Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

lake chad Related Abstracts

2 Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Fish Samples from Lake Chad, Baga, North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: J. C. Akan, F. I. Abdulrahman, Z. M. Chellube

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of some organochlorine (o, p-DDE, p,p’-DDD, o,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDT, α-BHC, γ-BHC, lindane, Endosulfan sulphate, dieldrin and aldrin and organophosphorus (Dichlorvos, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and Fenitrothion) pesticide residues in the gills, liver, stomach, kidney and flesh of four fish species (Tilapia zilli, Clarias anguillaris Hetrotis niloticus and Oreochronmis niloticus) between the periods of September 2010 to October, 2011. Samples were collected from Kwantan turare in Lake Chad, Baga, Borno State, Nigeria. Extraction of the fish samples and de-fattening of the fish sample extracts were performed using standard procedures. Analysis of the fish samples for pesticide residues were carried out using Shimadzu GC/MS (GC – 17A), equipped with fluorescence detector. Large differences in the levels of pesticide residues were observed between tissues within each fish. The concentrations of all the organophosphorus pesticides were higher in the organs of Oreochronmis niloticus, while Hetrotis niloticus shows the lowest. For organochlorine pesticides, the organs of Tilapia zilli showed the highest concentrations, while Hetrotis niloticus shows the lowest. The highest pesticide concentrations were observed in gills and liver tissues of all the species of fish study, while the lowest concentrations were observed in flesh. Based on the above results, it can therefore be concluded that the concentrations of pesticide in the four fish species study did exceed the permissible limits set by FAO and FEPA.

Keywords: Pesticides, Fish, Organophosphorus, organochlorine, accumulation, lake chad

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1 Assessment of the Ecological Tragedy on Lake Chad

Authors: Luke Onyekakeyah, Cynthia Onyekakeyah

Abstract:

The conflict in Northeastern Nigeria could mar local and international efforts to salvage the drying Lake Chad, which at present is merely 20 per cent of its original size. The conflict which began in 2009, assumed a monstrous dimension to the extent that any prospects of a redeeming action on the Lake is bleak. The concern of the authorities in the basin countries is how to bring the conflict to an end in the interest of the ecologically-dependent riparian population. Lake Chad is Africa’s fourth largest lake. From a previous 388,500 km2 some 600, 000 years ago, the Lake has shrunk to a maximum length of 25,000 km2. During the last four decades, the Lake has been susceptible to increasing variability and irregular rainfall. Dry spell, excessive evaporation and sandstorm have adversely affected the Lake, such that a 2001 estimate put the Lake to a meager 19,000 km2. Given the critical importance of the Lake as a source of livelihood for over 20 million people, there is mounting concern that an unprecedented human and ecological catastrophe is unfolding, should the Lake eventually dries up. The study evaluates the Lake Chad and how the conflict has adversely impacted it.

Keywords: Conflict, Salvage, lake chad, Nigeria

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