Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Landfill Related Abstracts

19 Quantification of Leachate Potential of the Quezon City Controlled Dumping Facility Using Help Model

Authors: Paul Kenneth D. Luzon, Maria Antonia N. Tanchuling


The Quezon City Controlled Dumping facility also known as Payatas produces leachate which can contaminate soil and water environment in the area. The goal of this study is to quantify the leachate produced by the QCCDF using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. Results could be used as input for groundwater contaminant transport studies. The HELP model is based on a simple water budget and is an essential “model requirement” used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Annual waste profile of the QCCDF was calculated. Based on topographical maps and estimation of settlement due to overburden pressure and degradation, a total of 10M m^3 of waste is contained in the landfill. The input necessary for the HELP model are weather data, soil properties, and landfill design. Results showed that from 1988 to 2011, an average of 50% of the total precipitation percolates through the bottom layer. Validation of the results is still needed due to the assumptions made in the study. The decrease in porosity of the top soil cover showed the best mitigation for minimizing percolation rate. This study concludes that there is a need for better leachate management system in the QCCDF.

Keywords: Landfill, help model, payatas trash slide, quezon city controlled dumping facility

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18 Impact of Cd and Pb Impregnation on the Health of an Adult Population Neighbouring a Landfill

Authors: A. Verdin, P. Shirali, M. Cabral, G. Garçon, A. Touré, C. Diop, M. Fall, S. Bouhsina, D. Dewaele, F.Cazier, A. Tall Dia, A. Diouf


This case-control study dealt with the health adverse effects within the population neighboring the Mbeubeuss waste dump, which is located near the district of Malika (Diamalaye II) in Dakar (Senegal). All the household and industrial waste arising from Dakar are stored in this open landfill without being covered and are therefore possible sources of Pb and Cd contaminated air emissions and lixiviates. The objective of this study is part of improving the health of the population neighboring Mbeubeuss by determining Pb and Cd concentrations both in environment and humans, and studying possible renal function alterations within the adults. Soil and air samples were collected in the control site (Darou Salam) and the waste dump neighboring site (Diamalaye II). Control and exposed adults were recruited as living in Darou Salam (n = 52) and in Diamalaye II (n = 77). Pb and Cd concentrations in soil, air and biological samples were determined. Moreover, we were interested in analyzing some impregnation (zinc protoporphyrin, d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase) and oxidative stress biomarkers (malonedialdehyde, gluthatione status), in addition to several nephrotoxicity parameters (creatinuria, proteinuria, lactate dehydrogenase, CC16 protein, glutathione S-transferase-alpha and retinol binding protein) in blood and/or urine. The results showed the significant Pb and Cd contamination of the soil and air samples derived from the landfill, and therefore of the neighboring population of adults. This critical exposure to environmental Pb and Cd had some harmful consequences for their health, as shown by the reported oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity signs.

Keywords: Landfill, Pb and Cd environmental exposure, impregnation markers, nephrotoxicity markers

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17 Treatment Process of Sludge from Leachate with an Activated Sludge System and Extended Aeration System

