Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

lactic acid Related Abstracts

8 Bioproduction of L(+)-Lactic Acid and Purification by Ion Exchange Mechanism

Authors: Zelal Polat, Şebnem Harsa, Semra Ülkü


Lactic acid exists in nature optically in two forms, L(+), D(-)-lactic acid, and has been used in food, leather, textile, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Moreover, L(+)-lactic acid constitutes the raw material for the production of poly-L-lactic acid which is used in biomedical applications. Microbially produced lactic acid was aimed to be recovered from the fermentation media efficiently and economically. Among the various downstream operations, ion exchange chromatography is highly selective and yields a low cost product recovery within a short period of time. In this project, Lactobacillus casei NRRL B-441 was used for the production of L(+)-lactic acid from whey by fermentation at pH 5.5 and 37°C that took 12 hours. The product concentration was 50 g/l with 100% L(+)-lactic acid content. Next, the suitable resin was selected due to its high sorption capacity with rapid equilibrium behavior. Dowex marathon WBA, weakly basic anion exchanger in OH form reached the equilibrium in 15 minutes. The batch adsorption experiments were done approximately at pH 7.0 and 30°C and sampling was continued for 20 hours. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and pH was investigated and their influence was found to be unimportant. All the adsorption/desorption experiments were applied to both model lactic acid and biomass free fermentation broth. The ion exchange equilibria of lactic acid and L(+)-lactic acid in fermentation broth on Dowex marathon WBA was explained by Langmuir isotherm. The maximum exchange capacity (qm) for model lactic acid was 0.25 g La/g wet resin and for fermentation broth 0.04 g La/g wet resin. The equilibrium loading and exchange efficiency of L(+)-lactic acid in fermentation broth were reduced as a result of competition by other ionic species. The competing ions inhibit the binding of L(+)-lactic acid to the free sites of ion exchanger. Moreover, column operations were applied to recover adsorbed lactic acid from the ion exchanger. 2.0 M HCl was the suitable eluting agent to recover the bound L(+)-lactic acid with a flowrate of 1 ml/min at ambient temperature. About 95% of bound L(+)-lactic acid was recovered from Dowex marathon WBA. The equilibrium was reached within 15 minutes. The aim of this project was to investigate the purification of L(+)-lactic acid with ion exchange method from fermentation broth. The additional goals were to investigate the end product purity, to obtain new data on the adsorption/desorption behaviours of lactic acid and applicability of the system in industrial usage.

Keywords: Purification, Fermentation, ion exchange, whey, lactic acid

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7 Response Surface Modeling of Lactic Acid Extraction by Emulsion Liquid Membrane: Box-Behnken Experimental Design

Authors: A. Thakur, P. S. Panesar, M. S. Saini


Extraction of lactic acid by emulsion liquid membrane technology (ELM) using n-trioctyl amine (TOA) in n-heptane as carrier within the organic membrane along with sodium carbonate as acceptor phase was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). A three level Box-Behnken design was employed for experimental design, analysis of the results and to depict the combined effect of five independent variables, vizlactic acid concentration in aqueous phase (cl), sodium carbonate concentration in stripping phase (cs), carrier concentration in membrane phase (ψ), treat ratio (φ), and batch extraction time (τ) with equal volume of organic and external aqueous phase on lactic acid extraction efficiency. The maximum lactic acid extraction efficiency (ηext) of 98.21%from aqueous phase in a batch reactor using ELM was found at the optimized values for test variables, cl, cs,, ψ, φ and τ as 0.06 [M], 0.18 [M], 4.72 (%,v/v), 1.98 (v/v) and 13.36 min respectively.

Keywords: Extraction, response surface methodology, lactic acid, emulsion liquid membrane, n-trioctylamine

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6 Biocompatible Ionic Liquids in Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Lactic Acid: A Comparative Study

Authors: Konstantza Tonova, Ivan Svinyarov, Milen G. Bogdanov


Ionic liquids consisting of pairs of imidazolium or phosphonium cation and chloride or saccharinate anion were synthesized and compared with respect to their extraction efficiency towards the fermentative L-lactic acid. The acid partitioning in the equilibrated biphasic systems of ionic liquid and water was quantified through the extraction degree and the partition coefficient. The water transfer from the aqueous into the ionic liquid-rich phase was also always followed. The effect of pH, which determines the state of lactic acid in the aqueous source was studied. The effect of other salting-out substances that modify the ionic liquid/water equilibrium was also investigated in view to reveal the best liquid-liquid system with respect to low toxicity, high extraction and back extraction efficiencies and performance simplicity.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Extraction, lactic acid, biphasic system

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5 Statistical Optimization of Distribution Coefficient for Reactive Extraction of Lactic Acid Using Tri-n-octyl Amine in Oleyl Alcohol and n-Hexane

