Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Language Teaching Related Abstracts

21 The Effect of Written Corrective Feedback on the Accurate Use of Grammatical Forms by Japanese Low-Intermediate EFL Learners

Authors: Ayako Hasegawa, Ken Ubukata

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether corrective feedback has any significant effect on Japanese low-intermediate EFL learners’ performance on a specific set of linguistic features. The subjects are Japanese college students majoring in English. They have studied English for about 7 years, but their inter-language seems to fossilize because non-target like errors is frequently observed in traditional deductive teacher-fronted approach. It has been reported that corrective feedback plays an important role in diminishing or overcoming inter-language fossilization and achieving TL competency. Therefore, it was examined how the corrective feedback (the focus of this study was metalinguistic feedback) and self-correction raised the students’ awareness and helped them notice the gaps between their inter-language and the TL.

Keywords: Language Teaching, written corrective feedback, fossilized error, grammar teaching

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20 An Appraisal of the Design, Content, Approaches and Materials of the K-12 Grade 8 English Curriculum by Language Teachers, Supervisors and Teacher-Trainers

Authors: G. Infante Dennis, S. Balinas Elvira, C. Valencia Yolanda, Cunanan

Abstract:

This paper examined the feed-backs, concerns, and insights of the teachers, supervisors, and teacher-trainers on the nature and qualities of the K-12 grade 8 design, content, approaches, and materials. Specifically, it sought to achieve the following objectives: 1) to describe the critical nature and qualities of the design, content, teaching-learning-and-evaluation approaches, and the materials to be utilized in the implementation of the grade 8 curriculum; 2) to extract the possible challenges relevant to the implementation of the design, content, teaching-learning-and-evaluation approaches, and the materials of the grade 8 curriculum in terms of the linguistic and technical competence of the teachers, readiness to implement, willingness to implement, and capability to make relevant adaptations; 3) to present essential demands on the successful and meaningful implementation of the grade 8 curriculum in terms of teacher-related factors, school-related factors, and student-related concerns.

Keywords: Learning, Language Teaching, curriculum reforms, K-12, teacher-training

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19 Motivation Among Arab Learners of English in the UK

Authors: Safa Kaka

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As more and more students are travelling to different countries to study and, in particular, to study English, the question of what motivates them to make such a large move has come under question. This is particularly pertinent in the case of Arab students who make up nearly 15% of the foreign student body in the UK. Given that the cultural differences between the UK and Arab nations are extremely wide, the decision to come to this country to study English must be driven by strong motivational forces. Numerous previous studies have considered what motivates foreign students to travel to the UK and other countries for their education or language learning but the specific motivators of Arab students have yet to be explored. This study undertakes to close that gap by examining the concepts and theories of motivation, both in general terms and in relation to English learning and foreign study. 70 Arab students currently studying in the UK were asked to participate in an online questionnaire which asked about their motivations for coming to the UK and for studying and learning English. A further six individuals were interviewed on a face to face basis. The outcomes have indicated that the factors which motivate the decision to come to the UK are similar to those that motivate the desire to learn English. In particular a motivation for self-improvement, career advancement and potential future benefits were cited by a number of respondents. Other indications were the ease of accessibility to the UK as an English speaking country, a motivation to experience different cultures and lifestyles and even political freedoms. Overall the motivations of Arab students were not found to be conspicuously different from those of other foreign students, although it was noted that their motivations did change, both positively and negatively following a period of time in the country. These changes were based on the expectations of the students pre-arrival and their actual experience of the country and its teaching approaches and establishments and were, as indicated both good and bad. The implications for the Arab student population and UK educational establishments are reviewed and future research pathways highlighted.

Keywords: Applied Linguistics, Language Teaching, Motivation, Arab learners of English

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18 The Russian Preposition 'за': A Cognitive Linguistic Approach

Authors: M. Kalyuga

Abstract:

Prepositions have long been considered to be one of the major challenges for second language learners, since they have multiple uses that differ greatly from one language to another. The traditional approach to second language teaching supplies students with a list of uses of a preposition that they have to memorise and no explanation is provided. Contrary to the traditional grammar approach, the cognitive linguistic approach offers an explanation for the use of prepositions and provides strategies to comprehend and learn prepositions that would be otherwise seem obscure. The present paper demonstrates the use of the cognitive approach for the explanation of prepositions through the example of the Russian preposition 'за'. The paper demonstrates how various spatial and non-spatial uses of this preposition are linked together through metaphorical and metonymical mapping. The diversity of expressions with за is explained by the range of spatial scenes this preposition is associated with.

