Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

laterite Related Abstracts

5 An Evaluation of the Influence of Corn Cob Ash on the Strength Parameters of Lateritic SoiLs

Authors: O. A. Apampa, Y. A. Jimoh

Abstract:

The paper reports the investigation of Corn Cob Ash as a chemical stabilizing agent for laterite soils. Corn cob feedstock was obtained from Maya, a rural community in the derived savannah agro-ecological zone of South-Western Nigeria and burnt to ashes of pozzolanic quality. Reddish brown silty clayey sand material characterized as AASHTO A-2-6(3) lateritic material was obtained from a borrow pit in Abeokuta and subjected to strength characterization tests according to BS 1377: 2000. The soil was subsequently mixed with CCA in varying percentages of 0-7.5% at 1.5% intervals. The influence of CCA stabilized soil was determined for the Atterberg limits, compaction characteristics, CBR and the unconfined compression strength. The tests were repeated on laterite cement-soil mixture in order to establish a basis for comparison. The result shows a similarity in the compaction characteristics of soil-cement and soil-CCA. With increasing addition of binder from 1.5% to 7.5%, Maximum Dry Density progressively declined while the OMC steadily increased. For the CBR, the maximum positive impact was observed at 1.5% CCA addition at a value of 85% compared to the control value of 65% for the cement stabilization, but declined steadily thereafter with increasing addition of CCA, while that of soil-cement continued to increase with increasing addition of cement beyond 1.5% though at a relatively slow rate. Similar behavior was observed in the UCS values for the soil-CCA mix, increasing from a control value of 0.4 MN/m2 to 1.0 MN/m2 at 1.5% CCA and declining thereafter, while that for soil-cement continued to increase with increasing cement addition, but at a slower rate. This paper demonstrates that CCA is effective for chemical stabilization of a typical Nigerian AASHTO A-2-6 lateritic soil at maximum stabilizer content limit of 1.5% and therefore recommends its use as a way of finding further application for agricultural waste products and achievement of environmental sustainability in line with the ideals of the millennium development goals because of the economic and technical feasibility of the processing of the cobs from corn.

Keywords: cement, corn cob ash, pozzolan, laterite, stabilizing agent, cation exchange capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
4 Comparative Study on the Effect of Compaction Energy and Moisture Content on the Strength Properties of Lateritic Soil

Authors: Ahmad Idris, O.A. Uche, Ado Y Abdulfatah

Abstract:

Lateritic soils are found in abundance and are the most common types of soils used in construction of roads and embankments in Nigeria. Strength properties of the soils depend on the amount of compaction applied and the amount of water available in the soil at the time of compaction. In this study, the influence of the compactive effort and that of the amount of water in the soil in the determination of the shear strength properties of lateritic soil was investigated. Lateritic soil sample was collected from an existing borrow pit in Kano, Nigeria and its basic characteristics were determined and the soil was classified according to AASHTO classification method. The soil was then compacted under various compactive efforts and at wide range of moisture contents. The maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) at each compactive effort was determined. Unconfined undrained triaxial test was carried out to determine the shear strength properties of the soil under various conditions of moisture and energy. Preliminary results obtained indicated that the soil is an A-7-5 soil. The final results obtained shows that as the compaction energy is increased, both the cohesion and friction angle increased irrespective of the moisture content used in the compaction. However, when the amount of water in the soil was increased and compaction effort kept constant, only the cohesion of the soil increases while the friction angle shows no any pattern of variation. It was also found that the highest values for cohesion and friction angle were obtained when the soil was compacted at the highest energy and at OMC.

Keywords: laterite, OMC, compaction energy, moisture content

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
3 Chelator-assisted Phytoextraction of Nickel from Nickeliferous Lateritic Soil by Phyllanthus sp. nov.

Authors: Grecco M. Ante, Princess Rochelle O. Gan

Abstract:

Plants that can absorb greater than 10,000 µg Ni/g dry mass in their stems and leaves are termed as ‘hypernickelophores’. Chelators are chemicals that make the metals in the soil more soluble, making them a potential enhancer for phytoextraction. This study aims to observe the effect of different concentrations of the chelating agent ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) on the metal uptake (or rate of phytoextraction) of Nickel by Phyllanthus sp. nov. The plant is found to be a hyperickelophore in normal conditions. The addition of EDTA increased the metal uptake of the plant. The increasing amount of the chelating agent causes a decrease in the phytoextraction of the plant but moves the onset of its peak of maximum nickel content in its tissue to an earlier time. The chelator-assisted phytoextraction of nickel by Phyllanthus sp. nov. is proven to be an efficient auxiliary mining operation for nickel laterite mines.

Keywords: Nickel, laterite, EDTA, phytomining, Phyllanthus sp. nov

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
2 Improvement of Deficient Soils in Nigeria Using Bagasse Ash - A Review

Authors: Musa Alhassan, Alhaji Mohammed Mustapha

Abstract:

Review of studies carried out on the use of bagasse ash in the improvement of deficient soils in Nigeria, with emphasis on lateritic and black cotton soils is presented. Although, the bagasse ash is mostly used as additive to the conventional soil stabilizer (cement and lime), the studies generally showed improvement of geotechnical properties of the soils either modified or stabilized with the ash. This showed the potentials of using this agricultural waste (bagasse ash) in the improvement of geotechnical properties of deficient soils. Thus suggesting that using this material at large scale level, in geotechnical engineering practice could help in the provision of stable and durable structures, reduce cost of soil improvement and also reduces environmental nuisance caused by the unused waste in Nigeria

Keywords: Soil Improvement, laterite, black cotton soil, bagasse ash, deficient soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
1 Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Serpentinite-Derived Ni-Bearing Laterites from Fars Province, Iran: Implications for the Lateritization Process and Classification of Ni-Laterites

Authors: S. Rasti, M. A. Rajabzadeh

Abstract:

Nickel-bearing laterites occur as two parallel belts along Sedimentary Zagros Orogenic (SZO) and Metamorphic Sanandaj-Sirjan (MSS) petrostructural zones, Fars Province, south Iran. An undisturbed vertical profile of these laterites includes protolith, saprolite, clay, and oxide horizons from base to top. Highly serpentinized harzburgite with relicts of olivine and orthopyroxene is regarded as the source rock. The laterites are unusual in lacking a significant saprolite zone with little development of Ni-silicates. Hematite, saponite, dolomite, smectite and clinochlore increase, while calcite, olivine, lizardite and chrysotile decrease from saprolite to oxide zones. Smectite and clinochlore with minor calcite are the major minerals in clay zone. Contacts of different horizons in laterite profiles are gradual and characterized by a decrease in Mg concentration ranging from 18.1 to 9.3 wt.% in oxide and saprolite, respectively. The maximum Ni concentration is 0.34 wt.% (NiO) in the base of the oxide zone, and goethite is the major Ni-bearing phase. From saprolite to oxide horizons, Al2O3, K2O, TiO2, and CaO decrease, while SiO2, MnO, NiO, and Fe2O3 increase. Silica content reaches up to 45 wt.% in the upper part of the soil profile. There is a decrease in pH (8.44-8.17) and an increase in organic matter (0.28-0.59 wt.%) from base to top of the soils. The studied laterites are classified in the oxide clans which were derived from ophiolite ultramafic rocks under Mediterranean climate conditions.

Keywords: Mineralogy, Iran, laterite, ophiolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 187