Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

lateritic soil Related Abstracts

8 Experimental Investigation on Utility and Suitability of Lateritic Soil as a Pavement Material

Authors: J. Hemanth, B. G. Shivaprakash, S. V. Dinesh


The locally available Lateritic soil in Dakshina Kanadda and Udupi districts are traditionally being used as building blocks for construction purpose but they do not meet the conventional requirements (L L ≤ 25% & P I ≤6%) and desired four days soaked CBR value to be used as a sub-base course material in pavements. In order to improve its properties to satisfy the Atterberg’s Limits, the soil is blended with sand, cement and quarry dust at various percentages and also to meet the CBR strength requirements, individual and combined gradation of various sized aggregates along with Laterite soil and other filler materials has been done for coarse graded granular sub-base materials (Grading II and Grading III). The effect of additives blended with lateritic soil and aggregates are studied in terms of Atterberg’s limits, compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR), and permeability. It has been observed that the addition of sand, cement and quarry dust are found to be effective in improving Atterberg’s limits, CBR values, and permeability values. The obtained CBR and permeability values of Grading III, and Grading II materials found to be sufficient to be used as sub-base course for low volume roads and high volume roads respectively.

Keywords: Sand, Permeability, lateritic soil, quarry dust, gradation, sub-base course

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7 Environmental Benefits of Corn Cob Ash in Lateritic Soil Cement Stabilization for Road Works in a Sub-Tropical Region

Authors: Ahmed O. Apampa, Yinusa A. Jimoh


The potential economic viability and environmental benefits of using a biomass waste, such as corn cob ash (CCA) as pozzolan in stabilizing soils for road pavement construction in a sub-tropical region was investigated. Corn cob was obtained from Maya in South West Nigeria and processed to ash of characteristics similar to Class C Fly Ash pozzolan as specified in ASTM C618-12. This was then blended with ordinary Portland cement in the CCA:OPC ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. Each of these blends was then mixed with lateritic soil of ASHTO classification A-2-6(3) in varying percentages from 0 – 7.5% at 1.5% intervals. The soil-CCA-Cement mixtures were thereafter tested for geotechnical index properties including the BS Proctor Compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and the Unconfined Compression Strength Test. The tests were repeated for soil-cement mix without any CCA blending. The cost of the binder inputs and optimal blends of CCA:OPC in the stabilized soil were thereafter analyzed by developing algorithms that relate the experimental data on strength parameters (Unconfined Compression Strength, UCS and California Bearing Ratio, CBR) with the bivariate independent variables CCA and OPC content, using Matlab R2011b. An optimization problem was then set up minimizing the cost of chemical stabilization of laterite with CCA and OPC, subject to the constraints of minimum strength specifications. The Evolutionary Engine as well as the Generalized Reduced Gradient option of the Solver of MS Excel 2010 were used separately on the cells to obtain the optimal blend of CCA:OPC. The optimal blend attaining the required strength of 1800 kN/m2 was determined for the 1:2 CCA:OPC as 5.4% mix (OPC content 3.6%) compared with 4.2% for the OPC only option; and as 6.2% mix for the 1:1 blend (OPC content 3%). The 2:1 blend did not attain the required strength, though over a 100% gain in UCS value was obtained over the control sample with 0% binder. Upon the fact that 0.97 tonne of CO2 is released for every tonne of cement used (OEE, 2001), the reduced OPC requirement to attain the same result indicates the possibility of reducing the net CO2 contribution of the construction industry to the environment ranging from 14 – 28.5% if CCA:OPC blends are widely used in soil stabilization, going by the results of this study. The paper concludes by recommending that Nigeria and other developing countries in the sub-tropics with abundant stock of biomass waste should look in the direction of intensifying the use of biomass waste as fuel and the derived ash for the production of pozzolans for road-works, thereby reducing overall green house gas emissions and in compliance with the objectives of the United Nations Framework on Climate Change.