Keywords: Language Teaching, Russian, Cognitive Approach, preposition 'за'

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17 Techniques to Teach Reading at Pre-Reading Stage

Authors: Anh Duong

Abstract:

The three-phase reading lesson has been put forth around the world as the new and innovative framework which is corresponding to the learner-centered trend in English language teaching and learning. Among three stages, pre-reading attracts many teachers’ and researchers’ attention for its vital role in preparing students with knowledge and interest in reading class. The researcher’s desire to exemplify effectiveness of activities prior to text reading has provoked the current study. Three main aspects were investigated in this paper, i.e. teachers’ and student’s perception of pre-reading stage, teachers’ exploitation of pre-reading techniques and teachers’ recommendation of effective pre-reading activities. Aiming at pre-reading techniques for first-year students at English Department, this study involved 200 fresh-men and 10 teachers from Division 1 to participate in the questionnaire survey. Interviews with the teachers and classroom observation were employed as a tool to take an insight into the responses gained from the early instrument. After a detailed procedure of analyzing data, the researcher discovered that thanks to the participants’ acclamation of pre-reading stage, this phase was frequently conducted by the surveyed teachers. Despite the fact that pre-reading activities apparently put a hand in motivating students to read and creating a joyful learning atmosphere, they did not fulfill another function as supporting students’ reading comprehension. Therefore, a range of techniques and notices when preparing and conducting pre-reading phase was detected from the interviewed teachers. The findings assisted the researcher to propose some related pedagogical implications concerning teachers’ source of pre-reading techniques, variations of suggested activities and first-year reading syllabus.

Keywords: Language Teaching, pre-reading stage, pre-reading techniques, teaching reading

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16 The Importance of Outside Classroom Activities in Developing Oral Fluency in an EFL Context

Authors: Maaly Jarrah

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In a study abroad context, students have the advantage of immersing themselves in the environment of the target language and being exposed to it. However, in and a stay home context, where English is not the mother tongue, students’ exposure to the second language is often times restricted to the classroom. Although language teachers are keen to develop inside class room activities and practices that increase the suitability of students to acquire a second language (Cook & Singleton, 2014), many would agree that class time is too limited to enhance students’ oral fluency skills. Consequently, creating opportunities outside the classroom for students to speak English is an effective strategy in compensating for students’ limited use of the L2. In an argument by Ortega (2012) external classroom activities have equal significance in enabling students learn English as a second language. The author further asserts that the activities provide a non-educational environment from which a student may feel free and comfortable to acquire new language skills. This study investigates the significance of outside classroom activities in promoting students’ oral proficiency. In addition, it reports on students’ perceptions of such activities. 15 participants from the American University of Kuwait took part in this study. Open-ended interviews were done to find out what the participants thought of these activities, and what they gained from them. Interview results show that students found outside classroom activities very effective in improving not only their oral fluency skills, but their confidence and critical thinking skills as well. The implications of this research study are for language practitioners and language programs in the EFL context to be aware of the benefits of incorporating outside classroom activities in language teaching.

Keywords: Language Teaching, oral fluency, outside classroom activities

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15 The Application of Computer and Technology in Language Teaching and Learning

Authors: Pouya Vakili

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Since computers were first introduced into educational facilities, foreign language educators have been faced with the problem of integrating high-tech multimedia techniques into a traditional text-based curriculum. As studies of language teaching have pointed out, ‘Language teaching tends in practice to be eclectic…. There are not only exceptionally many paths and educational means for arriving at a given educational goal, but there are also many types of educational materials which can be used to achieve that goal’. For language educators who are trying to incorporate technology into their curricula, the choices seem endless. Yet the quantity, as well as the limitations, of available computer programs does not guarantee that these programs can be successfully integrated into a curriculum.