Authors: Avinash Thakur, Parmjit S. Panesar, Manohar Singh


The distribution coefficient, KD for the reactive extraction of lactic acid from aqueous solutions of lactic acid using 10-30% (v/v) tri-n-octyl amine (extractant) dissolved in n-hexane (inert diluent) and 20% (v/v) oleyl alcohol (modifier) was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). A three level Box-Behnken design was employed for experimental design, analysis of the results and to depict the combined interactive effect of seven independent variables, viz lactic acid concentration (cl), pH, TOA concentration in organic phase (ψ), treat ratio (φ), temperature (T), agitation speed (ω) and batch agitation time (τ) on distribution coefficient of lactic acid. The regression analysis recommended that the quadratic model is significant (R2 and adjusted R2 are 98.72 % and 98.69 % respectively) for analysis. A numerical optimization had resulted in maximum lactic acid distribution coefficient (KD) of 3.16 at the optimized values for test variables, cl, pH, ψ, φ, T, ω and τ as 0.15 [M], 3.0, 22.75% (v/v), 1.0 (v/v), 26°C, 145 rpm and 23 min respectively. A good agreement between the predicted and experimentally obtained values for distribution coefficient using the optimized conditions was exhibited.

Keywords: response surface methodology, lactic acid, Distribution coefficient, tri-n-octylamine

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4 Effect of Synbiotics on Rats' Intestinal Microbiota

Authors: Da Yoon Yu, Jeong A. Kim, In Sung Kim, Yeon Hee Hong, Jae Young Kim, Sang Suk Lee, Sung Chan Kim, So Hui Choe, In Soon Choi, Kwang Keun Cho


The present study was conducted to identify the effects of synbiotics composed of lactic acid (LA) bacteria (LAB) and sea tangle on rat’s intestinal microorganisms and anti-obesity effects. The experiment was conducted for six weeks using an 8-week old male rat as experiment animals and the experimental design was to use six treatments groups of 4 repetitions using three mice per repetition. The treatment groups were organized into a normal fat diet control (NFC), a high fat (HF) diet control (HFC), a prebiotic 0% treatment (HF+LA+sea tangle 0%, ST0), a prebiotic 5% treatment (HF+LA+sea tangle 5%, ST5), a prebiotic 10% treatment (HF+LA+sea tangle 10%, ST10), and a prebiotic 15% treatment group (HF+LA+sea tangle 15%, ST15) to conduct experiments with various levels of prebiotics. According to the results of the experiment, the NFC group showed the highest daily weight gain (22.34g) and the ST0 group showed the lowest daily weight gain (19.41g). However, weight gains during the entire experimental period were the highest in the HFC group (475.73g) and the lowest in the ST0 group (454.23g). Feed efficiency was the highest in the HFC group (0.20). Treatment with synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle suppressed weight increases due to HF diet and reduced feed efficiency. Intestinal microorganisms were identified through pyrosequncing and according to the results, Firmicutes phylum (approximately 60%) and Bacteroidetes phylum (approximately 30%) accounted for approximately 90% or more of intestinal microorganisms in all of the treatment groups indicating these bacteria are dominating in the intestines. Firmicutes that is related to weight increases accounted for 64.96% of microorganisms in the NFC group, 75.32% in the HFC group, 59.51% in the ST0 group, 61.29% in the ST5 group, 49.91% in the ST10 group, and 39.65% in the ST15 group. Therefore, Firmicutes showed the highest share the HFC group that showed high weight gains and the lowest share in the group treated with mixed synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle. Bacteroidetes that is related to weight gain inhibition accounted for 32.12% of microorganisms in the NFC group, and HFC group 21.57%, ST0 group 37.66%, ST5 group 34.92%, ST10 group 44.46%, and ST15 group 53.22%. Therefore, the share of Bacteroidetes was the lowest in the HFC group with no addition of synbiotics and increased along with the level of treatment with synbiotics. Changes in blood components were not significantly different among the groups and SCFA yields were shown to be higher in groups treated with synbiotics than in groups not added with synbiotics. Through the present study, it was shown that the supply of synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle increased feed intake but led to weight losses and that the intake of synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle had anti-obesity effects due to decreases in Firmicutes which are microorganisms related to weight gains and increases in Bacteroidetes which are microorganisms related to weight losses. Therefore, synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle are considered to have the effect to prevent metabolic disorders in the rat.

Keywords: Synbiotics, lactic acid, bacteroidetes, firmicutes, intestinal microbiota, sea tangle

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3 Acute Effects of Local Vibration on Muscle Activation, Metabolic and Hormone Responses

