Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

land readjustment Related Abstracts

6 Collaborative Implementation of Master Plans in Afghanistan's Context Considering Land Readjustment as Case Study

Authors: Ahmad Javid Habib, Tetsuo Kidokoro

Abstract:

There is an increasing demand for developing urban land to provide better living conditions for all citizens in Afghanistan. Most of the development will involve the acquisition of land. And the current land acquisition method practiced by central government is expropriation, which is a cash-based transaction method that imposes heavy fiscal burden on local municipalities and central government, and it does not protect ownership rights and social equity of landowners besides it relocates the urban poor to remote areas with limited access to jobs and public services. The questionnaire analysis, backed by observations of different case studies in countries where land readjustment is used as a collaborative land development tool indicates that the method plays a key role in valuing landowners’ rights, giving other community members and stakeholders the opportunity to collaboratively implement urban development projects. The practice of the method is reducing the heavy fiscal burden on the local and central governments and is a better option to deal with the current development challenges in Afghanistan.

Keywords: Collaboration, master plan, land readjustment, expropriation

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5 A Study on Unplanned Settlement in Kabul City

Authors: Samir Ranjbar, Nasrullah Istanekzai

Abstract:

According to a report published in The Guardian, Kabul, the capital city of Afghanistan is the fifth fastest growing city in the world, whose population has increased fourfold since 2001 from 1.2 million to 4.8 million people. The main reason for this increment is identified as the return of Afghans migrated during the civil war. In addition to the return of immigrants, a steep economic growth due to foreign assistance in last decade creating lots of job opportunities in Kabul resulted in the attraction of individuals from the neighboring provinces as well. However, the development of urban facilities such as water supply system, housing transportation and waste management systems has yet to catch up with this rapid increase in population. Since Kabul city has developed traditionally and municipal governance had very limited capacity to implement municipal bylaws. As an unwanted consequence of this growth 70% of Kabul citizens contributed to developing informal settlement for which we can say that around three million people living in informally settled areas, lacking the very vital social and physical infrastructures of livelihood. This research focuses on a region with 30 ha area and 2100 people residents in the center of Kabul city. A comprehensive land readjustment concept plan has been formulated for this area. Through this concept plan, physical and social infrastructure has been demonstrated and analyzed. Findings of this paper propose a solution for the problems of this unplanned area in Kabul which is readjusting of unplanned area by a self-supporting process. This process does not need governmental budget and can be applied by government, private sectors and landowner associations. Furthermore, by implementing the Land Readjustment process, conceptual plans can be built for unplanned areas, maximum facilities can be brought to the residents’ urban life, improve the environment for the users’ benefit, promote the culture and sense of cooperation, participation and coexistence in the mind of people, improving the transport system, improvement in economic status (the value of land increases due to infrastructure availability and land legalization). In addition to all these benefits for the public, we can raise the revenue of government by collecting the taxes from landowners. This process is implemented in most of countries of the world, it was implemented for the first time in Germany and after that in most cities of Japan as well, and is known as one of the effective processes for infrastructural development. To sum up, the notable characteristic of the Land readjustment process is that it works on the concept of mutual interest in which both landowners and the government take advantage. However, in this process, the engagement of community is very important and without public cooperation, this process can face the failure.

Keywords: Afghanistan, land readjustment, informal settlement, Kabul

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4 Rapid Strategic Consensus Building in Land Readjustment in Kabul

Authors: Ikuo Sugiyama, Nangialai Yousufzai, Eysosiyas Etana

Abstract:

Kabul population has been growing continually since 2001 and reaching six million in 2025 due to the rapid inflow from the neighboring countries. As a result of the population growth, lack of living facilities supported by infrastructure services is becoming serious in social and economic aspects. However, about 70% of the city is still occupied illegally and the government has little information on the infrastructure demands. To improve this situation, land readjustment is one of the powerful development tools, because land readjustment does not need a high governmental budget of itself. Instead, the method needs cooperation between stakeholders such as landowners, developers and a local government. So it is becoming crucial for both government and citizens to implement land readjustment for providing tidy urban areas with enough public services to realize more livable city as a whole. On the contrary, the traditional land readjustment tends to spend a long time until now to get consensus on the new plan between stakeholders. One of the reasons is that individual land area (land parcel) is decreased due to the contribution to public such as roads/parks/squares for improving the urban environment. The second reason is that the new plan is difficult for dwellers to imagine new life after the readjustment. Because the paper-based plan is made by an authority not for dwellers but for specialists to precede the project. This paper aims to shorten the time to realize quick consensus between stakeholders. The first improvement is utilizing questionnaire(s) to assess the demand and preference of the landowners. The second one is utilizing 3D model for dwellers to visualize the new environment easily after the readjustment. In additions, the 3D model is reflecting the demand and preference of the resident so that they could select a land parcel according to their sense value of life. The above-mentioned two improvements are carried out after evaluating total land prices of the new plans to select for maximizing the project value. The land price forecasting formula is derived from the current market ones in Kabul. Finally, it is stressed that the rapid consensus-building of land readjustment utilizing ICT and open data analysis is essential to redevelop slums and illegal occupied areas in Kabul.