Keywords: Multimedia, Learning, Language Teaching, Technology, Curriculum

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14 Learning Language through Story: Development of Storytelling Website Project for Amazighe Language Learning

Authors: Siham Boulaknadel

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Every culture has its share of a rich history of storytelling in oral, visual, and textual form. The Amazigh language, as many languages, has its own which has entertained and informed across centuries and cultures, and its instructional potential continues to serve teachers. According to many researchers, listening to stories draws attention to the sounds of language and helps children develop sensitivity to the way language works. Stories including repetitive phrases, unique words, and enticing description encourage students to join in actively to repeat, chant, sing, or even retell the story. This kind of practice is important to language learners’ oral language development, which is believed to correlate completely with student’s academic success. Today, with the advent of multimedia, digital storytelling for instance can be a practical and powerful learning tool. It has the potential in transforming traditional learning into a world of unlimited imaginary environment. This paper reports on a research project on development of multimedia Storytelling Website using traditional Amazigh oral narratives called “tell me a story”. It is a didactic tool created for the learning of good moral values in an interactive multimedia environment combining on-screen text, graphics and audio in an enticing environment and enabling the positive values of stories to be projected. This Website developed in this study is based on various pedagogical approaches and learning theories deemed suitable for children age 8 to 9 year-old. The design and development of Website was based on a well-researched conceptual framework enabling users to: (1) re-play and share the stories in schools or at home, and (2) access the Website anytime and anywhere. Furthermore, the system stores the students work and activities over the system, allowing parents or teachers to monitor students’ works, and provide online feedback. The Website contains following main feature modules: Storytelling incorporates a variety of media such as audio, text and graphics in presenting the stories. It introduces the children to various kinds of traditional Amazigh oral narratives. The focus of this module is to project the positive values and images of stories using digital storytelling technique. Besides development good moral sense in children using projected positive images and moral values, it also allows children to practice their comprehending and listening skills. Reading module is developed based on multimedia material approach which offers the potential for addressing the challenges of reading instruction. This module is able to stimulate children and develop reading practice indirectly due to the tutoring strategies of scaffolding, self-explanation and hyperlinks offered in this module. Word Enhancement assists the children in understanding the story and appreciating the good moral values more efficiently. The difficult words or vocabularies are attached to present the explanation, which makes the children understand the vocabulary better. In conclusion, we believe that the interactive multimedia storytelling reveals an interesting and exciting tool for learning Amazigh. We plan to address some learning issues, in particularly the uses of activities to test and evaluate the children on their overall understanding of story and words presented in the learning modules.

Keywords: e-Learning, Language Teaching, storytelling, Amazigh language

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13 Using iPads and Tablets in Language Teaching and Learning Process

Authors: Ece Sarigul

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It is an undeniable fact that, teachers need new strategies to communicate with students of the next generation and to shape enticing educational experiences for them. Many schools have launched iPad/ Tablets initiatives in an effort to enhance student learning. Despite their rapid adoption, the extent to which iPads / Tablets increase student engagement and learning is not well understood. This presentation aims to examine the use of iPads and Tablets in primary and high schools in Turkey as well as in the world to increase academic achievement through promotion of higher order thinking skills. In addition to explaining the ideas of school teachers and students who use the specific iPads or Tablets , various applications in schools and their use will be discussed and demonstrated in this study. The specific” iPads or Tablets” applications discussed in this presentation can be incorporated into the curriculum to assist in developing transformative practices and programs to meet the needs of a diverse student population. In the conclusion section of the presentation, there will be some suggestions for teachers about the effective use of technological devices in the classroom. This study can help educators understand better how students are currently using iPads and Tablets and shape future use.

Keywords: Language Teaching, Technology, Tablets, iPads

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12 The Complaint Speech Act Set Produced by Arab Students in the UAE

Authors: Tanju Deveci

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It appears that the speech act of complaint has not received as much attention as other speech acts. However, the face-threatening nature of this speech act requires a special attention in multicultural contexts in particular. The teaching context in the UAE universities, where a big majority of teaching staff comes from other cultures, requires investigations into this speech act in order to improve communication between students and faculty. This session will outline the results of a study conducted with this purpose. The realization of complaints by Freshman English students in Communication courses at Petroleum Institute was investigated to identify communication patterns that seem to cause a strain. Data were collected using a role-play between a teacher and students, and a judgment scale completed by two of the instructors in the Communications Department. The initial findings reveal that the students had difficulty putting their case, produced the speech act of criticism along with a complaint and that they produced both requests and demands as candidate solutions. The judgement scales revealed that the students’ attitude was not appropriate most of the time and that the judges would behave differently from students. It is concluded that speech acts, in general, and complaint, in particular, need to be taught to learners explicitly to improve interpersonal communication in multicultural societies. Some teaching ideas are provided to help increase foreign language learners’ sociolinguistic competence.