Keywords: corn cob ash, lateritic soil, CO2 emission, biomass waste, unconfined compression strength

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6 Modeling of Compaction Curves for CCA-Cement Stabilized Lateritic Soils

Authors: A. Jimoh, O. Ahmed Apampa, Yinusa


The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate model for predicting the compaction behavior of lateritic soils and corn cob ash (CCA) stabilized lateritic soils. This was done by first adopting an equation earlier developed for fine-grained soils and subsequent adaptation by others and extending it to modified lateritic soil through the introduction of alpha and beta parameters which are polynomial functions of the CCA binder input. The polynomial equations were determined with MATLAB R2011 curve fitting tool, while the alpha and beta parameters were determined by standard linear programming techniques using the Solver function of Microsoft Excel 2010. The model so developed was a good fit with a correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.86. The paper concludes that it is possible to determine the optimum moisture content and the maximum dry density of CCA stabilized soils from the compaction test of the unmodified soil, and recommends that this procedure is extended to other binder stabilized lateritic soils to facilitate quick decision making in roadworks.

Keywords: Stabilization, corn cob ash, lateritic soil, compaction

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5 Physicochemistry of Pozzolanic Stabilization of a Class A-2-7 Lateritic Soil

Authors: Ahmed O. Apampa, Yinusa A. Jimoh


The paper examines the mechanism of pozzolan-soil reactions, using a recent study on the chemical stabilization of a Class A-2-7 (3) lateritic soil, with corn cob ash (CCA) as case study. The objectives are to establish a nexus between cation exchange capacity of the soil, the alkaline forming compounds in CCA and percentage CCA addition to soil beyond which no more improvement in strength properties can be achieved; and to propose feasible chemical reactions to explain the chemical stabilization of the lateritic soil with CCA alone. The lateritic soil, as well as CCA of pozzolanic quality Class C were separately analysed for their metallic oxide composition using the X-Ray Fluorescence technique. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil and the CCA were computed theoretically using the percentage composition of the base cations Ca2+, Mg2+ K+ and Na2+ as 1.48 meq/100 g and 61.67 meq/100 g respectively, thus indicating a ratio of 0.024 or 2.4%. This figure, taken as the theoretical amount required to just fill up the exchangeable sites of the clay molecules, compares well with the laboratory observation of 1.5% for the optimum level of CCA addition to lateritic soil. The paper went on to present chemical reaction equations between the alkaline earth metals in the CCA and the silica in the lateritic soil to form silicates, thereby proposing an extension of the theory of mechanism of soil stabilization to cover chemical stabilization with pozzolanic ash only. The paper concluded by recommending further research on the molecular structure of soils stabilized with pozzolanic waste ash alone, with a view to confirming the chemical equations advanced in the study.

Keywords: Soil Stabilization, corn cob ash, cation exchange capacity, lateritic soil

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4 Effects of Dimensional Sizes of Mould on the Volumetric Shrinkage Strain of Lateric Soil

Authors: John E. Sani, Moses George


The paper presents the result of a laboratory study carried out on lateritic soil to determine the effects of dimensional size on the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) using three mould sizes i.e. split former mould, proctor mould and California bearing ratio (CBR) mould at three energy levels; British standard light (BSL), West African standard (WAS) and British standard heavy (BSH) respectively. Compactions were done at different molding water content of -2 % to +6 % optimum moisture content (OMC). At -2% to +2% molding water content for the split former mould the volumetric shrinkage strain met the requirement of not more than 4% while at +4% and +6% only the WAS and BSH met the requirement. The proctor mould and the CBR mould on the other hand gave a lower value of volumetric shrinkage strain in all compactive effort and the values are lower than the 4% safe VSS value.

