Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Land Use Related Abstracts

44 Challenges of Peri-Urban Agriculture in Cities of Developing Countries: A Case Study of Nairobi City Peri-Urban Area

Authors: Aggrey Daniel Maina Thuo

Abstract:

Rapid urban population growth means an increasing demand for urban land, particularly for housing, and also for various other urban uses. This land is not available within cities but in peri-urban areas. The expansion of the cities into the peri-urban areas is creating direct and indirect impacts with those living there facing new challenges and opportunities in meeting their life needs and accommodating the by-products of urbanization. Although urbanization of these areas provides opportunities for employment, better housing, education, knowledge and technology transfer, and ready markets for the agricultural products, increase in population places enormous stress on natural resources and existing social services and infrastructure, therefore causing environmental degradation. This environmental degradation is affecting agriculture for those still holding onto their farms for agricultural purposes. This paper, using a multiple theoretical framework and qualitative research approach, attempts to describe the positive and adverse effects of urbanization on peri-urban agriculture, using the Town Council of Karuri within Nairobi peri-urban areas as a case study.

Keywords: Planning, Land Use, Environmental Degradation, Urbanization, peri-urban agriculture

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43 The Relationship between Land Use Change and Runoff

Authors: Preeyaphorn Kosa, Thanutch Sukwimolseree

Abstract:

Many problems are occurred in watershed due to human activity and economic development. The purpose is to determine the effects of the land use change on surface runoff using land use map on 1980, 2001 and 2008 and daily weather data during January 1, 1979 to September 30, 2010 applied to SWAT. The results can be presented that the polynomial equation is suitable to display that relationship. These equations for land use in 1980, 2001 and 2008 are consisted of y = -0.0076x5 + 0.1914x4–1.6386x3 + 6.6324x2–8.736x + 7.8023(R2 = 0.9255), y = -0.0298x5 + 0.8794x4 - 9.8056x3 + 51.99x2 - 117.04x + 96.797; (R2 = 0.9186) and y = -0.0277x5 + 0.8132x4 - 8.9598x3 + 46.498x2–101.83x +81.108 (R2 = 0.9006), respectively. Moreover, if the agricultural area is the largest area, it is a sensitive parameter to concern surface runoff.

Keywords: Land Use, SWAT, runoff, upper Mun River basin

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42 Erodibility Analysis of Cikapundung Hulu: A Study Case of Mekarwangi Catchment Area

Authors: Shantosa Yudha Siswanto, Rachmat Harryanto

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of land use and slope steepness on soil erodibility index. The research was conducted from September to December 2013 in Mekarwangi catchment area, sub watershed of Cikapundung Hulu, Indonesia. The study was carried out using descriptive method. Physiographic free survey method was used as survey method, it was a survey based on land physiographic appearance. Soil sampling was carried out into transect on the similarity of slope without calculating the range between points of observation. Soil samples were carried onto three classes of land use such as: forest, plantation and dry cultivation area. Each land use consists of three slope classes such as: 8-15%, 16-25%, and 26-40% class. Five samples of soil were taken from each of them, resulting 45 points of observation. The result of the research showed that type of land use and slope classes gave different effect on soil erodibility. The highest C-organic and permeability was found on forest with slope 16-25%. Slope of 8-15% with forest land use give the lowest effect on soil erodibility.

Keywords: Land Use, erosion, slope, erodibility

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41 The Influence of Conservation Measures, Limiting Soil Degradation, on the Quality of Surface Water Resources

Authors: V. Sobotková, B. Šarapatka, M. Dumbrovský, J. Uhrová, M. Bednář

Abstract:

The paper deals with the influence of implemented conservation measures on the quality of surface water resources. Recently, a new process of complex land consolidation in the Czech Republic has provided a unique opportunity to improve the quality of the environment and sustainability of crop production by means of better soil and water conservation. The most important degradation factor in our study area in the Hubenov drinking water reservoir catchment basin was water erosion together with loss of organic matter. Hubenov Reservoir water resources were monitored for twenty years (1990–2010) to collect water quality data for nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3-), total P, and undissolved substances. Results obtained from measurements taken before and after land consolidation indicated a decrease in the linear trend of N-NO3- and total P concentrations, this was achieved through implementation of conservation measures limiting soil degradation in the Hubenov reservoir catchment area.

Keywords: Soil and Water Conservation, Land Use, degradation, complex land consolidation, surface water resources

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40 An Examination of Changes on Natural Vegetation due to Charcoal Production Using Multi Temporal Land SAT Data

Authors: T. Garba, Y. Y. Babanyara, M. Isah, A. K. Muktari, R. Y. Abdullahi

Abstract:

The increased in demand of fuel wood for heating, cooking and sometimes bakery has continued to exert appreciable impact on natural vegetation. This study focus on the use of multi-temporal data from land sat TM of 1986, land sat EMT of 1999 and lands sat ETM of 2006 to investigate the changes of Natural Vegetation resulting from charcoal production activities. The three images were classified based on bare soil, built up areas, cultivated land, and natural vegetation, Rock out crop and water bodies. From the classified images Land sat TM of 1986 it shows natural vegetation of the study area to be 308,941.48 hectares equivalent to 50% of the area it then reduces to 278,061.21 which is 42.92% in 1999 it again depreciated to 199,647.81 in 2006 equivalent to 30.83% of the area. Consequently cultivated continue increasing from 259,346.80 hectares (42%) in 1986 to 312,966.27 hectares (48.3%) in 1999 and then to 341.719.92 hectares (52.78%). These show that within the span of 20 years (1986 to 2006) the natural vegetation is depreciated by 119,293.81 hectares. This implies that if the menace is not control the natural might likely be lost in another twenty years. This is because forest cleared for charcoal production is normally converted to farmland. The study therefore concluded that there is the need for alternatives source of domestic energy such as the use of biomass which can easily be accessible and affordable to people. In addition, the study recommended that there should be strong policies enforcement for the protection forest reserved.