Keywords: Language Teaching, Pragmatics, Sociolinguistics, speech act, complaint

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11 Tertiary Level Teachers' Beliefs about Codeswitching

Authors: Hoa Pham

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Code switching, which can be described as the use of students’ first language in second language classrooms, has long been a controversial topic in the area of language teaching and second language acquisition. While this has been widely investigated across different contexts, little empirical research has been undertaken in Vietnam. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of bilingual discourse and code switching practices in content and language integrated classrooms, which has significant implications for language teaching and learning in general and in particular for language pedagogy at tertiary level in Vietnam. This study examines the accounts the teachers articulated for their code switching practices in content-based Business English in Vietnam. Data were collected from five teachers through the use of stimulated recall interviews facilitated by the video data to garner the teachers' cognitive reflection, and allowed them to vocalise the motivations behind their code switching behaviour in particular contexts. The literature has recommended that when participants are provided with a large amount of stimuli or cues, they will experience an original situation again in their imagination with great accuracy. This technique can also provide a valuable "insider" perspective on the phenomenon under investigation which complements the researcher’s "outsider" observation. This can create a relaxed atmosphere during the interview process, which in turn promotes the collection of rich and diverse data. Also, participants can be empowered by this technique as they can raise their own concerns and discuss instances which they find important or interesting. The data generated through this study were analysed using a constant comparative approach. The study found that the teachers indicated their support for the use of code switching in their pedagogical practices. Particularly, as a pedagogical resource, the teachers saw code switching to the L1 playing a key role in facilitating the students' comprehension of both content knowledge and the target language. They believed the use of the L1 accommodates the students' current language competence and content knowledge. They also expressed positive opinions about the role that code switching plays in stimulating students' schematic language and content knowledge, encouraging retention and interest in learning and promoting a positive affective environment in the classroom. The teachers perceived that their use of code switching to the L1 helps them meet the students' language needs and prepares them for their study in subsequent courses and addresses functional needs so that students can cope with English language use outside the classroom. Several factors shaped the teachers' perceptions of their code switching practices, including their accumulated teaching experience, their previous experience as language learners, their theoretical understanding of language teaching and learning, and their knowledge of the teaching context. Code switching was a typical phenomenon in the observed classes and was supported by the teachers in certain contexts. This study reinforces the call in the literature to recognise this practice as a useful instructional resource.

Keywords: Language Teaching, tertiary level, teacher beliefs, codeswitching

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10 Metanotes and Foreign Language Learning: A Case of Iranian EFL Learners

Authors: Nahıd Naderı Anarı, Mojdeh Shafıee

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Languaging has been identified as a contributor to language learning. Compared to oral languaging, written languaging seems to have been less explored. In order to fill this gap, this paper examined the effect of ‘metanotes’, namely metatalk in a written modality to identify whether written languaging actually facilitates language learning. Participants were instructed to take metanotes as they performed a translation task. The effect of metanotes was then analyzed by comparing the results of these participants’ pretest and posttest with those of participants who performed the same task without taking metanotes. The statistical tests showed no evidence of the expected role of metanotes in foreign language learning.

Keywords: Language Teaching, foreign language learning, EFL learners, metanotes

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9 The Arabic Literary Text, between Proficiency and Pedagogy

Authors: Abdul Rahman M. Chamseddine, Mahmoud El-ashiri

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In the field of language teaching, communication skills are essential for the learner to achieve, however, these skills, in general, might not support the comprehension of some texts of literary or artistic nature like poetry. Understanding sentences and expressions is not enough to understand a poem; other skills are needed in order to understand the special structure of a text which literary meaning is inapprehensible even when the lingual meaning is well comprehended. And then there is the need for many other components that surpass one text to other similar texts that can be understood through solid traditions, which do not form an obstacle in the face of change and progress. This is not exclusive to texts that are classified as a literary but it is also the same with some daily short phrases and indicatively charged expressions that can be classified as literary or bear a taste of literary nature.. it can be found in Newpapers’ titles, TV news reports, and maybe football commentaries… the need to understand this special lingual use – described as literary – is highly important to understand this discourse that can be generally classified as very far from literature. This work will try to explore the role of the literary text in the language class and the way it is being covered or dealt with throughout all levels of acquiring proficiency. It will also attempt to survery the position of the literary text in some of the most important books for teaching Arabic around the world. The same way grammar is needed to understand the language, another (literary) grammar is also needed for understanding literature.