Authors: A. Chávez, A. Rodríguez, F. Pinzón


Society is concerned about measures of environmental, economic and social impacts generated in the solid waste disposal. These places of confinement, also known as landfills, are locations where problems of pollution and damage to human health are reduced. They are technically designed and operated, using engineering principles, storing the residue in a small area, compact it to reduce volume and covering them with soil layers. Problems preventing liquid (leachate) and gases produced by the decomposition of organic matter. Despite planning and site selection for disposal, monitoring and control of selected processes, remains the dilemma of the leachate as extreme concentration of pollutants, devastating soil, flora and fauna; aggressive processes requiring priority attention. A biological technology is the activated sludge system, used for tributaries with high pollutant loads. Since transforms biodegradable dissolved and particulate matter into CO2, H2O and sludge; transform suspended and no Settleable solids; change nutrients as nitrogen and phosphorous; and degrades heavy metals. The microorganisms that remove organic matter in the processes are in generally facultative heterotrophic bacteria, forming heterogeneous populations. Is possible to find unicellular fungi, algae, protozoa and rotifers, that process the organic carbon source and oxygen, as well as the nitrogen and phosphorus because are vital for cell synthesis. The mixture of the substrate, in this case sludge leachate, molasses and wastewater is maintained ventilated by mechanical aeration diffusers. Considering as the biological processes work to remove dissolved material (< 45 microns), generating biomass, easily obtained by decantation processes. The design consists of an artificial support and aeration pumps, favoring develop microorganisms (denitrifying) using oxygen (O) with nitrate, resulting in nitrogen (N) in the gas phase. Thus, avoiding negative effects of the presence of ammonia or phosphorus. Overall the activated sludge system includes about 8 hours of hydraulic retention time, which does not prevent the demand for nitrification, which occurs on average in a value of MLSS 3,000 mg/L. The extended aeration works with times greater than 24 hours detention; with ratio of organic load/biomass inventory under 0.1; and average stay time (sludge age) more than 8 days. This project developed a pilot system with sludge leachate from Doña Juana landfill - RSDJ –, located in Bogota, Colombia, where they will be subjected to a process of activated sludge and extended aeration through a sequential Bach reactor - SBR, to be dump in hydric sources, avoiding ecological collapse. The system worked with a dwell time of 8 days, 30 L capacity, mainly by removing values of BOD and COD above 90%, with initial data of 1720 mg/L and 6500 mg/L respectively. Motivating the deliberate nitrification is expected to be possible commercial use diffused aeration systems for sludge leachate from landfills.

Keywords: Leachate, Landfill, Sludge, SBR

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16 Selection of Solid Waste Landfill Site Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

Authors: Fatih Iscan, Ceren Yağci


Rapid population growth, urbanization and industrialization are known as the most important factors of environment problems. Elimination and management of solid wastes are also within the most important environment problems. One of the main problems in solid waste management is the selection of the best site for elimination of solid wastes. Lately, Geographical Information System (GIS) has been used for easing selection of landfill area. GIS has the ability of imitating necessary economical, environmental and political limitations. They play an important role for the site selection of landfill area as a decision support tool. In this study; map layers will be studied for minimum effect of environmental, social and cultural factors and maximum effect for engineering/economical factors for site selection of landfill areas and using GIS for an decision support mechanism in solid waste landfill areas site selection will be presented in Aksaray/TURKEY city, Güzelyurt district practice.

Keywords: Landfill, Solid Waste, GIS, Spatial analysis

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15 A Case Study at Lara's Landfill: Solid Waste Management and Energy Recovery

Authors: Kelly Danielly Da Silva Alcantara, Daniel Fernando Molina Junqueira, Graziella Colato Antonio


The Law No. 12,305/10, established by the National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS), provides major changes in the management and managing scenario of solid waste in Brazil. The PNRS established since changes from population behavior as environmental and the consciousness and commitment of the companies with the waste produced. The objective of this project is to conduct a benchmarking study of the management models of Waste Management Municipal Solid (MSW) in national and international levels emphasizing especially in the European Union (Portugal, France and Germany), which are reference countries in energy development, sustainability and consequently recovery of waste generated. The management that encompasses all stages that are included in this sector will be analyzed by benchmarking, as the collection, transportation, processing/treatment and final disposal of waste. Considering the needs to produce clean energy in Brazil, this study will allow the determination to the best treatment of the waste in order to reduce the amount of waste and increase the lifetime of the landfill. Finally, it intends to identify the energy recovery potential through a study analysis of economic viability, energy and sustainable based on a holistic approach.