Keywords: consensus building, land readjustment, land price formula

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3 Effects of the In-Situ Upgrading Project in Afghanistan: A Case Study on the Formally and Informally Developed Areas in Kabul

Authors: Maisam Rafiee, Chikashi Deguchi, Akio Odake, Minoru Matsui, Takanori Sata

Abstract:

Cities in Afghanistan have been rapidly urbanized; however, many parts of these cities have been developed with no detailed land use plan or infrastructure. In other words, they have been informally developed without any government leadership. The new government started the In-situ Upgrading Project in Kabul to upgrade roads, the water supply network system, and the surface water drainage system on the existing street layout in 2002, with the financial support of international agencies. This project is an appropriate emergency improvement for living life, but not an essential improvement of living conditions and infrastructure problems because the life expectancies of the improved facilities are as short as 10–15 years, and residents cannot obtain land tenure in the unplanned areas. The Land Readjustment System (LRS) conducted in Japan has good advantages that rearrange irregularly shaped land lots and develop the infrastructure effectively. This study investigates the effects of the In-situ Upgrading Project on private investment, land prices, and residents’ satisfaction with projects in Kart-e-Char, where properties are registered, and in Afshar-e-Silo Lot 1, where properties are unregistered. These projects are located 5 km and 7 km from the CBD area of Kabul, respectively. This study discusses whether LRS should be applied to the unplanned area based on the questionnaire and interview responses of experts experienced in the In-situ Upgrading Project who have knowledge of LRS. The analysis results reveal that, in Kart-e-Char, a lot of private investment has been made in the construction of medium-rise (five- to nine-story) buildings for commercial and residential purposes. Land values have also incrementally increased since the project, and residents are commonly satisfied with the road pavement, drainage systems, and water supplies, but dissatisfied with the poor delivery of electricity as well as the lack of public facilities (e.g., parks and sport facilities). In Afshar-e-Silo Lot 1, basic infrastructures like paved roads and surface water drainage systems have improved from the project. After the project, a few four- and five-story residential buildings were built with very low-level private investments, but significant increases in land prices were not evident. The residents are satisfied with the contribution ratio, drainage system, and small increase in land price, but there is still no drinking water supply system or tenure security; moreover, there are substandard paved roads and a lack of public facilities, such as parks, sport facilities, mosques, and schools. The results of the questionnaire and interviews with the four engineers highlight the problems that remain to be solved in the unplanned areas if LRS is applied—namely, land use differences, types and conditions of the infrastructure still to be installed by the project, and time spent for positive consensus building among the residents, given the project’s budget limitation.

Keywords: private investment, land readjustment, Kabul city, land value, in-situ upgrading, planned area, residents' satisfaction, unplanned area

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2 Proposing of an Adaptable Land Readjustment Model for Developing of the Informal Settlements in Kabul City

Authors: Habibi Said Mustafa, Hiroko Ono

Abstract:

Since 2006, Afghanistan is dealing with one of the most dramatic trend of urban movement in its history, cities and towns are expanding in size and number. Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan and as well as the fast-growing city in the Asia. The influx of the returnees from neighbor countries and other provinces of Afghanistan caused high rate of artificial growth which slums increased. As an unwanted consequence of this growth, today informal settlements have covered a vast portion of the city. Land Readjustment (LR) has proved to be an important tool for developing informal settlements and reorganizing urban areas but its implementation always varies from country to country and region to region within the countries. Consequently, to successfully develop the informal settlements in Kabul, we need to define an Afghan model of LR specifically for Afghanistan which needs to incorporate all those factors related to the socio-economic condition of the country. For this purpose, a part of the old city of Kabul has selected as a study area which is located near the Central Business District (CBD). After the further analysis and incorporating all needed factors, the result shows a positive potential for the implementation of an adaptable Land Readjustment model for Kabul city which is more sustainable and socio-economically friendly. It will enhance quality of life and provide better urban services for the residents. Moreover, it will set a vision and criteria by which sustainable developments shall proceed in other similar informal settlements of Kabul.

Keywords: Preservation, Adaptation, informal settlements, land readjustment, Kabul

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1 Performance Assessment via Scorecard Methodology in Land Readjustment: Case Study of Turkey

Authors: Ahmet Yılmaz, Hülya Demir

Abstract:

Land readjustment (LR) has been used for many decades and proves its success on covering the loss of the wars and natural disasters, producing serviced land, providing large-scale urban land for new residential areas, redevelopment of inner-city areas in countries facing high urbanization or housing shortages. As urban land related problems and needs in the word are not decreasing, and easy and rapid availability of urban-serviced land is much more important in any country to prevent housing shortages and the economic, social and environmental costs of land speculation and provide efficiency in land markets, the importance of LR for land development will be much more. In addition, comparing to other common land assembling methods, LR has several advantages and potential to overcome the hold-out and free-rider problems of land assembly. By LR, the costs of installing infrastructure can be recovered; the additional value can be captured; all landowners can be treated fairly; plan quality can be improved; and the original ownership structure and social networks can be preserved. In general, LR provides a better land assembly in theory. However, in practice, there are both failures and success stories. While in some countries, even in different institutional, legal, social and economic contexts, LR is used widely and a high level of success is achieved and sustained; for the others the tool is either not used or the usage and the success are far behind the expectations. Diversities of countries LR strategies form the rules, process and the results differently, which might be the main reason of the success and failure of LR, and highlights the need for a comprehensive evaluation. In countries where LR is unsuccessful one way to do that is to find out the performance gaps of LR strategies that need improvements by comparing the results of the LR strategies with the best or the expected results of an ideal LR strategy. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic evaluation methodology for LR and identify the performance gaps of Turkish LR that needs improvement as a case study. For these aims, we use the evaluation framework for LR, which is formed by a set of good practices under various aspects of an ideal LR and introduce a new methodology for the assessment of the good practices, namely “evaluation via scorecard” and used this methodology to evaluate the Turkish LR strategies. As a result, the performance gaps of the Turkish LR strategies that need improvements under each evaluation aspect have been revealed by using the evaluation via scorecard methodology.

Keywords: Benchmarking, evaluation framework, land readjustment, scorecard evaluation

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