Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

larvicidal Related Abstracts

3 Toxicity and Larvicidal Activity of Cholesta-β-D-Glucopyranoside Isolated from Combretum molle R.

Authors: Abdu Zakari, Sai’d Jibril, Adoum A. Omar

Abstract:

The leaves of Combretum molle was selected on the basis of its uses in folk medicine as insecticides. The leave extracts of Combretum molle was tested against the larvae of Artemia salina, i.e. Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST), Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Filaria disease vector) i.e. Larvicidal Test, using crude ethanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts. The methanolic extract proved to be the most effective in inducing complete lethality at minimum doses both in the BST and the Larvicidal activity test. The LC50¬ values obtained are 24.85 µg/ml and 0.4µg/ml respectively. The bioactivity-guided column chromatography afforded the pure compound ACM–3. ACM-3 was not active in the BST with LC50 value >1000µg/ml, but was active in the Larvicidal activity test with LC50 value 4.0µg/ml. ACM-3 was proposed to have the structure I, (Cholesta-β-D-Glucopyranoside).

Keywords: Toxicity, larvicidal, Combretum molle, Artemia salina, Culex quinquefasciatus Say

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2 Impact of the Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) Extracts on the Survival and Histological Architecture of the Midgut Epithelial Tissue of Early Fourth Instars of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

Authors: Aarti Sharma, Pushplata Tripathi, Sarita Kumar

Abstract:

Aedes aegypti L. is one of the most important insect vectors in the world transmitting several diseases of concern; dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. Though since ages the control of dengue vector is primarily relied upon the use of synthetic chemical insecticides, the continued and indiscriminate use of insecticides for their control has received wide public apprehension because of multifarious problems including insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly and bio-degradable plant products. Bio-insecticides, despite being the focus of research nowadays, have not been investigated much regarding their physiological effects on the mosquitoes. Thus, the present studies were carried out to investigate the anti-mosquito potential of the leaf and stem hexane extracts of Achyranthes aspera against early fourth instars of Aedes aegypti L and their effects on the histological architecture of their midgut. The larvicidal bioassays conducted with the A. aspera leaf hexane extracts revealed the respective LC30, LC50 and LC90 values of 66.545 ppm, 82.555 ppm, 139.817 ppm while the assays with stem hexane extracts resulted in respective values of 54.982 ppm, 68.133 ppm, 115.075 ppm. The studies clearly indicate the efficacy of extracts as larvicidal agents against Ae. aegypti, the stem extracts being found more effective than the leaf extracts. When the larvae assayed with extracts were investigated for the modifications in the histo-architecture of the midgut, the studies showed significant damage, shrinkage, distortion and vacuolization of gut tissues and peritrophic membrane causing disintegration of epithelial cells and cytoplasmic organelles; extent of toxicity and damage varied depending upon the concentration and exposure time period. These changes revealed appreciable stomach poison potential of A. aspera extracts against Ae. aegypti larvae, which may have also caused adverse impact on the growth and development of larvae. These effects were also found to be more pronounced with the stem extract than the leaf extract. Our findings may prove significant suggesting the use of A. aspera extract as a bio-insecticide against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti. Further studies are needed to identify the bioactive component in the extracts and to ascertain the use of component in the fields as anti-mosquito control agent.

Keywords: aedes aegypti, larvicidal, Achyranthes aspera, histological architecture, midgut, stomach poison

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1 In vitro Larvicidal Activity of Varying Concentrations of Madre De Cacao (Gliricidia sepium) Concentrated Crude Ethanolic Extract against Larvae of Horn Fly (Haematobia irritans)

Authors: Antonio B.Tangayan Jr., Hershey P. Mondejar, Pet Roey Pascual, Zeam Voltaire E. Amper

Abstract:

A study on in vitro larvicidal acitivity of different levels of Madre de Cacao (Gliricidia sepium) concentrated crude ethanolic extract (CCEE) against horn fly larvae (Haematobia irritans) was conducted. The air-dried leaves of Gliricidia sepium were infused in a 1:3 ratio (w/v) using ethanol as solvent and concentrated in a rotary evaporator (60°C). A total of 120 larvae of Haematobia irritans were exposed in various concentration: 200, 400, 800 and 1000 ppm. Based on the result after 5 hours of exposure, CCE G. sepium extract at 200 ppm showed less effect with 30% mortality compared to 400 ppm, 800 ppm and 1000 ppm with 70%, 83%, and 100% mortality, respectively. Findings also revealed that CCE of G. sepium extract at 1000 ppm, 800 ppm, and commercial larvicide were comparable in causing mortality of H. irritans larvae from the first hour up to the fifth hours of exposure. However, on the fifth hour, 400 ppm was also found to be effective. This suggests that the higher the concentration of CCE G. sepium extract and the longer the time of exposure, the higher is the percentage mortality of the larvae. Thus, CCE G. sepium extract can be used as an alternative for commercial larvicide.

Keywords: In vitro, larvicidal, horn fly, Madre de Cacao

Procedia PDF Downloads 153