Keywords: Benchmarking, Landfill, energy recovery, municipal solid waste

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14 Railway Transport as a Potential Source of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil

Authors: Nataša Stojić, Mira Pucarević, Nebojša Ralević, Vojislava Bursić, Gordan Stojić


Surface soil (0 – 10 cm) samples from 52 sampling sites along the length of railway tracks on the territory of Srem (the western part of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, itself part of Serbia) were collected and analyzed for 7 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in order to see how the distance from the railroad on the one hand and dump on the other hand, affect the concentration of PCBs (CPCBs) in the soil. Samples were taken at a distance of 0.03 to 4.19 km from the railway and 0.43 to 3.35 km from the landfills. For the soil extraction the Soxhlet extraction (USEPA 3540S) was used. The extracts were purified on a silica-gel column (USEPA 3630C). The analysis of the extracts was performed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. PCBs were not detected only at two locations. Mean total concentration of PCBs for all other sampling locations was 0,0043 ppm dry weight (dw) with a range of 0,0005 to 0,0227 ppm dw. On the part of the data that were interesting for this research with statistical methods (PCA) were isolated factors that affect the concentration of PCBs. Data were also analyzed using the Pearson's chi-squared test which showed that the hypothesis of independence of CPCBs and distance from the railway can be rejected. Hypothesis of independence between CPCB and the percentage of humus in the soil can also be rejected, in contrast to dependence of CPCB and the distance from the landfill where the hypothesis of independence cannot be rejected. Based on these results can be said that railway transport is a potential source of PCBs. The next step in this research is to establish the position of transformers which are located near sampling sites as another important factor that affects the concentration of PCBs in the soil.

Keywords: railway, Soil, Landfill, GC/MS, PCB

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13 Impact of El-Matrouha Landfill on Oued El-Kebir (North East of Algeria)

Authors: Samir Chekchaki, Mohamed Djalil Zaafour, Mohamed Benslama


The Landfill of El Matrouha is located in El-Tarf town (extreme north east of Algeria), the Landfill is present as a gigantic wild dump. This waste dump occupies an area of over four hectares, tons of rubbish that is sent daily are scattered over kilometers, reaching farmland located west of the town, the landfill is close to a temporary Oued, which supply Oued Guergour the last tributary Oued El Kebir. The landfills are causing serious environmental damage, following the infiltration of leachates, which contribute to the degradation of water quality, in the context of this problem, the purpose of the work is focused on assessing the impact of this landfill on Oued El-Kebir, for this a series of sampling and analysis of the soil and water of this Oued was performed; The results show that the soil collected reveal the sandy texture facilitating infiltration and percolation of leachate from the landfill; the physicochemical analysis of the quality of the river water reveals high levels of sulfates in fact this element is one of the essential constituents of the mineral fraction of the waste presenting a risk of pollution by this element, The recorded values for nutrients are sub-standard, for trace elements analysis shows very low metal load on the river except for lead, which is present at high concentrations exceeding all standard.

Keywords: Landfill, Algeria, leachates, Oued El-kebir

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12 Estimation of Leachate Generation from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in Selangor

Authors: Tengku Nilam Baizura, Noor Zalina Mahmood


In Malaysia, landfilling is the most preferred method and most of it does not have the proper leachate treatment system which can cause environmental problems. Leachate is the major factor to river water pollution since most landfills are located near the river which is the main water resource for the country. The study aimed to estimate leachate production from landfills in Selangor. A simple mathematical modelling was used for the calculation of annual leachate volume. The estimate of identified landfill area (A) using Google Earth was multiplied by the annual rainfall (R). The product is expressed as volume (V). The data indicate that the leachate production is high even it is fully closed. It is important to design the efficient landfill and proper leachate treatment processes especially for the old/closed landfill. Extensive monitoring will be required to predict future impact.

