Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Kuwait Related Abstracts

31 Intertidal Fixed Stake Net Trap (Hadrah) Fishery in Kuwait, Distribution, Catch Rate, and Species Composition

Authors: Ali F. Al-Baz, Mohsen M. Al-Husaini, James M. Bishop

Abstract:

Intertidal fixed stake net trap (hadrah) is one of the oldest fishing gears used throughout the Arabian Gulf countries since 1800s and also one of most efficient methods of capturing fish from the intertidal area. This study described the hadrah fishery in Kuwait. From October 2001 to December 2002, more than 37,372 specimens representing 95 species (89 fish, 2 mollusks, 4 crustaceans) were measured from hadrah located in three different areas along Kuwait's coast. In Kuwait Bay, catch rates averaged 62 kg/sir day (range 14 kg/sir-day in February to 160 kg/sir-day in October 2002). Commercial species accounted for 41% of the catches. Catches from Failakah Island averaged 96 kg/sir-day from June through September, with 61% of the catch being commercial species. In the southern area, catches averaged only 32 kg/sir-day, and only 34% were commercially important. Forty percent of the hadrah catches were juveniles which shows that the shallow intertidal waters are prime nursery habitat, particularly in Kuwait Bay. To maintain ecosystem biodiversity and recruitment success of the fishes, we recommended that all hadrah should be removed from Kuwait Bay. In the future, removal of hadrah in other locations should be considered.

Keywords: Species Composition, catch and effort, hadrah, intertidal fixed stake net, Kuwait

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30 Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Kuwait: A Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Mitra Arami

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The main objective of this paper is to identify the factors that influence Kuwaiti consumers’ behavior towards online shopping. A survey was conducted among B2C e-commerce customers using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The findings of this study show that B2C e-commerce customer behavior in Kuwait is strongly influenced by customer entertainment but weakly influenced by customer trust. While the overall research project involves exploratory research using mixed methods, the focus of this paper is on a quantitative analysis of responses obtained from a survey of Kuwaiti customers, with the design of the questionnaire instrument being based on the findings of a qualitative analysis. The main findings of the analysis include a list of key factors that affect Kuwait online shoppers, and quantitative indications of the relative strengths of the various relationships. This study provides a basis for further research and more in depth studies to find the scope of online shopping in Kuwait especially, the influence of hedonic and utilitarian motivations on user engagement.

Keywords: E-Commerce, Quantitative Analysis, Online shopping, Kuwait, customer behavior

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29 Designing the First Oil Tanker Shipyard Facility in Kuwait

Authors: Fatma Al Abdullah, Shahad Al Ameer, Ritaj Jaragh, Fatimah Khajah, Rawan Qambar, Amr Nounou

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Kuwait currently manufactures its tankers in foreign countries. Oil tankers play a role in the supply chain of the oil industry. Therefore, with Kuwait’s sufficient financial resources, the country should secure itself strategically in order to protect its oil industry to sustain economic development. The purpose of this report is designing an oil tankers’ shipyard facility. Basing the shipyard facility in Kuwait will have great economic rewards. The shipbuilding industry directly enhances the industrial chain in terms of new job and business opportunities as well as educational fields. Heavy Engineering Industries & Shipbuilding Co. K.S.C. (HEISCO) was chosen as a host due to benefits that will result from HEISCO’s existing infrastructure and expertise to reduce cost. The Facility Design methodology chosen has been used because it covers all aspects needed for the report. The oil tanker market is witnessing a shift from crude tankers to product tankers. Therefore the Panamax tanker (product tanker) was selected to be manufactured in the facility. The different departments needed in shipyards were identified based on studying different global shipyards. Technologies needed to build ships helped in the process design. It was noticed that ships are engineer to order. The new layout development of the proposed shipyard is currently in progress. A feasibility study will be conducted to ensure the success of the facility after developing the shipyard’s layout.

Keywords: Shipbuilding, Facility design, Kuwait, oil tankers, shipyard

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28 SWOT Analysis of the Industrial Sector in Kuwait

Authors: Amr Nounou, Abdullah Al-Alaian, Ahmad Al-Enzi, Hasan Al-Herz, Ahmad Bakri, Shant Tatorian