Authors: Zong Yan Cai, Wen-Chyuan Chen, Chih-Min Wu


The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of local vibration on muscle activation, metabolic and hormone responses. Totally 12 healthy, physically inactive, male adults participated in this study and completed LV exercise session. During LV exercise session, four custom-made vibrations (diameter: 20 mm; thickness: 8 mm; weight: 0.022 g) were locally placed over the belly of the thigh of each subject’s non-dominant leg in supine lying position, and subjects received 10 sets for 1 min at the frequency of 35-40Hz, with 1–2 min of rest between sets. The surface electromyography (EMG) were obtained from the vastus medialis and rectus femoris, and the subjects’ rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) were measured. EMG data, RPE values as well as HR were obtained by averaging the results of 10 sets of each exercise session. Blood samples were drawn before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 15min and 30min after exercise in each session for analysis of lactic acid (LA), growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). The results indicated that the HR did not increase after LV (63.18±3.5 to 63.25±2.58 beat/min, p > 0.05). The average RPE values during the LV exposure were at 2.86±0.39. The root mean square % EMG values from the vastus medialis and rectus femoris were 19.02±2.19 and 8.25±2.20 respectively. There were no significant differences after acute LV exercise among LA, GH and T values as compared with baseline values (LA: 0.68±0.11 to 0.7±0.1 mmol/L; GH: 0.06±0.05 to 0.57±0.27 ng/mL; T: 551.33±46.62 to 520.42±43.78 ng/dL, p>0.05). However, the LV treatment caused a significant decrease in C values after exercise (16.56±1.05 to 11.64±1.85 nmol/L, p<0.05). In conclusion, acute LV exercise only slightly increase muscle activation which may not cause effective exercise response. However, acute LV exercise reduces C level, which may reduce the catabolic response. The probable reason might partly due to the vibration rhythmically which massage on muscles.

Keywords: Growth Hormone, cortisol, lactic acid, testosterone

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2 Using Hemicellulosic Liquor from Sugarcane Bagasse to Produce Second Generation Lactic Acid

Authors: Regiane A. Oliveira, Carlos E. Vaz Rossell, Rubens Maciel Filho


Lactic acid, besides a valuable chemical may be considered a platform for other chemicals. In fact, the feasibility of hemicellulosic sugars as feedstock for lactic acid production process, may represent the drop of some of the barriers for the second generation bioproducts, especially bearing in mind the 5-carbon sugars from the pre-treatment of sugarcane bagasse. Bearing this in mind, the purpose of this study was to use the hemicellulosic liquor from sugarcane bagasse as a substrate to produce lactic acid by fermentation. To release of sugars from hemicellulose it was made a pre-treatment with a diluted sulfuric acid in order to obtain a xylose's rich liquor with low concentration of inhibiting compounds for fermentation (≈ 67% of xylose, ≈ 21% of glucose, ≈ 10% of cellobiose and arabinose, and around 1% of inhibiting compounds as furfural, hydroxymethilfurfural and acetic acid). The hemicellulosic sugars associated with 20 g/L of yeast extract were used in a fermentation process with Lactobacillus plantarum to produce lactic acid. The fermentation process pH was controlled with automatic injection of Ca(OH)2 to keep pH at 6.00. The lactic acid concentration remained stable from the time when the glucose was depleted (48 hours of fermentation), with no further production. While lactic acid is produced occurs the concomitant consumption of xylose and glucose. The yield of fermentation was 0.933 g lactic acid /g sugars. Besides, it was not detected the presence of by-products, what allows considering that the microorganism uses a homolactic fermentation to produce its own energy using pentose-phosphate pathway. Through facultative heterofermentative metabolism the bacteria consume pentose, as is the case of L. plantarum, but the energy efficiency for the cell is lower than during the hexose consumption. This implies both in a slower cell growth, as in a reduction in lactic acid productivity compared with the use of hexose. Also, L. plantarum had shown to have a capacity for lactic acid production from hemicellulosic hydrolysate without detoxification, which is very attractive in terms of robustness for an industrial process. Xylose from hydrolyzed bagasse and without detoxification is consumed, although the hydrolyzed bagasse inhibitors (especially aromatic inhibitors) affect productivity and yield of lactic acid. The use of sugars and the lack of need for detoxification of the C5 liquor from sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzed is a crucial factor for the economic viability of second generation processes. Taking this information into account, the production of second generation lactic acid using sugars from hemicellulose appears to be a good alternative to the complete utilization of sugarcane plant, directing molasses and cellulosic carbohydrates to produce 2G-ethanol, and hemicellulosic carbohydrates to produce 2G-lactic acid.

Keywords: Fermentation, sugarcane, lactic acid, hemicellulosic sugars

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1 The Thermochemical Conversion of Lactic Acid in Subcritical and Supercritical Water

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, Hung-Chi Tu


One way to utilize biomass is to thermochemically convert it into gases and chemicals. For conversion of biomass, glucose is a particularly popular model compound for cellulose, or more generally for biomass. The present study takes a different approach by employing lactic acid as the model compound for cellulose. Since lactic acid and glucose have identical elemental composition, they are expected to produce similar results as they go through the conversion process. In the current study, lactic acid was thermochemically converted to assess its reactivity and reaction mechanism in subcritical and supercritical water, by using a 16-ml autoclave reactor. The major operating parameters investigated include: The reaction temperature, from 673 to 873 K, the reaction pressure, 10 and 25 MPa, the dosage of oxidizing agent, 0 and 0.5 chemical oxygen demand, and the concentration of lactic acid in the feed, 0.5 and 1.0 M. Gaseous products from the conversion were generally found to be comparable to those derived from the conversion of glucose.

Keywords: Thermochemical Conversion, supercritical water, lactic acid, subcritical water

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