Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Labor Market Related Abstracts

8 A Suggested Study Plan for Mining Engineering Program in Northern Border University (NBU) to Match the Requirements of the Local Mining Industry

Authors: Mohammad Aljuhani, Yasamina Aljuhani


The Mining Engineering Department at College of Engineering in NBU is under establishment. It is essential to establish such department in NBU. This is because, it is the only university in the region. Moreover, the mining industry is very active in the northern borders region. However, there is no mining engineering department in KSA except one in King Abdulziz University, which is 1400 km from the mining industry in the northern borders. As a result, department graduates from KAU find difficulties to get suitable jobs in their specialization in spite of their few numbers graduated per year and the presence of many jobs vacancies at the local mining sector. Therefore, the objectives of this research are to identify, measure and analyze the above mentioned problem from educational point of view. One more objective is to add a contribution towards solving such vital, society affecting problem. For achieving the first task of the research, that is problem size identification and analyses, a questionnaire was designed. The questionnaire was directed towards experienced engineers, in the mining and related industries, including the ministry of petroleum and minerals, Saudi Geological Survey, and Ma’aden Company as being prospective employers for the mining sector. The questionnaire target was to evaluate the Saudi mining engineers from an industrial point of view and to detect the main reasons behind their failure to find jobs. In addition, the study focuses in the demand of mining engineers in the northern borders region. Moreover, the study plan of the suggested department is designed based on the requirements of the mining industry. The feedback received from the industry reflected major educational shortcomings. In order to overcome the revealed defects, the second objective of the research was achieved where a suggested study plan “curriculum” has been prepared to take into consideration all the points of weakness so as to improve the graduates’ quality to fit the local mining work market.

Keywords: Mining Engineering, Curriculum, Labor Market, qualifications, mining industry, mining engineers

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7 The Reality of Engineering Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Its Suitainability to The Requirements of The Labor Market

Authors: Hamad Albadr


With the development that has occurred in the orientation of universities from liability cognitive and maintain the culture of the community to responsibility job formation graduates to work according to the needs of the community development; representing universities in today's world, the prime motivator for the wheel of development in the community and find appropriate solutions to the problems they are facing and adapt to the demands of the changing environment. In this paper review of the reality of engineering education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and its suitability to the requirements of the labor market, where they will be looking at the university as a system administrator educational using System Analysis Approach as one of the methods of modern management to analyze the performance of organizations and institutions, administrative and quality assessment. According to this approach is to deal with the system as a set of subsystems as components of the main divided into : input, process, and outputs, and the surrounding environment, will also be used research descriptive method and analytical , to gather information, data and analysis answers of the study population that consisting of a random sample of the beneficiaries of these services that the universities provided that about 500 professionals about employment in the business sector.

Keywords: Engineering Education, Administrative, quality assessment, Labor Market, universities in Saudi Arabia

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6 Immigration and Gender Equality – An Analysis of the Labor Market Characteristics of Turkish Migrants Living in Germany

Authors: C. Asarkaya, S. Z. Siretioglu Girgin


Turkish migrants constitute the largest group among people with migration background living in Germany. Turkish women’s labor market participation is of significant importance for their social and economic integration to the German society. This paper thus aims to investigate their labor market positions. Turkish migrant women participate less in the labor market compared to men, and are responsible for most of the housework, child care, and elderly care. This is due to their traditional roles in the family, educational level, insufficient knowledge of German language, and insufficient professional experience. We strongly recommend that wide-reaching integration policies for women are formulated, so as to encourage participation of not only migrant women but also their husbands, fathers and/or brothers, and natives.

Keywords: Migration, Women, Turkish, Labor Market, Empowerment, Germany

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5 Experiences of Discrimination and Coping Strategies of Second Generation Academics during the Career-Entry Phase in Austria