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Kuwait is a country that has an imbalanced economy since most of its national outcome comes from the oil trade. It is so risky for a country to be dependent on a single source for income, and this increases the need to diversify its economy. In addition, according to the Public Authority for Industry, the contribution of the industrial sector to the current Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Kuwait is low which is about 4.33%. Therefore, the development of the industrial sector can be one of the means to diversify the economy and increase the industry's contribution to the national outcome. This is in accordance with Kuwait’s vision of 2035 which aims at increasing the contribution of the industrial sector to the GDP to 12%. In order to do so, this study aims at proposing a strategic plan that will accomplish certain objectives when implemented. It is based on analyzing the industrial sectors in Kuwait taking into consideration studying the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats facing them. At the same time, it tends to gain from the experience of leading models and neighboring countries regarding the development of the industrial sector. In this study, the SWOT analysis technique will be conducted on all industrial sectors based on evaluation criteria in which it is determined whether any of them has a potential for improvement or not. In other words, it is determined whether the sectors are able to compete locally, regionally, or globally. Based on the results of the SWOT analysis, certain sectors will be chosen, assessed based on an assessment scheme, and their potentials for improvement will be aligned with the overall objectives. To ensure the achievement of the study’s objectives, an action plan will be proposed regarding recommendations for the related authorities, and for entrepreneurs. In addition, monitoring tools are going to be provided for the purpose of periodically checking the progress made in the implementation of the plan.

Keywords: Productivity, Economy, Competitiveness, SWOT analysis, Kuwait, industrial sector, GDP

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27 Waiting Time Reduction in a Government Hospital Emergency Department: A Case Study on AlAdan Hospital, Kuwait

Authors: Bashayer AlRobayaan, Munira Saad, Alaa AlBawab, Fatma AlHamad, Sara AlAwadhi, Sherif Fahmy

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This paper addresses the problem of long waiting times in government hospitals emergency departments (ED). It aims at finding feasible and simple ways of reducing waiting times that do not require a lot of resources and/or expenses. AlAdan Hospital in Kuwait was chosen to be understudy to further understand and capture the problem.

Keywords: Healthcare, hospital, Emergency Department, Kuwait, waiting times

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26 Float Glass Manufacture Facility Design: Feasibility Study in Kuwait

Authors: Farah Al-Mutairi, Hadeer Al-Jeeraan, Lima Ali, Raya Al-Dabbous, Sarah Baroun

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Lately, within the middle east, development has taken place in the construction area which increased the demand of a crucial component, where without it; stunning views from skyscrapers cannot been experienced, and natural light would not be able to be viewed from an indoor building. Glass has changed the path of living and building. Float glass is a type of glass that is flat and it is the type used in the construction and automobile sector. Facility design on the other hand is a study that improves the efficiency utilization of people, equipment, material and space. Kuwait's governmental future developing plan bears in mind the need of increase in industries to increase the growth domestic product(GDP) of the country. This project studies the feasibility of two designs of a float glass manufacture in Kuwait. The first Alternative, consists of one production line of capacity 500 tons of glass per day. The second alternative, consists of three production lines, each of capacity 500 tons of glass daily.

Keywords: Facility design, Kuwait, float glass manufacture, feasibility float glass, float glass production

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25 Nurse Schedule Problem in Mubarak Al Kabeer Hospital

Authors: Khaled Al-Mansour, Nawaf Esmael, Abdulaziz Al-Zaid, Mohammed Al Ateeqi, Ali Al-Yousfi, Sayed Al-Zalzalah

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In this project we will create the new schedule of nurse according to the preference of them. We did our project in Mubarak Al Kabeer Hospital (in Kuwait). The project aims to optimize the schedule of nurses in Mubarak Al Kabeer Hospital. The schedule of the nurses was studied and understood well to do any modification for their schedule to make the nurses feel as much comfort as they are. First constraints were found to know what things we can change and what things we can’t, the hard constraints are the hospital and ministry policies where we can’t change anything about, and the soft constraints are things that make nurses more comfortable. Data were collected and nurses were interviewed to know what is more better for them. All these constraints and date have been formulated to mathematical equations. This report will first contain an introduction to the topic which includes details of the problem definition. It will also contain information regarding the optimization of a nurse schedule and its contents and importance; furthermore, the report will contain information about the data needed to solve the problem and how it was collected. The problem requires formulation and that is also to be shown. The methodology will be explained which will state what has already been done. We used the lingo software to find the best schedule for the nurse. The schedule has been made according to what the nurses prefer, and also took consideration of the hospital policy when we make the schedule.