Keywords: Leachate, Landfill, Waste Disposal, municipal solid waste management

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11 An Overview of Electronic Waste as Aggregate in Concrete

Authors: S. R. Shamili, C. Natarajan, J. Karthikeyan


Rapid growth of world population and widespread urbanization has remarkably increased the development of the construction industry which caused a huge demand for sand and gravels. Environmental problems occur when the rate of extraction of sand, gravels, and other materials exceeds the rate of generation of natural resources; therefore, an alternative source is essential to replace the materials used in concrete. Now-a-days, electronic products have become an integral part of daily life which provides more comfort, security, and ease of exchange of information. These electronic waste (E-Waste) materials have serious human health concerns and require extreme care in its disposal to avoid any adverse impacts. Disposal or dumping of these E-Wastes also causes major issues because it is highly complex to handle and often contains highly toxic chemicals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, beryllium, brominates flame retardants (BFRs), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and phosphorus compounds. Hence, E-Waste can be incorporated in concrete to make a sustainable environment. This paper deals with the composition, preparation, properties, classification of E-Waste. All these processes avoid dumping to landfills whilst conserving natural aggregate resources, and providing a better environmental option. This paper also provides a detailed literature review on the behaviour of concrete with incorporation of E-Wastes. Many research shows the strong possibility of using E-Waste as a substitute of aggregates eventually it reduces the use of natural aggregates in concrete.

Keywords: Landfill, Toxic Chemicals, Electronic Waste, dumping

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10 Hydro-Mechanical Characterization of PolyChlorinated Biphenyls Polluted Sediments in Interaction with Geomaterials for Landfilling

Authors: Hadi Chahal, Irini Djeran-Maigre


This paper focuses on the hydro-mechanical behavior of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) polluted sediments when stored in landfills and the interaction between PCBs and geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) with respect to hydraulic performance of the liner and the overall performance and stability of landfills. A European decree, adopted in the French regulation forbids the reintroducing of contaminated dredged sediments containing more than 0,64mg/kg Σ 7 PCBs to rivers. At these concentrations, sediments are considered hazardous and a remediation process must be adopted to prevent the release of PCBs into the environment. Dredging and landfilling polluted sediments is considered an eco-environmental remediation solution. French regulations authorize the storage of PCBs contaminated components with less than 50mg/kg in municipal solid waste facilities. Contaminant migration via leachate may be possible. The interactions between PCBs contaminated sediments and the GCL barrier present in the bottom of a landfill for security confinement are not known. Moreover, the hydro-mechanical behavior of stored sediments may affect the performance and the stability of the landfill. In this article, hydro-mechanical characterization of the polluted sediment is presented. This characterization led to predict the behavior of the sediment at the storage site. Chemical testing showed that the concentration of PCBs in sediment samples is between 1.7 and 2,0 mg/kg. Physical characterization showed that the sediment is organic silty sand soil (%Silt=65, %Sand=27, %OM=8) characterized by a high plasticity index (Ip=37%). Permeability tests using permeameter and filter press showed that sediment permeability is in the order of 10-9 m/s. Compressibility tests showed that the sediment is a very compressible soil with Cc=0,53 and Cα =0,0086. In addition, effects of PCB on the swelling behavior of bentonite were studied and the hydraulic performance of the GCL in interaction with PCBs was examined. Swelling tests showed that PCBs don’t affect the swelling behavior of bentonite. Permeability tests were conducted on a 1.0 m pilot scale experiment, simulating a storage facility. PCBs contaminated sediments were directly placed over a passive barrier containing GCL to study the influence of the direct contact of polluted sediment leachate with the GCL. An automatic water system has been designed to simulate precipitation. Effluent quantity and quality have been examined. The sediment settlements and the water level in the sediment have been monitored. The results showed that desiccation affected the behavior of the sediment in the pilot test and that laboratory tests alone are not sufficient to predict the behavior of the sediment in landfill facility. Furthermore, the concentration of PCB in the sediment leachate was very low ( < 0,013 µg/l) and that the permeability of the GCL was affected by other components present in the sediment leachate. Desiccation and cracks were the main parameters that affected the hydro-mechanical behavior of the sediment in the pilot test. In order to reduce these infects, the polluted sediment should be stored at a water content inferior to its shrinkage limit (w=39%). We also propose to conduct other pilot tests with the maximum concentration of PCBs allowed in municipal solid waste facility of 50 mg/kg.

