Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Labour Related Abstracts

7 Role of MGNREGA(s) in Seasonal Labour Migration: Micro Evidence from Telangana State, India

Authors: Vijay Korra

Abstract:

The main focus of this paper is to examine the performance, outcomes and impacts of MGNREGA Scheme in particular on migrant beneficiary households. This article is based on a field survey carried out in 2010 in three randomly selected villages in Mahabubnagar district of Telangana State, India. It was found that majority of the job card holders are only able to get employment/work between 30-60 days and receive wages maximum between Rs.60 to 70 per day wherein wage discrimination was prevalent in line with gender. It concludes by saying that the government sponsored employment programme has indeed given rural poor a sense of hope about livelihood security through guaranteed employment. On the other hand, the scheme is defected in providing full employment days, wages, and thus unable to prevent the working class from migrating to cities/towns in search of employment mainly due to malpractices involved in the implementation of the scheme.

Keywords: Employment, Labour, Seasonal Migration, livelihood, wages, MGNREGA(s)

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6 Abuse of Secretarial Profession by Employers of Labour

Authors: Musa Shu'aibu

Abstract:

This paper centered on the abuse of secretarial profession by employers of labour. The paper further explains vividly the meaning of secretarial profession and that of a secretary. The paper also makes an attempt to explain the training of a secretary, duties and business attributes of a secretary. It further highlighted the personal attributes of a secretary, prospects of secretaries/secretarial profession and some abuses of the secretarial profession were discussed. It concluded that the rapid advancement in technology has changed today's offices which resulted in changing in the requirement of today's secretarial posts. Finally, recommendations were provided.

Keywords: Labour, employers, profession, abuse

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5 The Effectiveness of Multiple versus Once-Only Membrane Sweeping in Uncomplicated Primi Gravida at 40 Weeks of Gestational Age in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Sri Lanka: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Jeewantha Ranawaka, Gunawardane Kapila, Wijethunaga Mudiyanselage B. G. Jayathilake

Abstract:

Introduction: Sweeping of the membranes is a fairly simple technique that may positively influence the shift from maintenance of pregnancy to the beginning of labor. Objective: To assess the effectiveness and acceptability of twice versus once-only membrane sweeping in uncomplicated primi gravid at 40 weeks of gestational age in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was done in Ward 05 of Teaching Hospital, Kandy. The participants were primi-gravida with a singleton live fetus who was at 40 weeks of gestation with intact fetal membranes and with a Modified Bishop’s score <5. After randomization both groups received membrane sweeping at 40 weeks of gestation and the experimental group received membrane sweeping after 48 hours (40+2 days). The modified Bishop Score was assessed at 40+5 days. In two groups who did not go into natural labor at 40+5 days were managed according to the ward policy of cervical ripening and with labor induction at 40+5 days. Two different methods were used to assess discomfort and pain. Patient acceptability was assessed using recommendation to another patient and acceptance during next pregnancy. Perinatal, maternal and labour outcomes were assessed. Results: A change of the Bishops score was 67.3% (n= 31 of 46) in experimental group whereas in control group it was 57.5% (n= 38 of 66). (p = 0.21, OR-1.52, CI = 0.6 -3.34). Mean (SD) of Modified Bishop score was 6.36 (1.94) in experimental group and 6.03 (.84) in control group (p = 0.354). The probability of having the spontaneous onset of labour in experimental group was 61.6% (n=74 of 120) whereas in control group it was 45% (n= 54 of 120) (p=0.01, OR-1.966, CI = 1.17 – 3.28 NNT = 5.99). Recommending the method to another among experimental group was 75% (n= 90 of 120) whereas in control group it was 79.2% (n= 95 of 120) (p= 0.443). Accepting membrane Sweeping for subsequent pregnancy among experimental was 72.5% (n=87 of 120) whereas in control group was 72.5% (n=87 of 120) (p= 1.00) Need of formal induction of labour at 40+ 5 days in experimental group was 38.4% (n=46 of 120) whereas in control group was 61.6% (n=66 of 120) (p=0.01, OR=0.5, CI= 0.3 – 0.8, NNT=6). Neonatal outcome, labour outcome such as Cesarean -section rate, need for augmentation and maternal complications such as fever, Premature rupture of membrane, bleeding were comparable in two groups. Conclusions and Recommendations: It can be concluded that twice sweeping of membrane was effective to reduce the need of formal induction of labour and increase the chances of having spontaneous onset of labour (SOL) at 40+5 days without increasing maternal or fetal morbidity. Acceptability of twice sweeping is not different from sweeping once. Hence we recommend consideration of multiple membranes sweeping as first line for women at 40 weeks of gestation.