Keywords: Data, Images, classification, Land Use, charcoal, natural vegetation

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39 Assessing the Community Change Effects of Transit Oriented Development in Jabodetabek, Indonesia

Authors: Hayati Sari Hasibuan, Tresna P. Soemardi, Raldi H. Koestoer, Setyo S. Moersidik

Abstract:

Facing the severe transportation system in daily basis, the government of Indonesia were searching an alternative solution to combat the acute traffic jam and the socio-economic negative effects and pollutions resulted. Transit-oriented development as a strategy in reformulating and restructuring of the urban land uses as well as the transport system will be implemented in many urban areas in Indonesia, especially in Jabodetabek. Jabodetabek is the greatest metropolitan area in Indonesia with 27.9 million inhabitants. The Jabodetabek is also the center of economic activity with gross domestic product around 22 percent of gross national product. This study aims to assess the potential of economic development and community change effects with implementing the transit oriented development. This study found that using transit oriented development as an alternative approach in reconstructing of urban land uses in metropolitan region will effect to the behaviour of urban mobilities, the housing choices, and the cost of transportation. The sustainable of socio-economic aspects resulting from the transit oriented development is the main focus of this paper. The challenge here is to explore the characteristics of transit oriented development that suitable for metropolitan region in developing country,which considering the uniqueness of nature and socio-cultural that shapes this urban.

Keywords: Economic Development, Transportation, Environment, Land Use, community change, restructuring

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38 Land Use Changes and Its Implications on Livelihood Activities in Msaranga Peri-Urban Settlement in Moshi Municipality, Tanzania

Authors: Magigi Wakuru, Gaudensi Kapinga

Abstract:

This study examines land use changes and its implications on livelihood activities of peri-urban settlements in Msaranga, Moshi Municipality. Specifically; it analyses the historical development of the settlement, socioeconomic characteristics and land use changes over time. Likely, find out existing livelihood activities and how have been changing over time in the context of urbanization, and lastly highlights land use change implications on livelihood activities to residents. Interviews, observations, documentary reviews and mapping were data collection tools employed. The study shows that housing, urban agriculture, roads infrastructure, recreational, open spaces and institutions are some land use types existing in the settlement. On-farm and off-farm livelihood activities have been identified livelihood activities in the settlement. These include crop cultivation, livestock keeping, trading and formal employment and have been changing over time. However, urbanisation observed to be a catalyst of change and affect livelihood activities over time. Resorting to off-farm livelihoods activities including engaging in retail business and seeking employment in formal and informal sector are some copying strategies documented. The study wind up by pointing roles of different actors and issues of particular attention to different stakeholders towards reducing impact of land use changes on livelihood strategies in the settlement. Likely, unresolved issues for future research and policy development agenda are highlighted in this study. The study concludes that the impact of land use changes on livelihood activities need collaborative effort of different stakeholders, policy enforcement as well as public private partnership in issues based implementation in cities like Moshi where land use is rapidly changing over time within urban planning cycles due to increasing population demand in cities of Sub-Saharan Africa.

Keywords: Land Use, land use changes, Tanzania, livelihood activities, peri-urban settlement, Moshi

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37 Mathematical Model for Flow and Sediment Yield Estimation on Tel River Basin, India

Authors: Ramakar Jha, Santosh Kumar Biswal

Abstract:

Soil erosion is a slow and continuous process and one of the prominent problems across the world leading to many serious problems like loss of soil fertility, loss of soil structure, poor internal drainage, sedimentation deposits etc. In this paper remote sensing and GIS based methods have been applied for the determination of soil erosion and sediment yield. Tel River basin which is the second largest tributary of the river Mahanadi laying between latitude 19° 15' 32.4"N and, 20° 45' 0"N and longitude 82° 3' 36"E and 84° 18' 18"E chosen for the present study. The catchment was discretized into approximately homogeneous sub-areas (grid cells) to overcome the catchment heterogeneity. The gross soil erosion in each cell was computed using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Various parameters for USLE was determined as a function of land topography, soil texture, land use/land cover, rainfall, erosivity and crop management and practice in the watershed. The concept of transport limited accumulation was formulated and the transport capacity maps were generated. The gross soil erosion was routed to the catchment outlet. This study can help in recognizing critical erosion prone areas of the study basin so that suitable control measures can be implemented.

Keywords: Land Use, GIS, Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), sediment yield

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36 Land Use Change Detection Using Satellite Images for Najran City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)

Authors: Ismail Elkhrachy

Abstract:

Determination of land use changing is an important component of regional planning for applications ranging from urban fringe change detection to monitoring change detection of land use. This data are very useful for natural resources management.On the other hand, the technologies and methods of change detection also have evolved dramatically during past 20 years. So it has been well recognized that the change detection had become the best methods for researching dynamic change of land use by multi-temporal remotely-sensed data. The objective of this paper is to assess, evaluate and monitor land use change surrounding the area of Najran city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using Landsat images (June 23, 2009) and ETM+ image(June. 21, 2014). The post-classification change detection technique was applied. At last,two-time subset images of Najran city are compared on a pixel-by-pixel basis using the post-classification comparison method and the from-to change matrix is produced, the land use change information obtained.Three classes were obtained, urban, bare land and agricultural land from unsupervised classification method by using Erdas Imagine and ArcGIS software. Accuracy assessment of classification has been performed before calculating change detection for study area. The obtained accuracy is between 61% to 87% percent for all the classes. Change detection analysis shows that rapid growth in urban area has been increased by 73.2%, the agricultural area has been decreased by 10.5 % and barren area reduced by 7% between 2009 and 2014. The quantitative study indicated that the area of urban class has unchanged by 58.2 km〗^2, gained 70.3 〖km〗^2 and lost 16 〖km〗^2. For bare land class 586.4〖km〗^2 has unchanged, 53.2〖km〗^2 has gained and 101.5〖km〗^2 has lost. While agriculture area class, 20.2〖km〗^2 has unchanged, 31.2〖km〗^2 has gained and 37.2〖km〗^2 has lost.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Land Use, image classification, change detection, satellite images