Keywords: Landfill, Geosynthetic Clay Liners, polychlorinated biphenyl, polluted dredged materials

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9 Sustainable Solid Waste Management Solutions for Asian Countries Using the Potential in Municipal Solid Waste of Indian Cities

Authors: Priyanka Kaushal, S. H. Babu Gurucharan


Majority of the world's population is expected to live in the Asia and Pacific region by 2050 and thus their cities will generate the maximum waste. India, being the second populous country in the world, is an ideal case study to identify a solution for Asian countries. Waste minimisation and utilisation have always been part of the Indian culture. During rapid urbanisation, our society lost the art of waste minimisation and utilisation habits. Presently, Waste is not considered as a resource, thus wasting an opportunity to tap resources. The technologies in vogue are not suited for effective treatment of large quantities of generated solid waste, without impacting the environment and the population. If not treated efficiently, Waste can become a silent killer. The article is trying to highlight the Indian municipal solid waste scenario as a key indicator of Asian waste management and recommend sustainable waste management and suggest effective solutions to treat the Solid Waste. The methods followed during the research were to analyse the solid waste data on characteristics of solid waste generated in Indian cities, then evaluate the current technologies to identify the most suitable technology in Indian conditions with minimal environmental impact, interact with the technology technical teams, then generate a technical process specific to Indian conditions and further examining the environmental impact and advantages/ disadvantages of the suggested process. The most important finding from the study was the recognition that most of the current municipal waste treatment technologies being employed, operate sub-optimally in Indian conditions. Therefore, the study using the available data, generated heat and mass balance of processes to arrive at the final technical process, which was broadly divided into Waste processing, Waste Treatment, Power Generation, through various permutations and combinations at each stage to ensure that the process is techno-commercially viable in Indian conditions. Then environmental impact was arrived through secondary sources and a comparison of environmental impact of different technologies was tabulated. The major advantages of the suggested process are the effective use of waste for resource generation both in terms of maximised power output or conversion to eco-friendly products like biofuels or chemicals using advanced technologies, minimum environmental impact and the least landfill requirement. The major drawbacks are the capital, operations and maintenance costs. The existing technologies in use in Indian municipalities have their own limitations and the shortlisted technology is far superior to other technologies in vogue. Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste with an efficient green power generation is possible through a combination of suitable environment-friendly technologies. A combination of bio-reactors and plasma-based gasification technology is most suitable for Indian Waste and in turn for Asian waste conditions.

Keywords: Landfill, Gas Fermentation, calorific value, municipal solid waste, syngas, plasma gasification

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8 Sustainable Geographic Information System-Based Map for Suitable Landfill Sites in Aley and Chouf, Lebanon

Authors: Allaw Kamel, Bazzi Hasan


Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is among the most significant sources which threaten the global environmental health. Solid Waste Management has been an important environmental problem in developing countries because of the difficulties in finding sustainable solutions for solid wastes. Therefore, more efforts are needed to be implemented to overcome this problem. Lebanon has suffered a severe solid waste management problem in 2015, and a new landfill site was proposed to solve the existing problem. The study aims to identify and locate the most suitable area to construct a landfill taking into consideration the sustainable development to overcome the present situation and protect the future demands. Throughout the article, a landfill site selection methodology was discussed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). Several environmental, economic and social factors were taken as criterion for selection of a landfill. Soil, geology, and LUC (Land Use and Land Cover) indices with the Sustainable Development Index were main inputs to create the final map of Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) for landfill site. Different factors were determined to define each index. Input data of each factor was managed, visualized and analyzed using GIS. GIS was used as an important tool to identify suitable areas for landfill. Spatial Analysis (SA), Analysis and Management GIS tools were implemented to produce input maps capable of identifying suitable areas related to each index. Weight has been assigned to each factor in the same index, and the main weights were assigned to each index used. The combination of the different indices map generates the final output map of ESA. The output map was reclassified into three suitability classes of low, moderate, and high suitability. Results showed different locations suitable for the construction of a landfill. Results also reflected the importance of GIS and MCDA in helping decision makers finding a solution of solid wastes by a sanitary landfill.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Landfill, geographic information system (GIS), municipal solid waste (MSW), multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA), environmentally sensitive area (ESA)