Authors: R. Verwiebe, L. Seewann, M. Wolf


This presentation addresses marginalization and discrimination as experienced by young academics with a migrant background in the Austrian labor market. Focusing on second generation academics of Central Eastern European and Turkish descent we explore two major issues. First, we ask whether their career-entry and everyday professional life entails origin-specific barriers. As educational residents, they show competences which, when lacking, tend to be drawn upon to explain discrimination: excellent linguistic skills, accredited high-level training, and networks. Second, we concentrate on how this group reacts to discrimination and overcomes experiences of marginalization. To answer these questions, we utilize recent sociological and social psychological theories that focus on the diversity of individual experiences. This distinguishes us from a long tradition of research that has dealt with the motives that inform discrimination, but has less often considered the effects on those concerned. Similarly, applied coping strategies have less often been investigated, though they may provide unique insights into current problematic issues. Building upon present literature, we follow recent discrimination research incorporating the concepts of ‘multiple discrimination’, ‘subtle discrimination’, and ‘visual social markers’. 21 problem-centered interviews are the empirical foundation underlying this study. The interviewees completed their entire educational career in Austria, graduated in different universities and disciplines and are working in their first post-graduate jobs (career entry phase). In our analysis, we combined thematic charting with a coding method. The results emanating from our empirical material indicated a variety of discrimination experiences ranging from barely perceptible disadvantages to directly articulated and overt marginalization. The spectrum of experiences covered stereotypical suppositions at job interviews, the disavowal of competencies, symbolic or social exclusion by new colleges, restricted professional participation (e.g. customer contact) and non-recruitment due to religious or ethnical markers (e.g. headscarves). In these experiences the role of the academics education level, networks, or competences seemed to be minimal, as negative prejudice on the basis of visible ‘social markers’ operated ‘ex-ante’. The coping strategies identified in overcoming such barriers are: an increased emphasis on effort, avoidance of potentially marginalizing situations, direct resistance (mostly in the form of verbal opposition) and dismissal of negative experiences by ignoring or ironizing the situation. In some cases, the academics drew into their specific competences, such as an intellectual approach of studying specialist literature, focus on their intercultural competences or planning to migrate back to their parent’s country of origin. Our analysis further suggests a distinction between reactive (i.e. to act on and respond to experienced discrimination) and preventative strategies (applied to obviate discrimination) of coping. In light of our results, we would like to stress that the tension between educational and professional success experienced by academics with a migrant background – and the barriers and marginalization they continue to face – are essential issues to be introduced to socio-political discourse. It seems imperative to publicly accentuate the growing social, political and economic significance of this group, their educational aspirations, as well as their experiences of achievement and difficulties.

Keywords: Discrimination, Labor Market, coping strategies, second generation university graduates

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4 Qualitative Research on German Household Practices to Ease the Risk of Poverty

Authors: Marie Boost


Despite activation policies, forced personal initiative to step out of unemployment and a general prosper economic situation, poverty and financial hardship constitute a crucial role in the daily lives of many families in Germany. In 2015, ~16 million persons (20.2%) of the German population are at risk of poverty or social exclusion. This is illustrated by an unemployment rate of 13.3% in the research area, located in East Germany. Despite this high amount of persons living in vulnerable households, we know little about how they manage to stabilize their lives or even overcome poverty – apart from solely relying on welfare state benefits or entering in a stable, well-paid job. Most of them are struggling in precarious living circumstances, switching from one or several short-term, low-paid jobs into self-employment or unemployment, sometimes accompanied by welfare state benefits. Hence, insecurity and uncertain future expectation form a crucial part of their lives. Within the EU-funded project “RESCuE”, resilient practices of vulnerable households were investigated in nine European countries. Approximately, 15 expert interviews with policy makers, representatives from welfare state agencies, NGOs and charity organizations and 25 household interviews have been conducted within each country. It aims to find out more about the chances and conditions of social resilience. The research is based on the triangulation of biographical narrative interviews, followed by participatory photo interviews, asking the household members to portray their typical everyday life. The presentation is focusing on the explanatory strength of this mixed-methods approach in order to show the potential of household practices to overcome financial hardship. The methodological combination allows an in-depth analysis of the families and households everyday living circumstances, including their poverty and employment situation, whether formal and informal. Active household budgeting practices, such as saving and consumption practices are based on subsistence or Do-It-Yourself work. Especially due to the photo-interviews, the importance of inherent cultural and tacit knowledge becomes obvious as it pictures their typical practices, like cultivation and gathering fruits and vegetables or going fishing. One of the central findings is the multiple purposes of these practices. They contribute to ease financial burden through consumption reduction and strengthen social ties, as they are mostly conducted with close friends or family members. In general, non-commodified practices are found to be re-commodified and to contribute to ease financial hardship, e.g. by the use of commons, barter trade or simple mutual exchange (gift exchange). These practices can substitute external purchases and reduce expenses or even generate a small income. Mixing different income sources are found to be the most likely way out of poverty within the context of a precarious labor market. But these resilient household practices take its toll as they are highly preconditioned, and many persons put themselves into risk of overstressing themselves. Thus, the potentials and risks of resilient household practices are reflected in the presentation.