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35 Finding a Redefinition of the Relationship between Rural and Urban Knowledge

Authors: Bianca Maria Rulli, Lenny Valentino Schiaretti

Abstract:

The considerable recent urbanization has increasingly sharpened environmental and social problems all over the world. During the recent years, many answers to the alarming attitudes in modern cities have emerged: a drastic reduction in the rate of growth is becoming essential for future generations and small scale economies are considered more adaptive and sustainable. According to the concept of degrowth, cities should consider surpassing the centralization of urban living by redefining the relationship between rural and urban knowledge; growing food in cities fundamentally contributes to the increase of social and ecological resilience. Through an innovative approach, this research combines the benefits of urban agriculture (increase of biological diversity, shorter and thus more efficient supply chains, food security) and temporary land use. They stimulate collaborative practices to satisfy the changing needs of communities and stakeholders. The concept proposes a coherent strategy to create a sustainable development of urban spaces, introducing a productive green-network to link specific areas in the city. By shifting the current relationship between architecture and landscape, the former process of ground consumption is deeply revised. Temporary modules can be used as concrete tools to create temporal areas of innovation, transforming vacant or marginal spaces into potential laboratories for the development of the city. The only permanent ground traces, such as foundations, are minimized in order to allow future land re-use. The aim is to describe a new mindset regarding the quality of space in the metropolis which allows, in a completely flexible way, to bring back the green and the urban farming into the cities. The wide possibilities of the research are analyzed in two different case-studies. The first is a regeneration/connection project designated for social housing, the second concerns the use of temporary modules to answer to the potential needs of social structures. The intention of the productive green-network is to link the different vacant spaces to each other as well as to the entire urban fabric. This also generates a potential improvement of the current situation of underprivileged and disadvantaged persons.

Keywords: Land Use, Urban farming, degrowth, green network, temporary building

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34 Intermediate-Term Impact of Taiwan High-Speed Rail (HSR) and Land Use on Spatial Patterns of HSR Travel

Authors: Tsai Yu-hsin, Chung Yi-Hsin

Abstract:

The employment of an HSR system, resulting in elevation in the inter-city/-region accessibility, is likely to promote spatial interaction between places in the HSR and extended territory. The inter-city/-region travel via HSR could be, among others, affected by the land use, transportation, and location of the HSR station at both trip origin and destination ends. However, relatively few insights have been shed on these impacts and spatial patterns of the HSR travel. The research purposes, as phase one of a series of HSR related research, of this study are threefold: to analyze the general spatial patterns of HSR trips, such as the spatial distribution of trip origins and destinations; to analyze if specific land use, transportation characteristics, and trip characteristics affect HSR trips in terms of the use of HSR, the distribution of trip origins and destinations, and; to analyze the socio-economic characteristics of HSR travelers. With the Taiwan HSR starting operation in 2007, this study emphasizes on the intermediate-term impact of HSR, which is made possible with the population and housing census and industry and commercial census data and a station area intercept survey conducted in the summer 2014. The analysis will be conducted at the city, inter-city, and inter-region spatial levels, as necessary and required. The analysis tools include descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis with the assistance of SPSS, HLM and ArcGIS. The findings, on the one hand, can provide policy implications for associated land use, transportation plan and the site selection of HSR station. On the other hand, on the travel the findings are expected to provide insights that can help explain how land use and real estate values could be affected by HSR in following phases of this series of research.

Keywords: Travel, Land Use, Spatial Pattern, high speed rail

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33 Transformations of Land Uses and Attitudes in Manavgat Region at South Turkey

Authors: Emrah Yildirim, Veli Ortacesme

Abstract:

Manavgat region, located in Antalya province at South Turkey, has hosted many civilizations throughout the centuries. All of these civilizations cultivated the land in their surroundings by engaging in agriculture, livestock production and hunting. In the last 50 years, there have been dramatic changes in the region. The economy of the region switched from the agriculture to tourism. Due to the increase in the irrigable agricultural lands, several dams were built on Manavgat River. Developments in the agricultural mechanization and new product needs have changed the pattern of agriculture and regional landscape. Coastal zone of the region has transformed to tourism areas, Manavgat Town Center has grown up and the urbanization in general has increased. The population and urbanization have increased by 257 % and 276 %, respectively. The tourism and commercial areas cover 561,8 hectares today. All these developments had some negative effects on the environment. In this study, land use/land cover transformations were studied in Manavgat region by using aerial photos. The reasons and consequences of the land use transformations were discussed, and some recommendations regarding the sustainable use of this region’s landscape will be shared.

Keywords: Transformation, Land Use, Manavgat region, south Turkey

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32 Analysis of Land Use, Land Cover Changes in Damaturu, Nigeria: Using Satellite Images

Authors: Isa Muhammad Zumo, Musa Lawan

Abstract:

This study analyzes the land use/land cover changes in Damaturu metropolis from 1986 to 2005. LandSat TM Images of 1986, 1999, and 2005 were used. Built-up lands, agric lands, water body and other lands were created as themes within ILWIS 3.4 software. The images were displayed in False Colour Composite (FCC) for a better visualization and identification of the themes created. Training sample sets were collected based on the ground truth data during field the checks. Statistical data were then extracted from the classified sample set. Area in hectares for each theme was calculated for each year and the result for each land use/land cover types for each study year was compared. From the result, it was found out that built-up areas have a considerable increase from 37.71 hectares in 1986 to 1062.72 hectares in 2005. It has an annual increase rate of approximately 0.34%. The results also reveal that there is a decrease of 5829.66 hectares of other lands (vacant lands) from 1986 to 2005.

