Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Landscape ecology Related Abstracts

7 Study on Planning of Smart GRID Using Landscape Ecology

Authors: Koji Okamura, Sunglim Lee, Susumu Fujii

Abstract:

Smart grid is a new approach for electric power grid that uses information and communications technology to control the electric power grid. Smart grid provides real-time control of the electric power grid, controlling the direction of power flow or time of the flow. Control devices are installed on the power lines of the electric power grid to implement smart grid. The number of the control devices should be determined, in relation with the area one control device covers and the cost associated with the control devices. One approach to determine the number of the control devices is to use the data on the surplus power generated by home solar generators. In current implementations, the surplus power is sent all the way to the power plant, which may cause power loss. To reduce the power loss, the surplus power may be sent to a control device and sent to where the power is needed from the control device. Under assumption that the control devices are installed on a lattice of equal size squares, our goal is to figure out the optimal spacing between the control devices, where the power sharing area (the area covered by one control device) is kept small to avoid power loss, and at the same time the power sharing area is big enough to have no surplus power wasted. To achieve this goal, a simulation using landscape ecology method is conducted on a sample area. First an aerial photograph of the land of interest is turned into a mosaic map where each area is colored according to the ratio of the amount of power production to the amount of power consumption in the area. The amount of power consumption is estimated according to the characteristics of the buildings in the area. The power production is calculated by the sum of the area of the roofs shown in the aerial photograph and assuming that solar panels are installed on all the roofs. The mosaic map is colored in three colors, each color representing producer, consumer, and neither. We started with a mosaic map with 100 m grid size, and the grid size is grown until there is no red grid. One control device is installed on each grid, so that the grid is the area which the control device covers. As the result of this simulation we got 350 m as the optimal spacing between the control devices that makes effective use of the surplus power for the sample area.

Keywords: Simulation, Smart Grid, Landscape ecology, aerial photograph

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6 Identification of Hedgerows in the Agricultural Landscapes of Mugada within Bartın Province, Turkey

Authors: Yeliz Sarı Nayim, B. Niyami Nayim

Abstract:

Biotopes such as forest areas rich in biodiversity, wetlands, hedgerows and woodlands play important ecological roles in agricultural landscapes. Of these semi-natural areas and features, hedgerows are the most common landscape elements. Their most significant features are that they serve as a barrier between the agricultural lands, serve as shelter, add aesthetical value to the landscape and contribute significantly to the wildlife and biodiversity. Hedgerows surrounding agricultural landscapes also provide an important habitat for pollinators which are important for agricultural production. This study looks into the identification of hedgerows in agricultural lands in the Mugada rural area within Bartın province, Turkey. From field data and-and satellite images, it is clear that in this area, especially around rural settlements, large forest areas have been cleared for settlement and agriculture. A network of hedgerows is also apparent, which might potentially play an important role in the otherwise open agricultural landscape. We found that these hedgerows serve as an ecological and biological corridor, linking forest ecosystems. Forest patches of different sizes and creating a habitat network across the landscape. Some examples of this will be presented. The overall conclusion from the study is that ecologically, biologically and aesthetically important hedge biotopes should be maintained in the long term in agricultural landscapes such as this. Some suggestions are given for how they could be managed sustainably into the future.

Keywords: Turkey, Landscape ecology, agricultural biotopes, Hedgerows

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5 Identification and Evaluation of Landscape Mosaics of Kutlubeyyazıcılar Campus, Bartın University, Turkey

Authors: B. N. Nayim, Y. Sarı Nayim

Abstract:

This research proposal includes the defining and evaluation of the semi-natural and cultural ecosystems at Bartın University main campus in Turkey in terms of landscape mosaics. The ecosystem mosaic of the main campus was divided into zones based on ecological classification technique. Based on the results from the study, it was found that 6 different ecosystem mosaics should be used as a base in the planning and design of the existing and future landscape planning of Kutlubeyyazıcılar campus. The first landscape zone involves the 'social areas'. These areas include yards, dining areas, recreational areas and lawn areas. The second landscape zone is 'main vehicle and pedestrian areas'. These areas include vehicle access to the campus landscape, moving in the campus with vehicles, parking and pedestrian walk ways. The third zone is 'landscape areas with high visual landscape quality'. These areas will be the places where attractive structural and plant landscape elements will be used. Fourth zone will be 'landscapes of building borders and their surroundings.' The fifth and important zone that should be survived in the future is 'Actual semi-natural forest and bush areas'. And the last zone is 'water landscape' which brings ecological value to landscape areas. While determining the most convenient areas in the planning and design of the campus, these landscape mosaics should be taken into consideration. This zoning will ensure that the campus landscape is protected and living spaces in the campus apart from the areas where human activities are carried out will be used properly.