Keywords: Labour, induction, acceptability, membrane sweeping

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4 Evaluation of the Spatial Regulation of Hydrogen Sulphide Producing Enzymes in the Placenta during Labour

Authors: F. Saleh, F. Lyall, A. Abdulsid, L. Marks

Abstract:

Background: Labour in human is a complex biological process that involves interactions of neurological, hormonal and inflammatory pathways, with the placenta being a key regulator of these pathways. It is known that uterine contractions and labour pain cause physiological changes in gene expression in maternal and fetal blood, and in placenta during labour. Oxidative and inflammatory stress pathways are implicated in labour and they may cause alteration of placental gene expression. Additionally, in placental tissues, labour increases the expression of genes involved in placental oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, angiogenic regulators and apoptosis. Recently, Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) has been considered as an endogenous gaseous mediator which promotes vasodilation and exhibits cytoprotective anti-inflammatory properties. The endogenous H2S is synthesised predominantly by two enzymes: cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE). As the H2S pathway has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory characteristics thus, we hypothesised that the expression of CBS and CSE in placental tissues would alter during labour. Methods: CBS and CSE expressions were examined in placentas using western blotting and RT-PCR in inner, middle and outer placental zones in placentas obtained from healthy non labouring women who delivered by caesarian section. These were compared with the equivalent zone of placentas obtained from women who had uncomplicated labour and delivered vaginally. Results: No differences in CBS and CSE mRNA or protein levels were found between the different sites within placentas in either the labour or non-labour group. There were no significant differences in either CBS or CSE expression between the two groups at the inner site and middle site. However, at the outer site there was a highly significant decrease in CBS protein expression in the labour group when compared to the non-labour group (p = 0.002). Conclusion: To the best of author’s knowledge, this is the first report to suggest that, CBS is expressed in a spatial manner within the human placenta. Further work is needed to clarify the precise function and mechanism of this spatial regulation although it is likely that inflammatory pathways regulation is a complex process in which this plays a role.

Keywords: Labour, Oxidative Stress, Anti-Inflammatory, hydrogen sulphide

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3 Impact of HIV/AIDS on Food Security in Pala Sub-Location, Bondo District, Kenya

Authors: S. B. Otieno, Were Fred, E. W. Kabiru, K. Waza

Abstract:

Background: HIV/AIDS is leading to the loss of labor through sickness and subsequent death, this is leading to the neglect of farm and off-farm activities, with the subsequent loss of potential income and food security. The situation is sensitive to seasonal labour peaks in agriculture. This study was done to determine the impact of high HIV prevalence in farming systems and food security in Pala Bondo District, Kenya. Methods: In this study, 386 respondents were randomly chosen in Pala Sub-Location. The respondents and key informants were interviewed using structured questionnaire. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: It was established that majority of respondents (67%) were between 18 and 35 years {χ2 = (1, N = 386) = 13.430, p = 0.000} (chimney effect). The study also established that 83.5% of respondents were married {χ2 = (1, N= 370) = 166.277 p = 0.000} and predominant occupation being farming and fishing (61%), while 52.8% of farm labour was by hand, 26% by oxen, and 4.9% mechanized. 73.2% of respondents only farm 0.25 to 2 acres, 48% mentioned lack of labour in land preparation {χ2 ((1,N = 321) = 113.146, p = 0.000), in planting {χ2 (1, N = 321) = 29.28, p = 0.000}. Majority of respondents lack food from January to June, during which 93% buy food. Conclusion: The high HIV prevalence in Pala has affected the farm labour leading to food insecurity.

Keywords: Food Security, HIV, AIDS, Labour

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2 Migrant Labour in Kerala: A Study on Inter-State Migrant Workers

Authors: Arun Perumbilavil Anand

Abstract:

In the recent years, Kerala is witnessing a large inflow of migrants from different parts of the country. Though initially, the migrants were largely from the districts of Tamil Nadu and mostly of seasonal nature, but at a later period, the state started getting migrants from the far-off states like UP, Assam, Bengal, etc. Higher wages for unskilled labour, large opportunities for employment, the reluctance on the part of Kerala workers to do menial and hard physical work, and the shortage of local labour, paradoxically despite the high unemployment rate in the state, led to the massive influx of migrant labourers. This study takes a multi-dimensional overview of migrant labour in Kerala by encompassing factors such as channels of migration, nature of employment contracts entered into and the corresponding wages and benefits obtained by them. The study also analysed the circumstances that led to the large influx of migrants from different states of India. It further makes an attempt to examine the varying dimensions of living and working environment, and also the health conditions of migrants. The study is based on the empirical findings obtained as a result of the primary interviews conducted with migrants in the districts of Palakkad, Malappuram, and Ernakulam. The study concludes by noting that Kerala will inevitably have to depend on migrant labour and is likely to experience heavy in-migration of labour in future, provided that if the existing socioeconomic and demographic situations persist. Since, this is inevitable, the best way before the state is to prepare well in advance to receive and accommodate such migrant labour to lead a comfortable life in a hassle free environment, so that it would definitely play a vital role in further strengthening and sustaining the growth trajectory of not only Kerala’s economy but also the states of origin.

Keywords: Migration, Labour, Migrant Workers, Kerala

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1 The Wage Differential between Migrant and Native Workers in Australia: Decomposition Approach

Authors: Sabrina Tabassum

Abstract:

Using Census Data for Housing and Population of Australia 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2016, this paper shows the existence of wage differences between natives and immigrants in Australia. Addressing the heterogeneous nature of immigrants, this study group the immigrants in three broad categories- migrants from English speaking countries and migrants from India and China. Migrants from English speaking countries and India earn more than the natives per week, whereas migrants from China earn far less than the natives per week. Oaxaca decomposition suggests that major part of this differential is unexplained. Using the occupational segregation concept and Brown decomposition, this study indicates that migrants from India and China would have been earned more than the natives if they had the same occupation distribution as natives due to their individual characteristics. Within occupation, wage differences are more prominent than inter-occupation wage differences for immigrants from China and India.

Keywords: Migration, Labour, Australia, wage

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