Keywords: Analysis, Environmental Pollution, Land Use, changes

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31 Remote Sensing and GIS for Land Use Change Assessment: Case Study of Oued Bou Hamed Watershed, Southern Tunisia

Authors: Ouerchefani Dalel, Mahdhaoui Basma

Abstract:

Land use change is one of the important factors needed to evaluate later on the impact of human actions on land degradation. This work present the application of a methodology based on remote sensing for evaluation land use change in an arid region of Tunisia. This methodology uses Landsat TM and ETM+ images to produce land use maps by supervised classification based on ground truth region of interests. This study showed that it was possible to rely on radiometric values of the pixels to define each land use class in the field. It was also possible to generate 3 land use classes of the same study area between 1988 and 2011.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Change, Land Use, GIS

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30 Use of Data of the Remote Sensing for Spatiotemporal Analysis Land Use Changes in the Eastern Aurès (Algeria)

Authors: A. Bouzekri, H. Benmassaud

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Aurès region is one of the arid and semi-arid areas that have suffered climate crises and overexploitation of natural resources they have led to significant land degradation. The use of remote sensing data allowed us to analyze the land and its spatiotemporal changes in the Aurès between 1987 and 2013, for this work, we adopted a method of analysis based on the exploitation of the images satellite Landsat TM 1987 and Landsat OLI 2013, from the supervised classification likelihood coupled with field surveys of the mission of May and September of 2013. Using ENVI EX software by the superposition of the ground cover maps from 1987 and 2013, one can extract a spatial map change of different land cover units. The results show that between 1987 and 2013 vegetation has suffered negative changes are the significant degradation of forests and steppe rangelands, and sandy soils and bare land recorded a considerable increase. The spatial change map land cover units between 1987 and 2013 allows us to understand the extensive or regressive orientation of vegetation and soil, this map shows that dense forests give his place to clear forests and steppe vegetation develops from a degraded forest vegetation and bare, sandy soils earn big steppe surfaces that explain its remarkable extension. The analysis of remote sensing data highlights the profound changes in our environment over time and quantitative monitoring of the risk of desertification.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Land Use, spatiotemporal, Aurès

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29 Region Coastal Land Management and Tracking Changes in Ownership Status

Authors: Tayfun Çay, Fazil Nacar

Abstract:

Energy investments have increased in North Mediterranean Ceyhan and Yumurtalık districts of Turkey in the last years because of the treaties which are signed between Turkey and other countries for petroleum and natural gas transmission. Authority of land use has passed to district and metropolitan municipalities from town municipalities because of changes in coast legislation and local management legislation. Also Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning and Ministry of Industry and Commerce have had a right to comment on planning unofficially. Public investments increase in area and related planning and expropriation services continue. On the other hand, a lot of private sectors invest in organised industrial sites and industrial areas and it causes a rapid change in ownership status. Also Ceyhan-yumurtalık region is the tourism centre of North Mediterranean. Tourism investments continue in this district. Especially construction sector gain speed and a lot of country sites and apartments are built. In these studies, changes in planning activities in management of different administrative organisations and changes in ownership status and changes in private properties will be presented.

Keywords: Property, Land Use, land management, coast management, public interest

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28 Assessment of Environmental Implications of Rapid Population Growth on Land Use Dynamics: A Case Study of Eleme Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria

Authors: Moses Obenade, Francis I. Okpiliya, Henry U. Okeke, Eugene J. Aniah

Abstract:

Population growth in Eleme has been rapid over the past 75 years with its attendant pressure on the natural resources of the area. Between 1937 and 2006 the population of Eleme grew from 2,528 to 190,194 and is projected to be above 265,707 in 2016 based on an annual growth rate of 3.4%. Using the combined technologies of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing (RS) and Demography techniques as its methodology, this paper examines the environmental implications of rapid population growth on land use dynamics in Eleme between 1986 and 2015. The study reveals that between 1986 and 2006, Built-up area and Farmland increased by 72.67 and 12.77% respectively, while light and thick vegetation recorded a decrease of -6.92 and -61.64% respectively. Water body remains fairly constant with minimal changes. Also, between 2006 and 2015 covering a period of 9 years, Built-up area further increased by 53% with an annual growth rate of 2.32 km2 gaining more land area on the detriment of other land uses. Built-up area has an annual growth rate of 2.32km2 and is expected to increase from 18.67km2 in 2006 to 41.87km2 in 2016.The observed Land used/Land cover dynamics is derived by the demographic characteristics of the Study area. Eleme has a total area of 138km2 out of which the Federal Government of Nigeria compulsorily acquired an estimated area of 59.34km2 for industrial purposes excluding acquisitions by the Rivers State Government. It is evident from the findings of this study that the carrying capacity of Eleme ecosystem is under threat due to the current population growth and land consumption rates. Therefore, measures such as use of appropriate technologies in farming techniques, waste management; investment in family planning and female empowerment, maternal health and education, afforestation programs; and amendment of Land Use Act of 1978 are recommended.

Keywords: GIS and Remote Sensing, Land Use, population growth, Eleme

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27 The City Narrated from the Hill, Evaluation of Natural Fabric in Urban Plans: A Case Study of Santiago de Chile

Authors: Monica Sanchez

Abstract:

What responsibility does urban planning have on climate changes? How does the territory give us answers of resilience? Historically, urban plans have civilized territories: waters are channeled, grounds are sealed, foreign species are incorporated, native ones are extinguished, and/or enclosed spaces are heated or cooled. Socially this facilitates coexistence, but in turn brings negative environmental consequences. The past fifty years, mankind has tried to redirect these consequences through different strategies. Research studies produced strategies designed to alleviate climate change. Exploring the nature of territories has been incorporated in urban planning to discover natures response. The case to be studied is Santiago, Chile: for its combined impacts of climate change and the significant response by this city on climate governance in the last decades. Warmer areas in Santiago are seen in the areas of high-density buildings such as the commune of Recoleta, while the coldest are characterized by the predominance of low residential densities as the commune of Providencia. These two communes are separated and complemented by an undulating body that comes from the Andes mountains called San Cristobal Hill. What if the hill were taken into account when making roads, zoning and buildings? Was it difficult to prolong in the urban plans the hill characteristics to the city solving the intersection with other natural areas? Apparently it was, because the projected-profile informs us that the planned strategies used correspond to the same operations used in the flat areas of Santiago. This research focuses on: explaining the geographic relationships between city-hill; explaining the planning process around the hill with a morphological analysis; evaluating how the hill has been considered the in the city in the plans that intended to cushion the environmental impacts and studying what is missing on the hill and city to strengthen their integration. Therefore, the research will have different scales of understanding: addressing territorial scale -understanding the vegetation, topography and hydrology; a city scale -analyzing urban plans that Santiago has dealt with the environment and city; and a local scale -studying the integration and public spaces and coverage- norms of the adjacent communes. The expected outcome is to decipher possible deficits and capabilities of the current urban plans for climate change. It is anticipated that the hill and valley is now trying to reconcile after such a long separation. Yet it seems that never will prevail all the Rules of Nature, but the Urban Rules. The plans will require pruning, irrigation, control of invasive alien species and public safety standards, but will be rejoining a dose of nature with the building environment -this will protect us better from it from the time that we feared from it and knew little about it. Today we know a little more, enough to adapt to the process. Although nature is not perceived and we ignore it, it has a remarkable ability to respond.

Keywords: Climate Change, Morphology, Resilience, Land Use, urban plans, hills and cities, heat islands

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26 Reformed Land: Extent of Use and Contribution to Livelihoods in the Waterberg District

Authors: A. J. Netshipale, M. L. Mashiloane, S. J. Oosting, I. J. M. De Boer, E. N. Raidimi

Abstract:

Three tier land reform programme (land restitution, land redistribution and land tenure reform) had been implemented for the past two decades in South Africa with an aim of redressing the unjust land ownership patterns of the past. Land restitution and redistribution seeked to make land available for beneficiaries’ ownership based on policy guidelines. Attention given to the two sub-programmes was mostly land reform focused with the quantity of land that exchanged ownership being used as a measure of success with disregard for how the land is used by the beneficiaries for their livelihoods. In few cases that the land use assessment was done for the two sub-programmes it was assessed on a case basis or few selected cases. The current study intended to shed light on a broader scope. This study investigated the extent to which land reform farms were used and contribution made by farms to the livelihoods of active beneficiaries. Seventy six farms that represented restitution (16 farms) and redistribution (60) programmes were selected for land use investigation. Land use data were collected from farm representatives by means of semi-structured questionnaire. A stratified sample of 87 households (38 for restitution and 49 for redistribution) were selected for livelihood investigations. Data on income generating activities and passive income sources were collected from household heads using semi-structured questionnaire. Additional data were collected through focus group discussions and from stakeholders through key-informants interviews. Livestock production used more land per farm on average (45%) in relation to the amount of average total land used per farm of 77% under land redistribution programme. Land restitution transformed crop farms into mixed farming and unused farms to be under use while land redistribution converted conservation land into agricultural land and also unused farms to be used. Livestock production contributed on average 25% to the livelihoods of 48% of the households whereas crop production contributed 31% on average to the livelihoods of 67% of the households. Government grants had the highest contribution of 54% on average and contributed to most households (72%). Agriculture was the sole source of livelihoods to only three per cent of the households. Most households (40%) had a mix of three livelihoods sources as their livelihood strategy. It could be concluded that the use of reformed land would be mainly influenced by the agro-ecological conditions of the area and agriculture could not be the main source of livelihoods for households that benefited from land reform. Land reform policies which accommodate diverse livelihoods activities could contribute to sustainable livelihoods.

Keywords: Land Use, households, livelihoods, active beneficiaries, land reform

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25 Water Quality Management Based on Hydrodynamic Approach, Landuse, and Human Intervention in Wulan Delta Central Java Indonesia: Problems Identification and Review

Authors: Lintang Nur Fadlillah, Muh Aris Marfai, M. Widyastuti

Abstract:

Delta is dynamics area which is influenced by marine and river. Increasing human population in coastal area and the need of life exert pressure in delta that provides various resources. Wulan Delta is one of active Delta in Central Java, Indonesia. It has been experienced multiple pressures because of natural factors and human factors. In order to provide scientific solution and to analyze the main driving force in river delta, we collected several evidences based on news, papers, and publications related to Wulan Delta. This paper presents a review and problems identification in Wulan Delta, based on hydrodynamic approach, land use, and human activities which influenced water quality in the delta. A comprehensive overview is needed to address best policies under local communities and government. The analysis based on driving forces which affect delta estuary and river mouth. Natural factor in particular hydrodynamic influenced by tides, waves, runoff, and sediment transport. However, hydrodynamic affecting mixing process in river estuaries. The main problem is human intervention in land which is land use exchange leads to several problems such us decreasing water quality. Almost 90% of delta has been transformed into fish pond by local communities. Yet, they have not apply any water management to treat waste water before flush it to the sea and estuary. To understand the environmental condition, we need to assess water quality of river delta. The assessment based on land use as non-point source pollution. In Wulan Delta there are no industries. The land use in Wulan Delta consist of fish pond, settlement, and agriculture. The samples must represent the land use, to estimate which land use are most influence in river delta pollution. The hydrodynamic condition such as high tides and runoff must be considered, because it will affect the mixing process and water quality as well. To determine the samples site, we need to involve local community, in order to give insight into them. Furthermore, based on this review and problem identification, recommendations and strategies for water management are formulated.