Keywords: Landscape ecology, Bartın, campus landscape planning and design, landscape mosaics

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4 Environmental Interactions in Riparian Vegetation Cover in an Urban Stream Corridor: A Case Study of Duzce Asar Suyu

Authors: Engin Eroğlu, Oktay Yıldız, Necmi Aksoy, Akif Keten, Mehmet Kıvanç Ak, Şeref Keskin, Elif Atmaca, Sertaç Kaya

Abstract:

Nowadays, green spaces in urban areas are under threat and decreasing their percentages in the urban areas because of increasing population, urbanization, migration, and some cultural changes in quality. An important element of the natural landscape water and water-related natural ecosystems are exposed to corruption due to these pressures. A landscape has owned many different types of elements or units, a more dominant structure than other landscapes as good or bad perceptible extent different direction and variable reveals a unique structure and character of the landscape. Whereas landscapes deal with two main groups as urban and rural according to their location on the world, especially intersection areas of urban and rural named semi-urban or semi-rural present variety landscape features. The main components of the landscape are defined as patch-matrix-corridor. The corridors include quite various vegetation types such as riparian, wetland and the others. In urban areas, natural water corridors are an important elements of the diversity of the riparian vegetation cover. In particular, water corridors attract attention with a natural diversity and lack of fragmentation, degradation and artificial results. Thanks to these features, without a doubt, water corridors are the important component of all cities in the world. These corridors not only divide the city into two separate sides, but also assured the ecological connectivity between the two sides of the city. The main objective of this study is to determine the vegetation and habitat features of urban stream corridor according to environmental interactions. Within this context, this study will be realized that 'Asar Suyu' is an important component of the city of Düzce. Moreover, the riparian zone touched contiguous area borders of the city and overlaid the urban development limits of the city, determining of characteristics of the corridor will be carried out as floristic and habitat analysis. Consequently, vegetation structure and habitat features which play an important role between riparian zone vegetation covers and environmental interaction will be determined. This study includes first results of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK-116O596; 'Determining of Landscape Character of Urban Water Corridors as Visual and Ecological; A Case Study of Asar Suyu in Duzce').

Keywords: Landscape ecology, corridor, Duzce, riparian vegetation

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3 Periurban Landscape as an Opportunity Field to Solve Ecological Urban Conflicts

Authors: Cristina Galiana Carballo, Ibon Doval Martínez

Abstract:

Urban boundaries often result in a controversial limit between countryside and city in Europe. This territory is normally defined by the very limited land uses and the abundance of open space. The dimension and dynamics of peri-urbanization in the last decades have increased this land stock, which has influenced/impacted in several factors in terms of economic costs (maintenance, transport), ecological disturbances of the territory and changes in inhabitant´s behaviour. In an increasingly urbanised world and a growing urban population, cities also face challenges such as Climate Change. In this context, new near-future corrective trends including circular economies for local food supply or decentralised waste management became key strategies towards more sustainable urban models. Those new solutions need to be planned and implemented considering the potential conflict with current land uses. The city of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country, Spain) has triplicated land consumption per habitant in 10 years, resulting in a vast extension of low-density urban type confronting rural land and threatening agricultural uses, landscape and urban sustainability. Urban planning allows managing and optimum use allocation based on soil vocation and socio-ecosystem needs, while peri-urban space arises as an opportunity for developing different uses which do not match either within the compact city, not in open agricultural lands, such as medium-size agrocomposting systems or biomass plants. Therefore, a qualitative multi-criteria methodology has been developed for Vitoria-Gasteiz city to assess the spatial definition of peri-urban land. Therefore, a qualitative multi-criteria methodology has been developed for Vitoria-Gasteiz city to assess the spatial definition of peri-urban land. Climate change and circular economy were identified as frameworks where to determine future land, soil vocation and urban planning requirements which eventually become estimations of required local food and renewable energy supply along with alternative waste management system´s implementation. By means of it, it has been developed an urban planning proposal which overcomes urban-non urban dichotomy in Vitoria-Gasteiz. The proposal aims to enhance rural system and improve urban sustainability performance through the normative recognition of an agricultural peri-urban belt.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Landscape ecology, land-use management, periurban

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2 Understanding Responses of the Bee Community to an Urbanizing Landscape in Bengaluru, South India

Authors: M. Soubadra Devy, Chethana V. Casiker, Jagadishakumara B., Sunil G. M., Chaithra K.

