case involving particle deposition on a square cylinder confined in a duct. The flow was unsteady and laminar at Re=200 (Re is the Reynolds number), and simulations were conducted for different Stokes numbers. The present LBM solutions agree well with other results available in the open literature. The GPU code was then used to simulate the particle transport and deposition in a turbulent impinging jet at Re=10,000. The simulations were conducted for L/D=2,4 and 6, where L is the nozzle-to-surface distance and D is the jet diameter. The effect of changing the Stokes number on the particle deposition profile was studied at different L/D ratios. For comparative studies, another in-house serial CPU code was also developed, coupling LBM with the classical Lagrangian particle dispersion model. Agreement between results obtained with LBM-CA and LBM-Lagrangian models and the experimental data is generally good. The present GPU approach achieves a speedup ratio of about 350 against the serial code running on a single CPU.

Keywords: Multi-Phase Flow, CUDA, LES, lattice Boltzmann method, probabilistic model, GPU parallel programming, MRT

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4 Implementation of a Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density Ratios

Authors: Norjan Jumaa, David Graham


We present a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) for multiphase flows with high viscosity and density ratios. The motion of the interface between fluids is modelled by solving the Cahn-Hilliard (CH) equation with LBM. Incompressibility of the velocity fields in each phase is imposed by using a pressure correction scheme. We use a unified LBM approach with separate formulations for the phase field, the pressure less Naiver-Stokes (NS) equations and the pressure Poisson equation required for correction of the velocity field. The implementation has been verified for various test case. Here, we present results for some complex flow problems including two dimensional single and multiple mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability and we obtain good results when comparing with those in the literature. The main focus of our work is related to interactions between aerated or non-aerated waves and structures so we also present results for both high viscosity and low viscosity waves.

Keywords: Multiphase Flows, waves, lattice Boltzmann method, Rayleigh-Taylor instability

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3 Implementation of a Lattice Boltzmann Method for Pulsatile Flow with Moment Based Boundary Condition

Authors: Zainab A. Bu Sinnah, David I. Graham


The Lattice Boltzmann Method has been developed and used to simulate both steady and unsteady fluid flow problems such as turbulent flows, multiphase flow and flows in the vascular system. As an example, the study of blood flow and its properties can give a greater understanding of atherosclerosis and the flow parameters which influence this phenomenon. The blood flow in the vascular system is driven by a pulsating pressure gradient which is produced by the heart. As a very simple model of this, we simulate plane channel flow under periodic forcing. This pulsatile flow is essentially the standard Poiseuille flow except that the flow is driven by the periodic forcing term. Moment boundary conditions, where various moments of the particle distribution function are specified, are applied at solid walls. We used a second-order single relaxation time model and investigated grid convergence using two distinct approaches. In the first approach, we fixed both Reynolds and Womersley numbers and varied relaxation time with grid size. In the second approach, we fixed the Womersley number and relaxation time. The expected second-order convergence was obtained for the second approach. For the first approach, however, the numerical method converged, but not necessarily to the appropriate analytical result. An explanation is given for these observations.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, pulsatile flow, single relaxation time, moment based boundary condition

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2 Numerical Modeling and Prediction of Nanoscale Transport Phenomena in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Catalyst Layers by the Lattice Boltzmann Simulation

Authors: Seungho Shin, Keunwoo Choi, Ali Akbar, Sukkee Um


In this study, the nanoscale transport properties and catalyst utilization of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) catalyst layers are computationally predicted by the three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann simulation based on the quasi-random nanostructural model in pursuance of fuel cell catalyst performance improvement. A series of catalyst layers are randomly generated with statistical significance at the 95% confidence level to reflect the heterogeneity of the catalyst layer nanostructures. The nanoscale gas transport phenomena inside the catalyst layers are simulated by the D3Q19 (i.e., three-dimensional, 19 velocities) lattice Boltzmann method, and the corresponding mass transport characteristics are mathematically modeled in terms of structural properties. Considering the nanoscale reactant transport phenomena, a transport-based effective catalyst utilization factor is defined and statistically analyzed to determine the structure-transport influence on catalyst utilization. The tortuosity of the reactant mass transport path of VACNT catalyst layers is directly calculated from the streaklines. Subsequently, the corresponding effective mass diffusion coefficient is statistically predicted by applying the pre-estimated tortuosity factors to the Knudsen diffusion coefficient in the VACNT catalyst layers. The statistical estimation results clearly indicate that the morphological structures of VACNT catalyst layers reduce the tortuosity of reactant mass transport path when compared to conventional catalyst layer and significantly improve consequential effective mass diffusion coefficient of VACNT catalyst layer. Furthermore, catalyst utilization of the VACNT catalyst layer is substantially improved by enhanced mass diffusion and electric current paths despite the relatively poor interconnections of the ion transport paths.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, nano transport phenomena, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, vertically aligned carbon nanotube

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1 Investigation on Ultrahigh Heat Flux of Nanoporous Membrane Evaporation Using Dimensionless Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: W. H. Zheng, J. Li, F. J. Hong


Thin liquid film evaporation in ultrathin nanoporous membranes, which reduce the viscous resistance while still maintaining high capillary pressure and efficient liquid delivery, is a promising thermal management approach for high-power electronic devices cooling. Given the challenges and technical limitations of experimental studies for accurate interface temperature sensing, complex manufacturing process, and short duration of membranes, a dimensionless lattice Boltzmann method capable of restoring thermophysical properties of working fluid is particularly derived. The evaporation of R134a to its pure vapour ambient in nanoporous membranes with the pore diameter of 80nm, thickness of 472nm, and three porosities of 0.25, 0.33 and 0.5 are numerically simulated. The numerical results indicate that the highest heat transfer coefficient is about 1740kW/m²·K; the highest heat flux is about 1.49kW/cm² with only about the wall superheat of 8.59K in the case of porosity equals to 0.5. The dissipated heat flux scaled with porosity because of the increasing effective evaporative area. Additionally, the self-regulation of the shape and curvature of the meniscus under different operating conditions is also observed. This work shows a promising approach to forecast the membrane performance for different geometry and working fluids.

Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, high heat flux, ultrathin nanoporous membrane, thin film evaporation

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