Keywords: Management, Hydrodynamics, Water Quality, Land Use, delta

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24 Solids and Nutrient Loads Exported by Preserved and Impacted Low-Order Streams: A Comparison among Water Bodies in Different Latitudes in Brazil

Authors: Wesley A. Saltarelli, Nicolas R. Finkler, Davi G. F. Cunha, Taison A. Bortolin, Vania E. Schneider

Abstract:

Estimating the relative contribution of nonpoint or point sources of pollution in low-orders streams is an important tool for the water resources management. The location of headwaters in areas with anthropogenic impacts from urbanization and agriculture is a common scenario in developing countries. This condition can lead to conflicts among different water users and compromise ecosystem services. Water pollution also contributes to exporting organic loads to downstream areas, including higher order rivers. The purpose of this research is to preliminarily assess nutrients and solids loads exported by water bodies located in watersheds with different types of land uses in São Carlos - SP (Latitude. -22.0087; Longitude. -47.8909) and Caxias do Sul - RS (Latitude. -29.1634, Longitude. -51.1796), Brazil, using regression analysis. The variables analyzed in this study were Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Nitrate (NO3-), Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS). Data were obtained in October and December 2015 for São Carlos (SC) and in November 2012 and March 2013 for Caxias do Sul (CXS). Such periods had similar weather patterns regarding precipitation and temperature. Altogether, 11 sites were divided into two groups, some classified as more pristine (SC1, SC4, SC5, SC6 and CXS2), with predominance of native forest; and others considered as impacted (SC2, SC3, CXS1, CXS3, CXS4 and CXS5), presenting larger urban and/or agricultural areas. Previous linear regression was applied for data on flow and drainage area of each site (R² = 0.9741), suggesting that the loads to be assessed had a significant relationship with the drainage areas. Thereafter, regression analysis was conducted between the drainage areas and the total loads for the two land use groups. The R² values were 0.070, 0.830, 0.752 e 0.455 respectively for SST, TKN, NO3- and TP loads in the more preserved areas, suggesting that the loads generated by runoff are significant in these locations. However, the respective R² values for sites located in impacted areas were respectively 0.488, 0.054, 0.519 e 0.059 for SST, TKN, NO3- and P loads, indicating a less important relationship between total loads and runoff as compared to the previous scenario. This study suggests three possible conclusions that will be further explored in the full-text article, with more sampling sites and periods: a) In preserved areas, nonpoint sources of pollution are more significant in determining water quality in relation to the studied variables; b) The nutrient (TKN and P) loads in impacted areas may be associated with point sources such as domestic wastewater discharges with inadequate treatment levels; and c) The presence of NO3- in impacted areas can be associated to the runoff, particularly in agricultural areas, where the application of fertilizers is common at certain times of the year.

Keywords: Water resources management, Land Use, Streams, Linear Regression, point and non-point pollution sources

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23 Effect of Land Use and Abandonment on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Depletion by Runoff in Shallow Soils under Semi-Arid Mediterranean Climate

Authors: Mohamed Rashad, Mohamed Emran, Giovanni Pardini, Maria Gispert

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Land use and abandonment in semi-arid degraded ecosystems may cause regressive dynamics in vegetation cover affecting organic matter contents, soil nutrients and structural stability, thus reducing soil resistance to erosion. Mediterranean areas are generally subjected to climatic fluctuations, which modify soil conditions and hydrological processes, such as runoff and water infiltration within the upper soil horizons. Low erosion rates occur in very fragile and shallow soils with minor clay content progressively decrease organic carbon C and nitrogen N pools in the upper soil horizons. Seven soils were selected representing variant context of land use and abandonment at the Cap de Creus Peninsula, Catalonia, NE Spain, from recent cultivated vines and olive groves, mid abandoned forests standing under cork and pine trees, pasture to late abandoned Cistus and Erica scrubs. The aim of this work was to study the effect of changes in land use and abandonment on the depletion of soil organic carbon and nitrogen transported by runoff water in shallow soils after natural rainfall events during two years with different rainfall patterns (1st year with low rainfall and 2nd year with high rainfall) by i) monitoring the most significant soil erosion parameters at recorded rainfall events, ii) studying the most relevant soil physical and chemical characteristics on seasonal basis and iii) analysing the seasonal trends of depleted carbon and nitrogen and their interaction with soil surface compaction parameters. Significant seasonal variability was observed in the relevant soil physical and chemical parameters and soil erosion parameters in all soils to establish their evolution under land use and abandonment during two years of different rainfall patterns (214 and 487 mm per year), giving important indications on soil response to rainfall impacts. Erosion rates decreased significantly with the increasing of soil C and N under low and high rainfall. In cultivated soils, C and N depletion increased by 144% and 115%, respectively by 13% increase in erosion rates during the 1st year with respect to the 2nd year. Depleted C and N were proportionally higher in soils under vines and olive with vulnerable soil structure and low soil resilience leading to degradation, altering nutrients cycles and causing adverse impact on environmental quality. Statistical analysis underlined that, during the 1st year, soil surface was less effective in preserving stocks of organic resources leading to higher susceptibility to erosion with consequent C and N depletion. During the 2nd year, higher organic reserve and water storage occurred despite the increasing of C and N loss with an effective contribution from soil surface compaction parameters. The overall estimation during the two years indicated clear differences among soils under vines, olive, cork and pines, suggesting on the one hand, that current cultivation practices are inappropriate and that reforestation with pines may delay the achievement of better soil conditions. On the other hand, the natural succession of vegetation under Cistus, pasture and Erica suggests the recovery of good soil conditions.

Keywords: Land Use, soil erosion, land abandonment, nutrient's depletion

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22 A Vision Making Exercise for Twente Region; Development and Assesment