Abstract:

A majority of the world’s food crops depends on insects for pollination, among which bees are the most dominant taxon. Bees pollinate vegetables, fruits and oilseeds which are rich in essential micronutrients. Besides being a prerequisite for a nutritionally secure diet, agrarian economies such as India depend heavily on pollination for good yield and quality of the product. As cities all over the world expand rapidly, large tracts of green spaces are being built up. This, along with high usage of agricultural chemicals has reduced floral diversity and shrunk bee habitats. Indeed, pollinator decline is being reported from various parts of the world. Further, the FAO has reported a huge increase in the area of land under cultivation of pollinator-dependent crops. In the light of increasing demand for pollination and disappearing natural habitats, it is critical to understand whether and how urban spaces can support pollinators. To this end, this study investigates the influence of landscape and local habitat quality on bee community dynamics. To capture the dynamics of expanding cityscapes, the study employs a space for time substitution, wherein a transect along the gradient of urbanization substitutes a timeframe of increasing urbanization. This will help understand how pollinators would respond to changes induced by increasing intensity of urbanization in the future. Bengaluru, one of the fastest growing cities of Southern India, is an excellent site to study impacts associated with urbanization. With sites moving away from the Bengaluru’s centre and towards its peripheries, this study captures the changes in bee species diversity and richness along a gradient of urbanization. Bees were sampled under different land use types as well as in different types of vegetation, including plantations, croplands, fallow land, parks, lake embankments, and private gardens. The relationship between bee community metrics and key drivers such as a percentage of built-up area, land use practices, and floral resources was examined. Additionally, data collected using questionnaire interviews were used to understand people’s perceptions towards and level of dependence on pollinators. Our results showed that urban areas are capable of supporting bees. In fact, a greater diversity of bees was recorded in urban sites compared to adjoining rural areas. This suggests that bees are able to seek out patchy resources and survive in small fragments of habitat. Bee abundance and species richness correlated positively with floral abundance and richness, indicating the role of vegetation in providing forage and nesting sites which are crucial to their survival. Bee numbers were seen to decrease with increase in built-up area demonstrating that impervious surfaces could act as deterrents. Findings from this study challenge the popular notion of cities being biodiversity-bare spaces. There is indeed scope for conserving bees in urban landscapes, provided that there are city-scale planning and local initiative. Bee conservation can go hand in hand with efforts such as urban gardening and terrace farming that could help cities urbanize sustainably.

Keywords: Landscape ecology, Urbanization, bee, urban pollination

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1 Themes in Aesthetic Perceptions of Restorative Urban Landscapes

Authors: Rachel Bechtold, Catherine Shoulders, Donald Johnson, Jennie Popp, Elena Garcia, Lisa Wood

Abstract:

Creating successfully restored urban landscapes involves both the sound design of natural resources and the incorporation of human perceptions of landscape. Moving forward with an invested interest from society is a challenge for the efficacy of reclaimed landscape design. In particular, urban areas present a dynamic environment wherein society and nature compete for resources and space. This review is meant to examine how perceptions of urban community members, the stakeholders for the plant species that share their environment, are reflected in aesthetic considerations. Findings from this literature review include themes of (1) aesthetic perceptions of stakeholders in rehabilitated landscapes and (2) the importance of organizing indicators of aesthetic perception for future design decisions. Recommendations include addressing the gap in research on aesthetic perceptions of reclaimed urban landscapes and addressing the lack of a consistent and widely accepted framework for these interdisciplinary studies. With knowledge of stakeholder perceptions, improved aesthetic and ecologic designs can more seamlessly merge into reclaimed urban landscapes.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Landscape ecology, Phytoremediation, Aesthetic Perception, Urban Landscape Design, landscape reclamation, phytorestoration

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