Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

land cover changes Related Abstracts

4 Assessment of Impact of Urbanization in Drainage Urban Systems, Cali-Colombia

Authors: J. Zambrano Nájera, A. Caicedo Padilla


Cali, the capital of Valle del Cauca and the second city of Colombia, is located in the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Cordillera that is South West of the country. The topography of the city is mainly flat, but it is possibly to find mountains in the west. The city has increased urbanization during XX century, especially since 1958 when started a rapid growth due to migration of people from other parts of the region. Much of that population has settled in eastern of Cali, an area originally intended for cane cultivation and a zone of flood from Cauca River and its tributaries. Due to the unplanned migration, settling was inadequate and produced changes in natural dynamics of the basins, which has resulted in increases in runoff volumes, peak flows and flow velocities, that in turn increases flood risk. Sewerage networks capacity were not enough for this higher runoff volume, because in first term they were not adequately designed and built, causing its failure. This in turn generates increasingly recurrent floods generating considerable effects on the economy and development of normal activities in Cali. Thus, it becomes very important to know hydrological behavior of Urban Watersheds. This research aims to determine the impact of urbanization on hydrology of watersheds with very low slopes. The project aims to identify changes in natural drainage patterns caused by the changes made on landscape. From the identification of such modifications it will be defined the most critical areas due to recurring flood events in the city of Cali. Critical areas are defined as areas where the sewerage system does not work properly as surface runoff increases considerable with storm events, and floods are recurrent. The assessment will be done from the analysis of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) theme layers from CVC Environmental Institution of Regional Control in Valle del Cauca, hydrological data and disaster database developed by OSSO Corporation. Rainfall data from a network and historical stream flow data will be used for analysis of historical behavior and change of precipitation and hydrological response according to homogeneous zones characterized by EMCALI S.A. public utility enterprise of Cali in 1999.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Urban Hydrology, drainage systems, land cover changes

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3 Analysis of Storm Flood in Typical Sewer Networks in High Mountain Watersheds of Colombia Based on SWMM

Authors: J. Zambrano Nájera, J. C. Hoyos


Increasing urbanization has led to changes in the natural dynamics of watersheds, causing problems such as increases in volumes of runoff, peak flow rates, and flow rates so that the risk of storm flooding increases. Sewerage networks designed 30 – 40 years ago don’t account for these increases in flow volumes and velocities. Besides, Andean cities with high slopes worsen the problem because velocities are even higher not allowing sewerage network work and causing cities less resilient to landscape changes and climatic change. In Latin America, especially Colombia, this is a major problem because urban population at late XX century was more than 70% is in urban areas increasing approximately in 790% in 1940-1990 period. Thus, it becomes very important to study how changes in hydrological behavior affect hydraulic capacity of sewerage networks in Andean Urban Watersheds. This research aims to determine the impact of urbanization in high-sloped urban watersheds in its hydrology. To this end it will be used as study area experimental urban watershed named Palogrande-San Luis watershed, located in the city of Manizales, Colombia. Manizales is a city in central western Colombia, located in Colombian Central Mountain Range (part of Los Andes Mountains) with an abrupt topography (average altitude is 2.153 m). The climate in Manizales is quite uniform, but due to its high altitude it presents high precipitations (1.545 mm/year average) with high humidity (83% average). Behavior of the current sewerage network will be reviewed by the hydraulic model SWMM (Storm Water Management Model). Based on SWMM the hydrological response of urban watershed selected will be evaluated under the design storm with different frequencies in the region, such as drainage effect and water-logging, overland flow on roads, etc. Cartographic information was obtained from a Geographic Information System (GIS) thematic maps of the Institute of Environmental Studies of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia and the utility Aguas de Manizales S.A. Rainfall and streamflow data is obtained from 4 rain gages and 1 stream gages. This information will allow determining critical issues on drainage systems design in urban watershed with very high slopes, and which practices will be discarded o recommended.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Urban Hydrology, land cover changes, storm sewer system

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2 Land Use Sensitivity Map for the Extreme Flood Events in the Kelantan River Basin

Authors: Nader Saadatkhah, Jafar Rahnamarad, Shattri Mansor, Zailani Khuzaimah, Arnis Asmat, Nor Aizam Adnan, Siti Noradzah Adam


Kelantan river basin as a flood prone area at the east coast of the peninsular Malaysia has suffered several flood and mudflow events in the recent years. The current research attempted to assess the land cover changes impact in the Kelantan river basin focused on the runoff contributions from different land cover classes and the potential impact of land cover changes on runoff generation. In this regards, the hydrological regional modeling of rainfall induced runoff event as the improved transient rainfall infiltration and grid based regional model (Improved-TRIGRS) was employed to compute rate of infiltration, and subsequently changes in the discharge volume in this study. The effects of land use changes on peak flow and runoff volume was investigated using storm rainfall events during the last three decades.

Keywords: Flood event, land cover changes, improved-TRIGRS model, Kelantan river basin

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1 Land Cover Change Analysis Using Remote Sensing

Authors: Tahir Ali Akbar, Hirra Jabbar


Land cover change analysis plays a significant role in understanding the trends of urban sprawl and land use transformation due to anthropogenic activities. In this study, the spatio-temporal dynamics of major land covers were analyzed in the last twenty years (1988-2016) for District Lahore located in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. The Landsat satellite imageries were downloaded from USGS Global Visualization Viewer of Earth Resources Observation and Science Center located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota USA. The imageries included: (i) Landsat TM-5 for 1988 and 2001; and (ii) Landsat-8 OLI for 2016. The raw digital numbers of Landsat-5 images were converted into spectral radiance and then planetary reflectance. The digital numbers of Landsat-8 image were directly converted into planetary reflectance. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to classify the processed images into six major classes of water, buit-up, barren land, shrub and grassland, sparse vegetation and dense vegetation. The NDVI output results were improved by visual interpretation using high-resolution satellite imageries. The results indicated that the built-up areas were increased to 21% in 2016 from 10% in 1988. The decrease in % areas was found in case of water, barren land and shrub & grassland. There were improvements in percentage of areas for the vegetation. The increasing trend of urban sprawl for Lahore requires implementation of GIS based spatial planning, monitoring and management system for its sustainable development.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, urban sprawl, NDVI, land cover changes

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