Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Lahore Related Abstracts

6 Serotype Distribution and Demographics of Dengue Patients in a Tertiary Hospital of Lahore, Pakistan During the 2011 Epidemic

Authors: Muhammad Munir, Riffat Mehboob, Samina Naeem, Muhammad Salman, Shehryar Ahmed, Irshad Hussain Qureshi, Tahira Murtaza Cheema, Ashraf Sultan, Akmal Laeeq, Nakhshab Choudhry, Asad Aslam Khan, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad

Abstract:

A dengue outbreak in Lahore, Pakistan during 2011 was unprecedented in terms of severity and magnitude. This research aims to determine the serotype distribution of dengue virus during this outbreak and classify the patients demographically. 5ml of venous blood was drawn aseptically from 166 patients with dengue-like signs to test for the virus between the months of August to November 2011. The samples were sent to the CDC, Atlanta, Georgia for the purpose of molecular assays to determine their serotype. RT-PCR protocol was performed targeting at the 4 dengue serotypes. Out of 166 cases, dengue infection was detected with RT-PCR in 95 cases, all infected with same serotype DEN-2. 75% of positive cases were males while 25% were females. Most positive patients were in the age range of 16-30 years. 33% positive cases had accompanying bleeding. This is first study during the 2011 dengue epidemic in Lahore that reports DEN-2 as the only prevalent serotype. It also indicates that more infected patients were males, adults, within age range of 16-30 years, peaked in the month of November, Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is manifested more in females, Ravi town was heavily hit by dengue virus infection.

Keywords: Pakistan, Dengue, Demography, serotypes, DEN 2, Lahore, serotype distrbution

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5 Identification of Persistent Trace Organic Pollutants in Various Waste Water Samples Using HPLC

Authors: Ghazala Yaqub, Almas Hamid, Aqsa Riaz

Abstract:

Qualitative validation was performed to detect the presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in various wastewater samples collected from domestic sources (Askari XI housing society, Bedian road Lahore) industrial sources (PET bottles, pharmaceutical, textile) and a municipal drain (Hudiara drain) in Lahore. In addition wastewater analysis of the selected parameter was carried out. pH for wastewater samples from Askari XI, PET bottles, pharmaceutical, textile and Hudiara drain were 6.9, 6.7, 6.27, 7.18 and 7.9 respectively, within the NEQS Pakistan range that is 6-9. TSS for the respective samples was 194, 241, 254, 140 and 251 mg/L, in effluent for pet bottle industry, pharmaceutical and Hudiara drain and exceeded the NEQS Pakistan. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) for the wastewater samples was 896 mg/L, 166 mg/L, 419 mg/L, 812 mg/L and 610 mg/L respectively, all in excess of NEQS (150 mg/L). Similarly the biological oxygen demand (BOD) values (110.8, 170, 423, 355 and 560 mg/L respectively) were also above NEQS limits (80 mg/L). Chloride (Cl-) content, total dissolved solids (TDS) and temperature were found out to be within the prescribed standard limits. The POPs selected for analysis included five pesticides/insecticides (D. D, Karate, Commando, Finis insect killer, Bifenthrin) and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene). Peak values of standards were compared with that of wastewater samples. The results showed the presence of D.D in all wastewater samples, pesticide Karate was identified in Askari XI and textile industry sample. Pesticide Commando, Finis (insect killer) and Bifenthrin were detected in Askari XI and Hudiara drain wastewater samples. In case of PAHs; naphthalene was identified in all the five wastewater samples whereas anthracene and phenanthrene were detected in samples of Askari XI housing society, PET bottles industry, pharmaceutical industry and textile industry but totally absent in Hudiara drain wastewater. Practical recommendations have been put forth to avoid hazardous impacts of incurred samples.

Keywords: wastewater, Physicochemical analysis, Lahore, HPLC studies

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4 Arsenic and Fluoride Contamination in Lahore, Pakistan: Spatial Distribution, Mineralization Control and Sources

Authors: Zainab Abbas Soharwardi, Chunli Su, Harold Wilson Tumwitike Mapoma, Syed Zahid Aziz, Mahmut Ince

Abstract:

This study investigated the spatial variations of groundwater chemistry used by communities in Lahore city with emphasis on arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) levels. A total of 472 tubewell samples were collected from 7 towns and analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness, HCO3, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO42-, Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, F- and As. There were significant spatial variations observed for total hardness, TDS, HCO3, NO3 and As. In general, the south-east of the city displayed higher TH and HCO3 while the north-east showed significantly higher As concentrations attributed to the heterogeneity of the aquifer and industrial activities. In most cases, As was higher than WHO limit value. Indiscriminate disposal of domestic and commercial wastewater into River Ravi is the cause of elevated NO3 observed in the north-west compared to other places in the area. Investigation of the groundwater type revealed facies in the order: Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 > Mg-Ca-HCO3-SO4 > Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4-Cl > Mg-Ca-HCO3-SO4 > Ca-HCO3-SO4 > Ca-Mg-SO4-HCO3. The plausible mineralization control mechanism seems to be that of carbonate weathering, although silicate weathering is probable. Moreover, PHREEQC model results showed that the groundwater was under saturated with respect to evaporites (anhydrite, fluorite, gypsum and halite) while generally equilibrium to saturated with respect to aragonite, calcite and dolomite. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) showed that pH significantly affected As, F, NO3 and NO2 while HCO3 contributing most to the observed TDS values in Lahore. It is concluded that inherent mineral dissolution/ precipitation, pH, oxic conditions, anthropogenic activities, atmospheric transport/ wet deposition, microbial activities and surface soil characteristics play their significant roles in elevating both As and F in the city's groundwater.