Keywords: Language Teaching, Literature, pedagogy, Arabic, language proficiency

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8 The Use of Educational Language Games

Authors: April Love Palad, Charita B. Lasala

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Mastery on English language is one of the important goals of all English language teachers. This goal can be seen based from the students’ actual performance using the target language which is English. Learning the English language includes hard work where efforts need to be exerted and this can be attained gradually over a long period of time. It is extremely important for all English language teachers to know the effects of incorporating games in teaching. Whether this strategy can have positive or negative effects in students learning, teachers should always consider what is best for their learners. Games may help and provide confidents language learners. These games help teachers to create context in which the language is suitable and significant. Focusing in accuracy and fluency is the heart of this study and this will be obtain in either teaching English using the traditional method or teaching English using language games. It is very important for all English teachers to know which strategy is effective in teaching English to be able to cope with students’ underachievement in this subject. This study made use of the comparative-experimental method. It made use of the pre-post test design with the aim to explore the effectiveness of the language games as strategy used in language teaching for high school students. There were two groups of students being observed, the controlled and the experimental, employing the two strategies in teaching English –traditional and with the use of language games. The scores obtained by two samples were compared to know the effectiveness of the two strategies in teaching English. In this study, it found out that language games help improve students’ fluency and accuracy in the use of target language and this is very evident in the results obtained in the pre-test and post –test result as well the mean gain scores by the two groups of students. In addition, this study also gives us a clear view on the positive effects on the use of language games in teaching which also supported by the related studies based from this research. The findings of the study served as the bases for the creation of the proposed learning plan that integrated language games that teachers may use in their own teaching. This study further concluded that language games are effective in developing students’ fluency in using the English language. This justifies that games help encourage students to learn and be entertained at the same time. Aside from that, games also promote developing language competency. This study will be very useful to teachers who are in doubt in the use of this strategy in their teaching.

Keywords: Experimental, Language Teaching, Strategy, Methodology, comparative, language games

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7 Intercultural Communication in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language in Malawi

Authors: Peter Mayeso Jiyajiya

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This paper discusses how the teaching of English as a foreign language in Malawi can enhance intercultural communication competence in a multicultural society. It argues that incorporation of intercultural communication in the teaching of English as a foreign language would improve cultural awareness in communication in the multicultural Malawi. The teaching of English in Malawi is geared towards producing students who would communicate in the global world. This entails the use of proper pedagogical approaches and instructional materials that prepare the students toward intercultural awareness. In view of this, the language teachers were interviewed in order to determine their instructional approaches to intercultural communication. Instructional materials were further evaluated to assess how interculturality is incorporated. The study found out that teachers face perceptual and technical challenges that hinder them from exercising creativity to incorporate interculturality in their lessons. This is also compounded by lack of clear direction in the teaching materials on cultural elements. The paper, therefore, suggests a holistic approach to the teaching of English language in Malawian school in which the diversity of culture in classrooms must be considered an opportunity for addressing students’ cultural needs that may be lacking in the instructional materials.

Keywords: Foreign Language, Language Teaching, Intercultural Communication, Grammar, cultural awareness

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6 Peer-Review as a Means to Improve Students' Translation Skills