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7 Assessment of Surface Water Quality near Landfill Sites Using a Water Pollution Index

Authors: Alejandro Cittadino, David Allende


Landfilling of municipal solid waste is a common waste management practice in Argentina as in many parts of the world. There is extensive scientific literature on the potential negative effects of landfill leachates on the environment, so it’s necessary to be rigorous with the control and monitoring systems. Due to the specific municipal solid waste composition in Argentina, local landfill leachates contain large amounts of organic matter (biodegradable, but also refractory to biodegradation), as well as ammonia-nitrogen, small trace of some heavy metals, and inorganic salts. In order to investigate the surface water quality in the Reconquista river adjacent to the Norte III landfill, water samples both upstream and downstream the dumpsite are quarterly collected and analyzed for 43 parameters including organic matter, heavy metals, and inorganic salts, as required by the local standards. The objective of this study is to apply a water quality index that considers the leachate characteristics in order to determine the quality status of the watercourse through the landfill. The water pollution index method has been widely used in water quality assessments, particularly rivers, and it has played an increasingly important role in water resource management, since it provides a number simple enough for the public to understand, that states the overall water quality at a certain location and time. The chosen water quality index (ICA) is based on the values of six parameters: dissolved oxygen (in mg/l and percent saturation), temperature, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), ammonia-nitrogen and chloride (Cl-) concentration. The index 'ICA' was determined both upstream and downstream the Reconquista river, being the rating scale between 0 (very poor water quality) and 10 (excellent water quality). The monitoring results indicated that the water quality was unaffected by possible leachate runoff since the index scores upstream and downstream were ranked in the same category, although in general, most of the samples were classified as having poor water quality according to the index’s scale. The annual averaged ICA index scores (computed quarterly) were 4.9, 3.9, 4.4 and 5.0 upstream and 3.9, 5.0, 5.1 and 5.0 downstream the river during the study period between 2014 and 2017. Additionally, the water quality seemed to exhibit distinct seasonal variations, probably due to annual precipitation patterns in the study area. The ICA water quality index appears to be appropriate to evaluate landfill impacts since it accounts mainly for organic pollution and inorganic salts and the absence of heavy metals in the local leachate composition, however, the inclusion of other parameters could be more decisive in discerning the affected stream reaches from the landfill activities. A future work may consider adding to the index other parameters like total organic carbon (TOC) and total suspended solids (TSS) since they are present in the leachate in high concentrations.

Keywords: Leachate, Landfill, Surface Water, water quality index

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6 Investigating the Thermal Characteristics of Reclaimed Solid Waste from a Landfill Site Using Thermogravimetry

Authors: S. M. Al-Salem, G.A. Leeke, H. J. Karam, R. Al-Enzi, A. T. Al-Dhafeeri, J. Wang


Thermogravimetry has been popularized as a thermal characterization technique since the 1950s. It aims at investigating the weight loss against both reaction time and temperature, whilst being able to characterize the evolved gases from the volatile components of the organic material being tested using an appropriate hyphenated analytical technique. In an effort to characterize and identify the reclaimed waste from an unsanitary landfill site, this approach was initiated. Solid waste (SW) reclaimed from an active landfill site in the State of Kuwait was collected and prepared for characterization in accordance with international protocols. The SW was segregated and its major components were identified after washing and air drying. Shredding and cryomilling was conducted on the plastic solid waste (PSW) component to yield a material that is representative for further testing and characterization. The material was subjected to five heating rates (b) with minimal repeatable weight for high accuracy thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) following the recommendation of the International Confederation for Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (ICTAC). The TGA yielded thermograms that showed an off-set from typical behavior of commercial grade resin which was attributed to contact of material with soil and thermal/photo-degradation.