Keywords: Groundwater, Arsenic, Lahore, fluoride

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3 Drinking Water Quality of Lahore Pakistan: A Comparison of Quality of Drinking Water from Source and Distribution System

Authors: Zainab Abbas Soharwardi, Chunli Su, Syed Zahid Aziz, Fazeelat Tahira

Abstract:

The study monitors the quality of drinking water consumed by urban population of Lahore. A total of 50 drinking water samples (16 from source and 34 from distribution system) were examined for physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters. The parameters including pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, total alkalinity, carbonate, sulphate, chloride, nitrite, fluoride, sodium and potassium were analyzed. Sixteen out of fifty samples showed high values of alkalinity compared to EPA standards and WHO guidelines. Twenty-eight samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chromium, iron, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead. Trace amounts of heavy metals were detected in some samples, however for most of the samples values were within the permissible limits although high concentration of zinc was detected in one sample collected from Mughal Pura area. Fifteen samples were analyzed for arsenic. The results were unsatisfactory; around 73% samples showed exceeding values of As. WHO has suggested permissible limits of arsenic < 0.01 ppm, whereas 27 % of samples have shown 0.05 ppm arsenic, which is five times greater than WHO highest permissible limits. All the samples were examined for E. coli bacteria. On the basis of bacteriological analysis, 42 % samples did not meet WHO guidelines and were unsafe for drinking.

Keywords: Arsenic, Heavy Metals, Ground Water, Lahore

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2 Vitamin A Status and Its Correlation with the Dietary Intake of Young Females of Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Sarah Fatima, Ahmad A. Malik, Saima Sadaf

Abstract:

This study was conducted in order to assess the dietary record and vitamin A status of young females of Lahore. A total sample of 376 consisted of 16 – 20 years of unmarried college going females. Three main tools were adopted: questionnaire, 3-day food diary and serum retinol test. The anthropometric measurements showed that a total of 32.6% of the sample was underweight (BMI < 18.5) and 54.5% had a healthy weight (BMI 18.5 – 22.9). The average Vitamin A intake of the sample was 257.95 µg/day while the RDA for the selected age group was 700 µg/day. The mean energy intake of the adolescents was 1153.64 kcal/ day, whereas the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for this age group was 2368 kcal/day. The mean serum Vitamin A level was 24.81µg/dL. 69.6% of the sample was deficient in serum Vitamin A i.e. serum retinol < 24 µg/dL. 30.4% had serum retinol in normal limit (24 – 84 µg/dL) from which 25.3% lied in lower limit (24 – 44 µg/dL) and only 5.1% had serum retinol in 44 – 64 µg/dL range. A slightly negative correlation (r = - 0.21, 95% confidence interval) was found between dietary intake of Vitamin A and serum Vitamin A It was concluded that the dietary intake of major nutrients and vitamin A is not adequate in the selected group. This is also confirmed by the lower serum retinol levels. Hence, vitamin An intake and status are generally inadequate, and vitamin deficiency is prevalent in the unmarried young females of Lahore.

Keywords: Lahore, vitamin A, young Females, vitamin deficiency

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1 An Overview of Bioclimatic Design Strategies for Energy Efficient Buildings: A Case Study of Semi-Arid Climate, Lahore

Authors: Beenish Mujahid, Sana Malik

Abstract:

Bioclimatic design Strategies plays a dynamic role in construction of Sustainable Buildings. This approach leads to reduction in the mechanical cooling of building which provides comfort to the occupants in sustainable manner. Such bioclimatic measures provide a complete framework of building design through responding to climatic features of particular site. The featured Passive cooling techniques for hot climatic region provides comfortable indoor temperature with ecological and financial benefits. The study is based on highlighting this approach to produce energy efficient buildings for Semi-Arid climate like Lahore, Pakistan. Being part of developing country, energy savings in Lahore city would help the Power Sector and resolves the World Issues of Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion. This article reviews the bioclimatic design strategies and their critical analysis to drive guidelines for Sustainable buildings in Lahore. The study shows that the demand for mechanical cooling systems including air conditioning, fans, and air coolers can be reduced through regional climatic design.

Keywords: Buildings, Energy Efficient, bioclimatic design, Lahore, comfort

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