Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

labeling Related Abstracts

6 Employee Aggression, Labeling and Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Martin Popescu D. Dana Maria


The aims of this research are to broaden the study on the relationship between emotional intelligence and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). The study sample consisted in 441 Romanian employees from companies all over the country. Data has been collected through web surveys and processed with SPSS. The results indicated an average correlation between the two constructs and their sub variables, employees with a high level of emotional intelligence tend to be less aggressive. In addition, labeling was considered an individual difference which has the power to influence the level of employee aggression. A regression model was used to underline the importance of emotional intelligence together with labeling as predictors of CWB. Results have shown that this regression model enforces the assumption that labeling and emotional intelligence, taken together, predict CWB. Employees, who label themselves as victims and have a low degree of emotional intelligence, have a higher level of CWB.

Keywords: labeling, Aggression, Emotional Intelligence, CWB

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5 A Fully Automated New-Fangled VESTAL to Label Vertebrae and Intervertebral Discs

Authors: K. V. Ramana, R. Srinivas


This paper presents a novel method called VESTAL to label vertebrae and inter vertebral discs. Each vertebra has certain statistical features properties. To label vertebrae and discs, a new equation to model the path of spinal cord is derived using statistical properties of the spinal canal. VESTAL uses this equation for labeling vertebrae and discs. For each vertebrae and inter vertebral discs both posterior, interior width, height are measured. The calculated values are compared with real values which are measured using venires calipers and the comparison produced 95% efficiency and accurate results. The VESTAL is applied on 50 patients 350 MR images and obtained 100% accuracy in labeling.

Keywords: Statistics, Spine, labeling, Texture, vertebrae, inter vertebral disc, disc

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4 From Shallow Semantic Representation to Deeper One: Verb Decomposition Approach

Authors: Aliaksandr Huminski


Semantic Role Labeling (SRL) as shallow semantic parsing approach includes recognition and labeling arguments of a verb in a sentence. Verb participants are linked with specific semantic roles (Agent, Patient, Instrument, Location, etc.). Thus, SRL can answer on key questions such as ‘Who’, ‘When’, ‘What’, ‘Where’ in a text and it is widely applied in dialog systems, question-answering, named entity recognition, information retrieval, and other fields of NLP. However, SRL has the following flaw: Two sentences with identical (or almost identical) meaning can have different semantic role structures. Let consider 2 sentences: (1) John put butter on the bread. (2) John buttered the bread. SRL for (1) and (2) will be significantly different. For the verb put in (1) it is [Agent + Patient + Goal], but for the verb butter in (2) it is [Agent + Goal]. It happens because of one of the most interesting and intriguing features of a verb: Its ability to capture participants as in the case of the verb butter, or their features as, say, in the case of the verb drink where the participant’s feature being liquid is shared with the verb. This capture looks like a total fusion of meaning and cannot be decomposed in direct way (in comparison with compound verbs like babysit or breastfeed). From this perspective, SRL looks really shallow to represent semantic structure. If the key point in semantic representation is an opportunity to use it for making inferences and finding hidden reasons, it assumes by default that two different but semantically identical sentences must have the same semantic structure. Otherwise we will have different inferences from the same meaning. To overcome the above-mentioned flaw, the following approach is suggested. Assume that: P is a participant of relation; F is a feature of a participant; Vcp is a verb that captures a participant; Vcf is a verb that captures a feature of a participant; Vpr is a primitive verb or a verb that does not capture any participant and represents only a relation. In another word, a primitive verb is a verb whose meaning does not include meanings from its surroundings. Then Vcp and Vcf can be decomposed as: Vcp = Vpr +P; Vcf = Vpr +F. If all Vcp and Vcf will be represented this way, then primitive verbs Vpr can be considered as a canonical form for SRL. As a result of that, there will be no hidden participants caught by a verb since all participants will be explicitly unfolded. An obvious example of Vpr is the verb go, which represents pure movement. In this case the verb drink can be represented as man-made movement of liquid into specific direction. Extraction and using primitive verbs for SRL create a canonical representation unique for semantically identical sentences. It leads to the unification of semantic representation. In this case, the critical flaw related to SRL will be resolved.

Keywords: labeling, Decomposition, primitive verbs, semantic roles

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3 Label Survey in Romania: A Study on How Consumers Use Food Labeling

Authors: Camelia Vizireanu, Gabriela Iordachescu, Mariana Cretu Stuparu, Mirela Praisler, Camelia Busila, Doina Voinescu