Keywords: Resilience, Qualitative Research, Labor Market, consumption practices

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3 State, Public Policies, and Rights: Public Expenditure and Social and Welfare Policies in America, as Opposed to Argentina

Authors: Mauro Cristeche


This paper approaches the intervention of the American State in the social arena and the modeling of the rights system from the Argentinian experience, by observing the characteristics of its federal budgetary system, the evolution of social public spending and welfare programs in recent years, labor and poverty statistics, and the changes on the labor market structure. The analysis seeks to combine different methodologies and sources: in-depth interviews with specialists, analysis of theoretical and mass-media material, and statistical sources. Among the results, it could be mentioned that the tendency to state interventionism (what has been called ‘nationalization of social life’) is quite evident in the United States, and manifests itself in multiple forms. The bibliography consulted, and the experts interviewed pointed out this increase of the state presence in historical terms (beyond short-term setbacks) in terms of increase of public spending, fiscal pressure, public employment, protective and control mechanisms, the extension of welfare policies to the poor sectors, etc. In fact, despite the significant differences between both countries, the United States and Argentina have common patterns of behavior in terms of the aforementioned phenomena. On the other hand, dissimilarities are also important. Some of them are determined by each country's own political history. The influence of political parties on the economic model seems more decisive in the United States than in Argentina, where the tendency to state interventionism is more stable. The centrality of health spending is evident in America, while in Argentina that discussion is more concentrated in the social security system and public education. The biggest problem of the labor market in the United States is the disqualification as a consequence of the technological development while in Argentina it is a result of its weakness. Another big difference is the huge American public spending on Defense. Then, the more federal character of the American State is also a factor of differential analysis against a centralized Argentine state. American public employment (around 10%) is comparatively quite lower than the Argentinian (around 18%). The social statistics show differences, but inequality and poverty have been growing as a trend in the last decades in both countries. According to public rates, poverty represents 14% in The United States and 33% in Argentina. American public spending is important (welfare spending and total public spending represent around 12% and 34% of GDP, respectively), but a bit lower than Latin-American or European average). In both cases, the tendency to underemployment and disqualification unemployment does not assume a serious gravity. Probably one of the most important aspects of the analysis is that private initiative and public intervention are much more intertwined in the United States, which makes state intervention more ‘fuzzy’, while in Argentina the difference is clearer. Finally, the power of its accumulation of capital and, more specifically, of the industrial and services sectors in the United States, which continues to be the engine of the economy, express great differences with Argentina, supported by its agro-industrial power and its public sector.

Keywords: state intervention, Labor Market, United States of America, welfare policies, system of rights

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2 Remittances, Unemployement and Demographic Changes between Tunisia and Europe

Authors: Hajer Habib, Ghazi Boulila


The objective of this paper is to present our contribution to the theoretical literature through a simple theoretical model dealing with the effect of transferring funds on the labor market of the countries of origin and on the other hand to test this relationship empirically in the case of Tunisia. The methodology used consists of estimating a panel of the nine main destinations of the Tunisian diaspora in Europe between 1994 and 2014 in order to better value the net effect of these migratory financial flows on unemployment through population growth. The empirical results show that the main factors explaining the decision to emigrate are the economic factors related mainly to the income differential, the demographic factors related to the differential age structure of the origin and host populations, and the cultural factors linked basically to the mastery of the language. Indeed, the stock of migrants is one of the main determinants of the transfer of migratory funds to Tunisia. But there are other variables that do not lack importance such as the economic conditions linked by the host countries. This shows that Tunisian migrants react more to economic conditions in European countries than in Tunisia. The economic situation of European countries dominates the numbers of emigrants as an explanatory factor for the amount of transfers from Tunisian emigrants to their country of origin. Similarly, it is clear that there is an indirect effect of transfers on unemployment in Tunisia. This suggests that the demographic transition conditions the effects of transferring funds on the level of unemployment.

Keywords: International Migration, Labor Market, remittances, demographic changes

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1 Analyzing Regional Structural Changes and Wage Outcomes in Malaysia

Authors: Siti Aiysyah Tumin


Policymakers are increasingly aware of the different realities faced by workers and households in different regions in Malaysia, as evident by the multiple mentions of “regional disparity” in the country’s most recent policy document, Shared Prosperity Vision 2030. This paper looks at the nature of structural economic changes—the transition from agriculture, to manufacturing, to different types of services—in different states in Malaysia and links it to an important labor market outcome for workers, which is their salaries and wages, in the last decade. This paper will use panel data methods to identify conditional association between the sectoral structure of a state’s economy and workers' remuneration between 2010 and 2018. Findings from this paper will highlight how structural changes at the regional level matter if policymakers were to improve workers’ wages and address regional income disparity.

Keywords: Employment, Labor Market, Structural Change, wage

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