Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

lactate Related Abstracts

3 Effects of the Different Recovery Durations on Some Physiological Parameters during 3 X 3 Small-Sided Games in Soccer

Authors: Samet Aktaş, Nurtekin Erkmen, Faruk Guven, Halil Taskin


This study aimed to determine the effects of 3 versus 3 small-sided games (SSG) with different recovery times on soma physiological parameters in soccer players. Twelve soccer players from Regional Amateur League volunteered for this study (mean±SD age, 20.50±2.43 years; height, 177.73±4.13 cm; weight, 70.83±8.38 kg). Subjects were performing soccer training for five days per week. The protocol of the study was approved by the local ethic committee in School of Physical Education and Sport, Selcuk University. The subjects were divided into teams with 3 players according to Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test. The field dimension was 26 m wide and 34 m in length. Subjects performed two times in a random order a series of 3 bouts of 3-a-side SSGs with 3 min and 5 min recovery durations. In SSGs, each set were performed with 6 min duration. The percent of maximal heart rate (% HRmax), blood lactate concentration (LA) and Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale points were collected before the SSGs and at the end of each set. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Significant differences were found between %HRmax in before SSG and 1st set, 2nd set, and 3rd set in both SSG with 3 min recovery duration and SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). Means of %HRmax in SSG with 3 min recovery duration at both 1st and 2nd sets were significantly higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between sets of either SSGs in terms of LA (p>0.05). LA in SSG with 3 min recovery duration was higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration at 2nd sets (p<0.05). RPE in soccer players was not different between SSGs (p>0.05).In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exercise intensity in SSG with 3 min recovery durations is higher than SSG with 5 min recovery durations.

Keywords: Heart Rate, soccer, small-sided games, lactate

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2 Acute Kidney Injury in Severe Trauma Patients: Clinical Presentation and Risk Factor Analysis

Authors: Inkyong Yi


Acute kidney injury (AKI) in trauma patients is known to be associated with multiple factors, especially shock and consequent inadequate renal perfusion, yet its clinical presentation is little known in severe trauma patients. Our aim was to investigate the clinical presentation of acute kidney injury and its outcome in severe trauma patients at a level I trauma center. A total of 93 consecutive adult trauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) of more than 15 were analyzed retrospectively from our Level I trauma center data base. Patients with direct renal injury were excluded. Patients were dichotomized into two groups, according to the presence of AKI. Various clinical parameters were compared between two groups, with Student’s T test and Mann-Whitney’s U test. The AKI group was further dichotomized into patients who recovered within seven days, and those who required more than 7days for recovery or those who did not recover at all. Various clinical parameters associated with outcome were further analyzed. Patients with AKI (n=33, 35%) presented with significantly higher age (61.4±17.3 vs. 45.4±17.3, p < 0.0001), incidence of comorbidities (hypertension; 51.5% vs. 13.3%, OR 6.906 95%CI 2.515-18.967, diabetes; 27.3% vs. 6.7%, OR 5.250, 95%CI 1.472-18.722), odds of head and neck trauma (69.7% vs. 41.7%, OR 3.220, 95%CI 1.306-7.942) and presence of shock during emergency room care (66.7% vs 21.7% OR 7.231, 95%CI, 2.798-18.687). Among AKI patients, patients who recovered within 1 week showed lower peak lactate (4.7mmol/L, 95%CI 2.9-6.5 vs 7.3mmol/L, 95%CI 5.0-9.6, p < 0.0287), lesser units of transfusion during first 24 hours (pRBC; 20.4unit, 95%CI 12.5-28.3 vs. 58.9unit, 95%CI 39.4-78.5, p=0.0003, FFP; 16.6unit, 95%CI 6.8-26.4 vs. 56.1unit, 95%CI 26.9-85.2, p=0.0027). In severe trauma patients, patients with AKI showed different clinical presentations and worse outcomes. Initial presence of shock and higher DIC profiles may be important risk factors for AKI in severe trauma patients. In patients with AKI, peak lactate level and amounts of transfusion are related to recovery.

Keywords: Trauma, Acute Kidney Injury, lactate, transfusion

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1 MAOD Is Estimated by Sum of Contributions

Authors: David W. Hill, Linda W. Glass, Jakob L. Vingren


Maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD), the gold standard measure of anaerobic capacity, is the difference between the oxygen cost of exhaustive severe intensity exercise and the accumulated oxygen consumption (O2; mL·kg–1). In theory, MAOD can be estimated as the sum of independent estimates of the phosphocreatine and glycolysis contributions, which we refer to as PCr+glycolysis. Purpose: The purpose was to test the hypothesis that PCr+glycolysis provides a valid measure of anaerobic capacity in cycling and running. Methods: The participants were 27 women (mean ± SD, age 22 ±1 y, height 165 ± 7 cm, weight 63.4 ± 9.7 kg) and 25 men (age 22 ± 1 y, height 179 ± 6 cm, weight 80.8 ± 14.8 kg). They performed two exhaustive cycling and running tests, at speeds and work rates that were tolerable for ~5 min. The rate of oxygen consumption (VO2; mL·kg–1·min–1) was measured in warmups, in the tests, and during 7 min of recovery. Fingerprick blood samples obtained after exercise were analysed to determine peak blood lactate concentration (PeakLac). The VO2 response in exercise was fitted to a model, with a fast ‘primary’ phase followed by a delayed ‘slow’ component, from which was calculated the accumulated O2 and the excess O2 attributable to the slow component. The VO2 response in recovery was fitted to a model with a fast phase and slow component, sharing a common time delay. Oxygen demand (in mL·kg–1·min–1) was determined by extrapolation from steady-state VO2 in warmups; the total oxygen cost (in mL·kg–1) was determined by multiplying this demand by time to exhaustion and adding the excess O2; then, MAOD was calculated as total oxygen cost minus accumulated O2. The phosphocreatine contribution (area under the fast phase of the post-exercise VO2) and the glycolytic contribution (converted from PeakLac) were summed to give PCr+glycolysis. There was not an interaction effect involving sex, so values for anaerobic capacity were examined using a two-way ANOVA, with repeated measures across method (PCr+glycolysis vs MAOD) and mode (cycling vs running). Results: There was a significant effect only for exercise mode. There was no difference between MAOD and PCr+glycolysis: values were 59 ± 6 mL·kg–1 and 61 ± 8 mL·kg–1 in cycling and 78 ± 7 mL·kg–1 and 75 ± 8 mL·kg–1 in running. Discussion: PCr+glycolysis is a valid measure of anaerobic capacity in cycling and running, and it is as valid for women as for men.

Keywords: Running, Cycling, treadmill, lactate, anaerobic, glycolysis, alactic, ergometer, lactic, oxygen deficit, phosphocreatine

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