The aim of the study was to evaluate the consumers’ degree of confidence in food labeling, how they use and understand the label and respectively food labeling elements. The label is a bridge between producers, suppliers, and consumers. It has to offer enough information in terms of public health and food safety, statement of ingredients, nutritional information, warnings and advisory statements, producing date and shelf-life, instructions for storage and preparation (if required). The survey was conducted on 500 consumers group in Romania, aged 15+, males and females, from urban and rural areas and with different graduation levels. The questionnaire was distributed face to face and online. It had single or multiple choices questions and label images for the efficiency and best understanding of the question. The law 1169/2011 applied to food products from 13 of December 2016 improved and adapted the requirements for labeling in a clear manner. The questions were divided on following topics: interest and general trust in labeling, use and understanding of label elements, understanding of the ingredient list and safety information, nutrition information, advisory statements, serving sizes, best before/use by meanings, intelligent labeling, and demographic data. Three choice selection exercises were also included. In this case, the consumers had to choose between two similar products and evaluate which label element is most important in product choice. The data were analysed using MINITAB 17 and PCA analysis. Most of the respondents trust the food label, taking into account some elements especially when they buy the first time the product. They usually check the sugar content and type of sugar, saturated fat and use the mandatory label elements and nutrition information panel. Also, the consumers pay attention to advisory statements, especially if one of the items is relevant to them or the family. Intelligent labeling is a challenging option. In addition, the paper underlines that the consumer is more careful and selective with the food consumption and the label is the main helper for these.

Keywords: Consumers, labeling, food safety information, labeling nutritional information

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2 Additional Method for the Purification of Lanthanide-Labeled Peptide Compounds Pre-Purified by Weak Cation Exchange Cartridge

Authors: K. Eryilmaz, G. Mercanoglu


Aim: Purification of the final product, which is the last step in the synthesis of lanthanide-labeled peptide compounds, can be accomplished by different methods. Among these methods, the two most commonly used methods are C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) and weak cation exchanger cartridge elution. SPE C18 solid phase extraction method yields high purity final product, while elution from the weak cation exchanger cartridge is pH dependent and ineffective in removing colloidal impurities. The aim of this work is to develop an additional purification method for the lanthanide-labeled peptide compound in cases where the desired radionuclidic and radiochemical purity of the final product can not be achieved because of pH problem or colloidal impurity. Material and Methods: For colloidal impurity formation, 3 mL of water for injection (WFI) was added to 30 mCi of 177LuCl3 solution and allowed to stand for 1 day. 177Lu-DOTATATE was synthesized using EZAG ML-EAZY module (10 mCi/mL). After synthesis, the final product was mixed with the colloidal impurity solution (total volume:13 mL, total activity: 40 mCi). The resulting mixture was trapped in SPE-C18 cartridge. The cartridge was washed with 10 ml saline to remove impurities to the waste vial. The product trapped in the cartridge was eluted with 2 ml of 50% ethanol and collected to the final product vial via passing through a 0.22μm filter. The final product was diluted with 10 mL of saline. Radiochemical purity before and after purification was analysed by HPLC method. (column: ACE C18-100A. 3µm. 150 x 3.0mm, mobile phase: Water-Acetonitrile-Trifluoro acetic acid (75:25:1), flow rate: 0.6 mL/min). Results: UV and radioactivity detector results in HPLC analysis showed that colloidal impurities were completely removed from the 177Lu-DOTATATE/ colloidal impurity mixture by purification method. Conclusion: The improved purification method can be used as an additional method to remove impurities that may result from the lanthanide-peptide synthesis in which the weak cation exchange purification technique is used as the last step. The purification of the final product and the GMP compliance (the final aseptic filtration and the sterile disposable system components) are two major advantages.

Keywords: Synthesis, Purification, Radionuclide, labeling, Peptide, radiopharmaceutical, lanthanide

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1 Ex-Offenders’ Labeling, Stigmatization and Unsuccessful Re-Integration as Factors Leading into Recidivism: A South African Context

Authors: Tshimangadzo Oscar Magadze


For successful re-integration, the individual offender must adapt and transform, which requires that the offender should adopt and internalize socially approved norms, attitudes, values, and beliefs. However, the offender’s labeling and community stigmatization decide the destination of the offender. Community involvement in ex-offenders’ re-integration is an important issue in efforts to reduce recidivism and to control overcrowding in our correctional facilities. Crime is a social problem that requires society to come together to fight against it. This study was conducted in the Limpopo Province in Vhembe District Municipality within four local municipalities, namely Musina, Makhado, Mutale, and Thulamela. A total number of 30 participants were interviewed, and all were members of the Community Corrections Forums. This was necessitated by the fact that Musina is a very small area, which compelled the Department of Correctional Services to combine the two (Musina and Makhado) into one social re-integration entity. This is a qualitative research study where participants were selected through the use of purposive sampling. Participants were selected based on the value they would add to this study in order to achieve the objectives. The data collection method of this study was the focus group, which comprised of 3 groups of 10 participants each. Thulamela and Mutale local municipalities formed a group with (10) participants each, whereas Musina (2) and Makhado (8) formed another. Results indicate that the current situation is not conducive for re-integration to be successful. Participants raised many factors that need serious redress, namely offenders’ discrimination, lack of forgiveness by members of the community, which is fuelled by lack of community awareness due to the failure of the Department of Correctional Services in educating communities on ex-offenders re-integration.

Keywords: labeling, stigmatization, re-integration, Ex-Offender

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