Authors: Bahia Braktia, Ahlem Ghamri

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Years ago, faculties and administrators realized that students entering college were not prepared for the academic sphere; however, as a type of collaborative learning, peer-review gave students a social context in which they could learn more efficiently. Peer-review has proven its effectiveness in higher education. Numerous studies have been conducted on peer review and its effects on the quality of students’ writing, and several publications recommended peer-review as part of the feedback process. Student writers showed a tendency towards making significant meaning-level revisions and surface-level revisions. Last but not least, studies reported that peer-review helps students develop their self-assessment skills as well as critical thinking. The use of peer-review has become well known and widely adopted to the L2 classroom environment. However, little is known about peer review on translation students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the students' perspective on peer-review, and whether this method affected the quality of their translation. A mixed method design was adopted. Students were requested to translate two texts from Arabic into English, and they gave and received structured feedback to their classmates' translations. A survey was administered, followed by semi-structured interviews, to examine the students' attitudes toward peer-review. The results of the study showed that peer-review was considered a good proofreading method for most students. The students also showed a positive attitude toward it, and they reported that they benefited from the interaction with their peers. The findings implied that the inclusion of peer-review can be an effective pedagogical practice for teaching translation and writing to foreign language learners.

Keywords: Language Teaching, Translation, Feedback, peer-review

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5 The Positive Effects of Processing Instruction on the Acquisition of French as a Second Language: An Eye-Tracking Study

Authors: Cecile Laval, Harriet Lowe

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Processing Instruction is a psycholinguistic pedagogical approach drawing insights from the Input Processing Model which establishes the initial innate strategies used by second language learners to connect form and meaning of linguistic features. With the ever-growing use of technology in Second Language Acquisition research, the present study uses eye-tracking to measure the effectiveness of Processing Instruction in the acquisition of French and its effects on learner’s cognitive strategies. The experiment was designed using a TOBII Pro-TX300 eye-tracker to measure participants’ default strategies when processing French linguistic input and any cognitive changes after receiving Processing Instruction treatment. Participants were drawn from lower intermediate adult learners of French at the University of Greenwich and randomly assigned to two groups. The study used a pre-test/post-test methodology. The pre-tests (one per linguistic item) were administered via the eye-tracker to both groups one week prior to instructional treatment. One group received full Processing Instruction treatment (explicit information on the grammatical item and on the processing strategies, and structured input activities) on the primary target linguistic feature (French past tense imperfective aspect). The second group received Processing Instruction treatment except the explicit information on the processing strategies. Three immediate post-tests on the three grammatical structures under investigation (French past tense imperfective aspect, French Subjunctive used for the expression of doubt, and the French causative construction with Faire) were administered with the eye-tracker. The eye-tracking data showed the positive change in learners’ processing of the French target features after instruction with improvement in the interpretation of the three linguistic features under investigation. 100% of participants in both groups made a statistically significant improvement (p=0.001) in the interpretation of the primary target feature (French past tense imperfective aspect) after treatment. 62.5% of participants made an improvement in the secondary target item (French Subjunctive used for the expression of doubt) and 37.5% of participants made an improvement in the cumulative target feature (French causative construction with Faire). Statistically there was no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores in the cumulative target feature; however, the variance approximately tripled between the pre-test and the post-test (3.9 pre-test and 9.6 post-test). This suggests that the treatment does not affect participants homogenously and implies a role for individual differences in the transfer-of-training effect of Processing Instruction. The use of eye-tracking provides an opportunity for the study of unconscious processing decisions made during moment-by-moment comprehension. The visual data from the eye-tracking demonstrates changes in participants’ processing strategies. Gaze plots from pre- and post-tests display participants fixation points changing from focusing on content words to focusing on the verb ending. This change in processing strategies can be clearly seen in the interpretation of sentences in both primary and secondary target features. This paper will present the research methodology, design and results of the experimental study using eye-tracking to investigate the primary effects and transfer-of-training effects of Processing Instruction. It will then provide evidence of the cognitive benefits of Processing Instruction in Second Language Acquisition and offer suggestion in second language teaching of grammar.

Keywords: Language Teaching, Second language acquisition, eye-tracking, processing instruction

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4 Post Apartheid Language Positionality and Policy: Student Teachers' Narratives from Teaching Practicum