Authors: Gelareh Ghaderi

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the overall objective of this study is to develop two alternative plans of spatial and infrastructural development for the Netwerkstad Twente (Twente region) until 2040 and to assess the impacts of those two alternative plans. This region is located on the eastern border of the Netherlands, and it comprises of five municipalities. Based on the strengths and opportunities of the five municipalities of the Netwerkstad Twente, and in order develop the region internationally, strengthen the job market and retain skilled and knowledgeable young population, two alternative visions have been developed; environmental oriented vision, and economical oriented vision. Environmental oriented vision is based mostly on preserving beautiful landscapes. Twente would be recognized as an educational center, driven by green technologies and environment-friendly economy. Market-oriented vision is based on attracting and developing different economic activities in the region based on visions of the five cities of Netwerkstad Twente, in order to improve the competitiveness of the region in national and international scale. On the basis of the two developed visions and strategies for achieving the visions, land use and infrastructural development are modeled and assessed. Based on the SWOT analysis, criteria were formulated and employed in modeling the two contrasting land use visions by the year 2040. Land use modeling consists of determination of future land use demand, assessment of suitability land (Suitability analysis), and allocation of land uses on suitable land. Suitability analysis aims to determine the available supply of land for future development as well as assessing their suitability for specific type of land uses on the basis of the formulated set of criteria. Suitability analysis was operated using CommunityViz, a Planning Support System application for spatially explicit land suitability and allocation. Netwerkstad Twente has highly developed transportation infrastructure, consists of highways network, national road network, regional road network, street network, local road network, railway network and bike-path network. Based on the assumptions of speed limitations on different types of roads provided, infrastructure accessibility level of predicted land use parcels by four different transport modes is investigated. For evaluation of the two development scenarios, the Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) method is used. The first step was to determine criteria used for evaluation of each vision. All factors were categorized as economical, ecological and social. Results of Multi-criteria Evaluation show that Environmental oriented cities scenario has higher overall score. Environment-oriented scenario has impressive scores in relation to economical and ecological factors. This is due to the fact that a large percentage of housing tends towards compact housing. Twente region has immense potential, and the success of this project will define the Eastern part of The Netherlands and create a real competitive local economy with innovations and attractive environment as its backbone.

Keywords: Vision, Infrastructure, Land Use, economical oriented vision, environmental oriented vision, multi criteria assesment

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21 Ant and Spider Diversity in a Rural Landscape of the Vhembe Biosphere, South Africa

Authors: Evans V. Mauda, Stefan H. Foord, Thinandavha C. Munyai

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The greatest threat to biodiversity is a loss of habitat through landscape fragmentation and attrition. Land use changes are therefore among the most immediate drivers of species diversity. Urbanization and agriculture are the main drivers of habitat loss and transformation in the Savanna biomes of South Africa. Agricultural expansion and the intensification in particular, take place at the expense of biodiversity and will probably be the primary driver of biodiversity loss in this century. Arthropods show measurable behavioural responses to changing land mosaics at the smallest scale and heterogeneous environments are therefore predicted to support more complex and diverse biological assemblages. Ants are premier soil turners, channelers of energy and dominate insect fauna, while spiders are a mega-diverse group that can regulate other invertebrate populations. This study aims to quantify the response of these two taxa in a rural-urban mosaic of a rapidly developing communal area. The study took place in and around two villages in the north-eastern corner of South Africa. Two replicates for each of the dominant land use categories, viz. urban settlements, dryland cultivation and cattle rangelands, were set out in each of the villages and sampled during the dry and wet seasons for a total of 2 villages × 3 land use categories × 2 seasons = 24 assemblages. Local scale variables measured included vertical and horizontal habitat structure as well as structural and chemical composition of the soil. Ant richness was not affected by land use but local scale variables such as vertical vegetation structure (+) and leaf litter cover (+), although vegetation complexity at lower levels was negatively associated with ant richness. However, ant richness was largely shaped by regional and temporal processes invoking the importance of dispersal and historical processes. Spider species richness was mostly affected by land use and local conditions highlighting their landscape elements. Spider richness did not vary much between villages and across seasons and seems to be less dependent on context or history. There was a considerable amount of variation in spider richness that was not explained and this could be related to factors which were not measured in this study such as temperature and competition. For both ant and spider assemblages the constrained ordination explained 18 % of variation in these taxa. Three environmental variables (leaf litter cover, active carbon and rock cover) were important in explaining ant assemblage structure, while two (sand and leaf litter cover) were important for spider assemblage structure. This study highlights the importance of disturbance (land use activities) and leaf litter with the associated effects on ant and spider assemblages across the study area.

Keywords: Diversity, ants, Land Use, assemblages, Urbanization, Biosphere, Spiders

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20 Evaluating Urban Land Expansion Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing in Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Sharif Ahmadi, Yoshitaka Kajita

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With massive population expansion and fast economic development in last decade, urban land has increasingly expanded and formed high informal development territory in Kabul city. This paper investigates integrated urbanization trends in Kabul city since the formation of the basic structure of the present city using GIS and remote sensing. This study explores the spatial and temporal difference of urban land expansion and land use categories among different time intervals, 1964-1978 and 1978-2008 from 1964 to 2008 in Kabul city. Furthermore, the goal of this paper is to understand the extent of urban land expansion and the factors driving urban land expansion in Kabul city. Many factors like population expansion, the return of refugees from neighboring countries and significant economic growth of the city affected urban land expansion. Across all the study area urban land expansion rate, population expansion rate and economic growth rate have been compared to analyze the relationship of driving forces with urban land expansion. Based on urban land change data detected by interpreting land use maps, it was found that in the entire study area the urban territory has been expanded by 14 times between 1964 and 2008.

Keywords: Land Use, GIS, Urbanization, Kabul city, urban land expansion

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19 An Exploratory Analysis of Brisbane's Commuter Travel Patterns Using Smart Card Data

Authors: Ming Wei

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Over the past two decades, Location Based Service (LBS) data have been increasingly applied to urban and transportation studies due to their comprehensiveness and consistency. However, compared to other LBS data including mobile phone data, GPS and social networking platforms, smart card data collected from public transport users have arguably yet to be fully exploited in urban systems analysis. By using five weekdays of passenger travel transaction data taken from go card – Southeast Queensland’s transit smart card – this paper analyses the spatiotemporal distribution of passenger movement with regard to the land use patterns in Brisbane. Work and residential places for public transport commuters were identified after extracting journeys-to-work patterns. Our results show that the locations of the workplaces identified from the go card data and residential suburbs are largely consistent with those that were marked in the land use map. However, the intensity for some residential locations in terms of population or commuter densities do not match well between the map and those derived from the go card data. This indicates that the misalignment between residential areas and workplaces to a certain extent, shedding light on how enhancements to service management and infrastructure expansion might be undertaken.