Keywords: Plastic, Waste, Pollution, Polymer, Landfill, TGA

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5 Effect of Preloading on Long-Term Settlement of Closed Landfills: A Numerical Analysis

Authors: Hadi Khabbaz, Mehrnaz Alibeikloo, Hajar Share Isfahani


In recent years, by developing cities and increasing population, reconstructing on closed landfill sites in some regions is unavoidable. Long-term settlement is one of the major concerns associated with reconstruction on landfills after closure. The purpose of this research is evaluating the effect of preloading in various patterns of height and time on long-term settlements of closed landfills. In this regard, five scenarios of surcharge from 1 to 3 m high within 3, 4.5 and 6 months of preloading time have been modeled using PLAXIS 2D software. Moreover, the numerical results have been compared to those obtained from analytical methods, and a good agreement has been achieved. The findings indicate that there is a linear relationship between settlement and surcharge height. Although, long-term settlement decreased by applying a longer and higher preloading, the time of preloading was found to be a more effective factor compared to preloading height.

Keywords: Landfill, PLAXIS 2D, preloading, long-term settlement

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4 Assessment of Waste Management Practices in Bahrain

Authors: T. Radu, R. Sreenivas, H. Albuflasa, A. Mustafa Khan, W. Aloqab


The Kingdom of Bahrain, a small island country in the Gulf region, is experiencing fast economic growth resulting in a sharp increase in population and greater than ever amounts of waste being produced. However, waste management in the country is still very basic, with landfilling being the most popular option. Recycling is still a scarce practice, with small recycling businesses and initiatives emerging in recent years. This scenario is typical for other countries in the region, with similar amounts of per capita waste being produced. In this paper, we are reviewing current waste management practices in Bahrain by collecting data published by the Government and various authors, and by visiting the country’s only landfill site, Askar. In addition, we have performed a survey of the residents to learn more about the awareness and attitudes towards sustainable waste management strategies. A review of the available data on waste management indicates that the Askar landfill site is nearing its capacity. The site uses open tipping as the method of disposal. The highest percentage of disposed waste comes from the building sector (38.4%), followed by domestic (27.5%) and commercial waste (17.9%). Disposal monitoring and recording are often based on estimates of weight and without proper characterization/classification of received waste. Besides, there is a need for assessment of the environmental impact of the site with systematic monitoring of pollutants in the area and their potential spreading to the surrounding land, groundwater, and air. The results of the survey indicate low awareness of what happens with the collected waste in the country. However, the respondents have shown support for future waste reduction and recycling initiatives. This implies that the education of local communities would be very beneficial for such governmental initiatives, securing greater participation. Raising awareness of issues surrounding recycling and waste management and systematic effort to divert waste from landfills are the first steps towards securing sustainable waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Keywords: Waste Management, Landfill, Survey, municipal solid waste

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3 The Use of Geographic Information System for Selecting Landfill Sites in Osogbo

Authors: Nureni Amoo, Sunday Aroge, Oluranti Akintola, Hakeem Olujide, Ibrahim Alabi


This study investigated the optimum landfill site in Osogbo so as to identify suitable solid waste dumpsite for proper waste management in the capital city. Despite an increase in alternative techniques for disposing of waste, landfilling remains the primary means of waste disposal. These changes in attitudes in many parts of the world have been supported by changes in laws and policies regarding the environment and waste disposal. Selecting the most suitable site for landfill can avoid any ecological and socio-economic effects. The increase in industrial and economic development, along with the increase of population growth in Osogbo town, generates a tremendous amount of solid waste within the region. Factors such as the scarcity of land, the lifespan of the landfill, and environmental considerations warrant that the scientific and fundamental studies are carried out in determining the suitability of a landfill site. The analysis of spatial data and consideration of regulations and accepted criteria are part of the important elements in the site selection. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision-making method using geographic information system (GIS) with the integration of the fuzzy logic multi-criteria decision making (FMCDM) technique for landfill suitability site evaluation. By using the fuzzy logic method (classification of suitable areas in the range of 0 to 1 scale), the superposing of the information layers related to drainage, soil, land use/land cover, slope, land use, and geology maps were performed in the study. Based on the result obtained in this study, five (5) potential sites are suitable for the construction of a landfill are proposed, two of which belong to the most suitable zone, and the existing waste disposal site belonged to the unsuitable zone.