Keywords: lateritic soil, volumetric shrinkage strain, molding water content, compactive effort

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3 Stabilization of Spent Engine Oil Contaminated Lateritic Soil Admixed with Cement Kiln Dust for Use as Road Construction Materials

Authors: Johnson Rotimi Oluremi, A. Adedayo Adegbola, A. Samson Adediran, O. Solomon Oladapo


Spent engine oil contains heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which contribute to chronic health hazards, poor soil aeration, immobilisation of nutrients and lowering of pH in soil. It affects geotechnical properties of lateritic soil thereby constituting geotechnical and foundation problems. This study is therefore based on the stabilization of spent engine oil (SEO) contaminated lateritic soil using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a mean of restoring it to its pristine state. Geotechnical tests which include sieve analysis, atterberg limit, compaction, California bearing ratio and unconfined compressive strength tests were carried out on the natural, SEO contaminated and CKD stabilized SEO contaminated lateritic soil samples. The natural soil classified as A-2-7 (2) by AASHTO classification and GC according to the Unified Soil Classification System changed to A-4 non-plastic soil due to SEO contaminated even under the influence of CKD it remained unchanged. However, the maximum dry density (MDD) of the SEO contaminated soil increased while the optimum moisture content (OMC) behaved vice versa with the increase in the percentages of CKD. Similarly, the bearing strength of the stabilized SEO contaminated soil measured by California Bearing Ratio (CBR) increased with percentage increment in CKD. In conclusion, spent engine oil has a detrimental effect on the geotechnical properties of the lateritic soil sample but which can be remediated using 10% CKD as a stand alone admixture in stabilizing spent engine oil contaminated soil.

Keywords: Stabilization, lateritic soil, compaction, unconfined compressive strength, spent engine oil, cement kiln dust

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2 A Resource Survey of Lateritic Soils and Impact Evaluation toward Community Members Living Nearby the Excavation Pits

Authors: Ratchasak Suvannatsiri


The objectives of the research are to find the basic engineering properties of lateritic soil and to predict the impact on community members who live nearby the excavation pits in the area of Amphur Pak Thor, Ratchaburi Province in the western area of Thailand. The research was conducted by collecting soil samples from four excavation pits for basic engineering properties, testing and collecting questionnaire data from 120 community members who live nearby the excavation pits, and applying statistical analysis. The results found that the basic engineering properties of lateritic soil can be classified into silt soil type which is cohesionless as the loess or collapsible soil which is not suitable to be used for a pavement structure for commuting highway because it could lead to structural and functional failure in the long run. In terms of opinion from community members toward the impact, the highest impact was on the dust from excavation activities. The prediction from the logistic regression in terms of impact on community members was at 84.32 which can be adapted and applied onto other areas with the same context as a guideline for risk prevention and risk communication since it could impact the infrastructures and also impact the health of community members.

Keywords: lateritic soil, engineering properties, excavation pits, impact on community members

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1 Lateritic Soils from Ceara, Brazil: Sustainable Use in Constructive Blocks for Social Housing

Authors: Ivelise M. Strozberg, Juliana Sales Frota, Lucas de Oliveira Vale


The state of Ceara, located in the northeast region of Brazil, is abundant in lateritic soil which has been usually discarded due to its lack of agricultural potential while materials of similar nature have been used as constituents of housing constructive elements in many parts of the world, such as India and Portugal, for decades. Since many of the semi-arid housing conditions in the state of Ceara fail to meet the minimum criteria regarding comfort and safety requirements, this research proposed to study the Ceara lateritic soil and the possibility of its use as a sustainable building block constituent for social housings, collaborating to the improvement of the region living conditions. In order to achieve this objective, soil samples were collected from five different locations within the specific region, three of which presented lateritic nature, being characterized according to the Unified Soil Classification System and the MCT methodology, which is a Brazilian methodology developed during the 80’s that aimed to better describe and approach tropical soils, its characterization and behavior. Two of these samples were used to build two different miniature block prototypes, which were manually molded, heated at low temperatures -( < 300 ºC) in order to save energy and lessen the CO₂ high emission rate common in traditional burning methods- and then submitted to load tests. Among the soils tested, the one with the highest degree of laterization and greater presence of fines constituted the block with the best performance in terms of flexural strength tensions, presenting resistance gains when heated at increasing temperatures, which can indicate that this type of soil has potential towards being used as constructing material.

Keywords: Sustainability, lateritic soil, constructive blocks, MCT methodology

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