Keywords: Big Data, Land Use, smart card data, travel pattern

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18 Evaluation of the Urban Regeneration Project: Land Use Transformation and SNS Big Data Analysis

Authors: Tae-Heon Moon, Ju-Young Kim, Jung-Hun Cho

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Urban regeneration projects have been actively promoted in Korea. In particular, Jeonju Hanok Village is evaluated as one of representative cases in terms of utilizing local cultural heritage sits in the urban regeneration project. However, recently, there has been a growing concern in this area, due to the ‘gentrification’, caused by the excessive commercialization and surging tourists. This trend was changing land and building use and resulted in the loss of identity of the region. In this regard, this study analyzed the land use transformation between 2010 and 2016 to identify the commercialization trend in Jeonju Hanok Village. In addition, it conducted SNS big data analysis on Jeonju Hanok Village from February 14th, 2016 to March 31st, 2016 to identify visitors’ awareness of the village. The study results demonstrate that rapid commercialization was underway, unlikely the initial intention, so that planners and officials in city government should reconsider the project direction and rebuild deliberate management strategies. This study is meaningful in that it analyzed the land use transformation and SNS big data to identify the current situation in urban regeneration area. Furthermore, it is expected that the study results will contribute to the vitalization of regeneration area.

Keywords: Text Mining, Urban Regeneration, Land Use, SNS

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17 Vulnerability of Indian Agriculture to Climate Change: A Study of the Himalayan Region State

Authors: Monisha Isaac, Rajendra Kumar Isaac

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Climate variability and changes are the emerging challenges for Indian agriculture with the growing population to ensure national food security. A study was conducted to assess the Climatic Change effects in medium to low altitude areas of the Himalayan region causing changes in land use and cereal crop productivity with the various climatic parameters. The rainfall and temperature changes from 1951 to 2013 were studied at four locations of varying altitudes, namely Hardwar, Rudra Prayag, Uttar Kashi and Tehri Garwal. It was observed that there is noticeable increment in temperature on all the four locations. It was surprisingly observed that the mean rainfall intensity of 30 minutes duration has increased at the rate of 0.1 mm/hours since 2000. The study shows that the combined effect of increasing temperature, rainfall, runoff and urbanization at the mid-Himalayan region is causing an increase in various climatic disasters and changes in agriculture patterns. A noticeable change in cropping patterns, crop productivity and land use change was observed. Appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies are necessary to ensure that sustainable and climate-resilient agriculture. Appropriate information is necessary for farmers, as well as planners and decision makers for developing, disseminating and adopting climate-smart technologies.

Keywords: Agriculture, Mitigation strategies, Land Use, Climate Variability

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16 Measuring Flood Risk concerning with the Flood Protection Embankment in Big Flooding Events of Dhaka Metropolitan Zone

Authors: Marju Ben Sayed, Shigeko Haruyama

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Among all kinds of natural disaster, the flood is a common feature in rapidly urbanizing Dhaka city. In this research, assessment of flood risk of Dhaka metropolitan area has been investigated by using an integrated approach of GIS, remote sensing and socio-economic data. The purpose of the study is to measure the flooding risk concerning with the flood protection embankment in big flooding events (1988, 1998 and 2004) and urbanization of Dhaka metropolitan zone. In this research, we considered the Dhaka city into two parts; East Dhaka (outside the flood protection embankment) and West Dhaka (inside the flood protection embankment). Using statistical data, we explored the socio-economic status of the study area population by comparing the density of population, land price and income level. We have drawn the cross section profile of the flood protection embankment into three different points for realizing the flooding risk in the study area, especially in the big flooding year (1988, 1998 and 2004). According to the physical condition of the study area, the land use/land cover map has been classified into five classes. Comparing with each land cover unit, historical weather station data and the socio-economic data, the flooding risk has been evaluated. Moreover, we compared between DEM data and each land cover units to find out the relationship with flood. It is expected that, this study could contribute to effective flood forecasting, relief and emergency management for a future flood event in Dhaka city.

Keywords: Flood, Land Use, GIS, Land Cover Change, socio-economic, Dhaka city

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15 Biophysical Assessment of the Ecological Condition of Wetlands in the Parkland and Grassland Natural Regions of Alberta, Canada

Authors: Marie-Claude Roy, David Locky, Ermias Azeria, Jim Schieck

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It is estimated that up to 70% of the wetlands in the Parkland and Grassland natural regions of Alberta have been lost due to various land-use activities. These losses include ecosystem function and services they once provided. Those wetlands remaining are often embedded in a matrix of human-modified habitats and despite efforts taken to protect them the effects of land-uses on wetland condition and function remain largely unknown. We used biophysical field data and remotely-sensed human footprint data collected at 322 open-water wetlands by the Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute (ABMI) to evaluate the impact of surrounding land use on the physico-chemistry characteristics and plant functional traits of wetlands. Eight physio-chemistry parameters were assessed: wetland water depth, water temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon. Three plant functional traits were evaluated: 1) origin (native and non-native), 2) life history (annual, biennial, and perennial), and 3) habitat requirements (obligate-wetland and obligate-upland). Intensity land-use was quantified within a 250-meter buffer around each wetland. Ninety-nine percent of wetlands in the Grassland and Parkland regions of Alberta have land-use activities in their surroundings, with most being agriculture-related. Total phosphorus in wetlands increased with the cover of surrounding agriculture, while salinity, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon were positively associated with the degree of soft-linear (e.g. pipelines, trails) land-uses. The abundance of non-native and annual/biennial plants increased with the amount of agriculture, while urban-industrial land-use lowered abundance of natives, perennials, and obligate wetland plants. Our study suggests that land-use types surrounding wetlands affect the physicochemical and biological conditions of wetlands. This research suggests that reducing human disturbances through reclamation of wetland buffers may enhance the condition and function of wetlands in agricultural landscapes.

Keywords: Wetlands, Land Use, biophysical assessment, grassland and parkland natural regions

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