Keywords: Landfill, Waste Disposal, Geographic Information System, fuzzy logic multi-criteria decision making, suitable site

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2 The Methanotrophic Activity in a Landfill Bio-Cover through a Subzero Winter

Authors: Qiuyan Yuan, Parvin Berenjkar, Richard Sparling, Stan Lozecznik


Landfills highly contribute to anthropological global warming through CH₄ emissions. Landfills are usually capped by a conventional soil cover to control the migration of gases. Methane is consumed by CH₄-oxidizing microorganisms known as methanotrophs that naturally exist in the landfill soil cover. The growth of methanotrophs can be optimized in a bio-cover that typically consists of a gas distribution layer (GDL) to homogenize landfill gas fluxes and an overlying oxidation layer composed of suitable materials that support methanotrophic populations. Materials such as mature yard waste composts can provide an inexpensive and favourable porous support for the growth and activity of methanotrophs. In areas with seasonal cold climates, it is valuable to know if methanotrophs in a bio-cover can survive in winter until the next spring, and how deep they are active in the bio-cover to mitigate CH₄. In this study, a pilot bio-cover was constructed in a closed landfill cell in Winnipeg that has a very cold climate in Canada. The bio-cover has a surface area of 2.5 m x 3.5 m and 1.5 m of depth, filled with 50 cm of gravel as a GDL and 70 cm of biosolids compost amended with yard and leaf waste compost. The observed in situ potential of methanotrophs for CH₄ oxidation was investigated at a specific period of time from December 2016 to April 2017 as well as November 2017 to April 2018, when the transition to surface frost and thawing happens in the bio-cover. Compost samples taken from different depths of the bio-cover were incubated in the laboratory under standardized conditions; an optimal air: methane atmosphere, at 22ºC, but at in situ moisture content. Results showed that the methanotrophs were alive oxidizing methane without a lag, indicating that there was the potential for methanotrophic activity at some depths of the bio-cover.

Keywords: Global Warming, Landfill, bio-cover, methanotrophic activity

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1 Development of a Coupled Thermal-Mechanical-Biological Model to Simulate Impacts of Temperature on Waste Stabilization at a Landfill in Quebec, Canada

Authors: Simran Kaur, Paul J. Van Geel


A coupled Thermal-Mechanical-Biological (TMB) model was developed for the analysis of impacts of temperatures on waste stabilization at a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfill in Quebec, Canada using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element-based software. For waste placed in landfills in Northern climates during winter months, it can take months or even years before the waste approaches ideal temperatures for biodegradation to occur. Therefore, the proposed model links biodegradation induced strain in MSW to waste temperatures and corresponding heat generation rates as a result of anaerobic degradation. This provides a link between the thermal-biological and mechanical behavior of MSW. The thermal properties of MSW are further linked to density which is tracked and updated in the mechanical component of the model, providing a mechanical-thermal link. The settlement of MSW is modelled based on the concept of viscoelasticity. The specific viscoelastic model used is a single Kelvin – Voight viscoelastic body in which the finite element response is controlled by the elastic material parameters – Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The numerical model was validated with 10 years of temperature and settlement data collected from a landfill in Ste. Sophie, Quebec. The coupled TMB modelling framework, which simulates placement of waste lifts as they are placed progressively in the landfill, allows for optimization of several thermal and mechanical parameters throughout the depth of the waste profile and helps in better understanding of temperature dependence of MSW stabilization. The model is able to illustrate how waste placed in the winter months can delay biodegradation-induced settlement and generation of landfill gas. A delay in waste stabilization will impact the utilization of the approved airspace prior to the placement of a final cover and impact post-closure maintenance. The model provides a valuable tool to assess different waste placement strategies in order to increase airspace utilization within landfills operating under different climates, in addition to understanding conditions for increased gas generation for recovery as a green and renewable energy source.

Keywords: Landfill, Finite element modeling, Waste Stabilization, municipal solid waste, coupled model

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