Authors: Thelma Mort

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This empirical, qualitative research uses interviews of four intermediate phase English language student teachers at one university in South Africa and is an exploration of student teacher learning on their teaching practicum in their penultimate year of the initial teacher education course. The country’s post-apartheid language in education policy provides a context to this study in that children move from mother tongue language of instruction in foundation phase to English as a language of instruction in Intermediate phase. There is another layer of context informing this study which is the school context; the student teachers’ reflections are from their teaching practicum in resource constrained schools, which make up more than 75% of schools in South Africa. The findings were that in these schools, deep biases existed to local languages, that language was being used as a proxy for social class, and that conditions necessary for language acquisition were absent. The student teachers’ attitudes were in contrast to those found in the schools, namely that they had various pragmatic approaches to overcoming obstacles and that they saw language as enabling interdisciplinary work. This study describes language issues, tensions created by policy in South African schools and also supplies a regional account of learning to teach in resource constrained schools in Cape Town, where such language tensions are more inflated. The central findings in this research illuminate attitudes to language and language education in these teaching practicum schools and the complexity of learning to be a language teacher in these contexts. This study is one of the few local empirical studies regarding language teaching in the classroom and language teacher education; as such it offers some background to the country’s poor performance in both international and national literacy assessments.

Keywords: Language Teaching, Narrative, South Africa, student teacher, post apartheid

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3 Dual Language Immersion Models in Theory and Practice

Authors: S. Gordon

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Dual language immersion is growing fast in language teaching today. This study provides an overview and evaluation of the different models of Dual language immersion programs in US K-12 schools. First, the paper provides a brief current literature review on the theory of Dual Language Immersion (DLI) in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) studies. Second, examples of several types of DLI language teaching models in US K-12 public schools are presented (including 50/50 models, 90/10 models, etc.). Third, we focus on the unique example of DLI education in the state of Utah, a successful, growing program in K-12 schools that includes: French, Chinese, Spanish, and Portuguese. The project investigates the theory and practice particularly of the case of public elementary and secondary school children that study half their school day in the L1 and the other half in the chosen L2, from kindergarten (age 5-6) through high school (age 17-18). Finally, the project takes the observations of Utah French DLI elementary through secondary programs as a case study. To conclude, we look at the principal challenges, pedagogical objectives and outcomes, and important implications for other US states and other countries (such as France currently) that are in the process of developing similar language learning programs.

Keywords: Teaching, Language Teaching, pedagogy, French, Second language acquisition, dual language immersion

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2 Management of English Language Teaching in Higher Education

Authors: Vishal D. Pandya

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A great deal of perceptible change has been taking place in the way our institutions of higher learning are being managed in India today. It is believed that managers, whose intuition proves to be accurate, often tend to be the most successful, and this is what makes them almost like entrepreneurs. A certain entrepreneurial spirit is what is expected and requires a degree of insight of the manager to be successful depending upon the situational and more importantly, the heterogeneity as well as the socio-cultural aspect. Teachers in Higher Education have to play multiple roles to make sure that the Learning-Teaching process becomes effective in the real sense of the term. This paper makes an effort to take a close look at that, especially in the context of the management of English language teaching in Higher Education and, therefore, focuses on the management of English language teaching in higher education by understanding target situation analyses at the socio-cultural level.

Keywords: Higher Education, Management, Language Teaching, English Language Teaching

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1 A Review of the Literature on Arabic Language Teacher Education Issues in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Wesal Maash

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Teaching Arabic to native Arabic speakers is challenging, but this fact is not surprising due to Arabic’s diglossic nature. Its spread as a mother tongue language to over 22 countries has resulted in many regionally spoken dialects and has caused disparities between classical Arabic (the Qur’an language), modern standard Arabic (MSA; the language of news and contemporary literature), and spoken dialects. In the education systems of the Arab world, all Arabic textbooks and tests are written in MSA; however, teaching the Arabic language is far more complicated. Using local dialects when teaching Arabic can vary from community to community and from one Arab country to another. Although Arabic has a significant position in Arab countries, the realities of Arabic learning outcomes in these countries are not satisfactory and reflect a significant educational concern. Research has highlighted factors that contribute to this weakness, such as the Arabic language curriculum, teaching methods and strategies and social and cultural impacts. However, since teachers are considered the cornerstone of the educational process, most criticisms were directed towards ALTs (Arabic Language Teacher) and their training and preparation. This paper attempts to create knowledge and understanding regarding the main issues in ALT education through a literature review that investigates the status of ALTs and the main dilemmas they face in the Arab world. Studies assessing ALTs raised several concerns regarding ALT preparation programs. Therefore, this paper will provide a review of the Arab world literature, which investigated the statue and main weaknesses of ALT education, with a main focus on the Saudi context.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Language Teaching, Arabic language, first language

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