Keywords: Kuwait, nurse schedule problem, hospital policy, optimization of schedules

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24 An Examination of the Relationship between Organizational Justice and Trust in the Supervisor: The Mediating Role of Perceived Supervisor Support

Authors: Michel Zaitouni, Mohamed Nassar

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The purpose of this study is first, to explore the effect of employees’ perception of justice on trust in the supervisor in the context of performance appraisal; Second, to assess the role of perceived supervisor support as a mediator between organizational justice and trust in the supervisor in a non-western society such as Kuwait.The survey data consisted of 415 employees working at different hierarchical levels in three major banks in Kuwait. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the research hypotheses. Results supported hypothesized relationships between distributive, informational and interpersonal justice and trust in the supervisor but failed to support that procedural justice positively and significantly relate to trust in the supervisor. Moreover, results found that this relationship is partially mediated by perceived supervisor support. A potential limitation of this study is that data were obtained from the same industry which limits the generalizability of this study to other industries. Moreover, a longitudinal research will be helpful to strengthen the mediating relationship. The findings provide valuable information for the development of common perspectives regarding the perception of justice in the context of performance appraisal between the western and non-western societies. The paper has the privilege to explore additional relationships related to justice perceptions in the Kuwaiti banking sector, whereas previous research focused mainly on procedural and distributive justice as predictors of trust in the supervisor.

Keywords: Organizational Justice, Kuwait, perceived supervisor support, trust in the supervisor

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23 Hatching Rhythm, Larval Release of the Rocky Intertidal Crab Leptoduis exaratus (Brachyura: Xanthidae) in Kuwait, Arabian Gulf

Authors: Zainab Al-Wazzan, Luis Gimenez, Lewis Le Vay, Manaf Behbehani

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The hatching rhythm and larval release patterns of the rocky shore crab Leptoduis exaratus was investigated in relation to the tidal cycle, the time of the day, and lunar cycle. Ovigerous females were collected from rocky shores at six sites along the Kuwait coastline between April and July of 2014. The females were kept separated in aquaria under a natural photoperiod cycle and the pattern of larval release was monitored in relation to local tidal and dial cycles. Larval release occurred mostly during the night time, and was highly synchronized with neap tides that followed full moon; at the end of the hatching period, significant larval release occurred also during spring tides. Time series analysis showed a highly significant autocorrelation and the periodicity at a peak of 14-15 days. The cross-correlation analysis between hatching and the daily low tide level suggests that larvae are released about a day before neap tide. Hatching during neap tides occurred early in the night at times of the expected ebb tide. During spring tide period (late in the season), larval release occurred later during night at tides of the ebb tide. The results of this study indicated a strong relationship between the tidal cycle, time of the day and the hatching rhythm of L. exaratus. In addition, the results suggest that water level in the intertidal zone is also playing a very important role in determining the time of the hatching. Hatching and larval release synchronize with the preferred larval environmental conditions to prevent exposing larvae to physiological or environmental stress during their early larval stages. It is also an important factor in determining the larval dispersal.

Keywords: Kuwait, larvae, brachyura, hatching rhythm

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22 Teachers’ Incorporation of Emerging Communication Technologies in Higher Education in Kuwait

Authors: Bashaiar Alsanaa

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Never has a revolution influenced all aspects of humanity as the communication revolution during the past two decades. This revolution, with all its advances and utilities, swept the world thus becoming an integral part of our lives, hence giving way to emerging applications at the social, economic, political, and educational levels. More specifically, such applications have changed the delivery system through which learning is acquired by students. Interaction with educators, accessibility to content, and creative delivery options are but a few facets of the new learning experience now being offered through the use of technology in the educational field. With different success rates, third world countries have tried to pace themselves with use of educational technology in advanced parts of the world. One such country is the small rich-oil state of Kuwait which has tried to adopt the e-educational model, however, an evaluation of such trial is yet to be done. This study aims to fill the void of research conducted around that topic. The study explores teachers’ acceptance of incorporating communication technologies in higher education in Kuwait. Teachers’ responses to survey questions present an overview of the e-learning experience in this country, and draw a framework through which implications and suggestions for future research can be discussed to better serve the advancement of e-education in developing countries.

Keywords: e-Learning, Social Media, Communication Technologies, Kuwait

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21 Teachers Tolerance of Using Emerging Communication Technologies in Higher Education in Kuwait

Authors: Bashaiar Alsana

Abstract:

Never has a revolution influenced all aspects of humanity as the communication revolution during the past two decades. This revolution, with all its advances and utilities, swept the world thus becoming an integral part of our lives, hence giving way to emerging applications at the social, economic, political, and educational levels. More specifically, such applications have changed the delivery system through which learning is acquired by students. Interaction with educators, accessibility to content, and creative delivery options are but a few facets of the new learning experience now being offered through the use of technology in the educational field. With different success rates, third world countries have tried to pace themselves with use of educational technology in advanced parts of the world. One such country is the small rich-oil state of Kuwait which has tried to adopt the e-educational model, however, an evaluation of such trial is yet to be done. This study aims to fill the void of research conducted around that topic. The study explores teachers’ acceptance of incorporating communication technologies in higher education in Kuwait. Teachers’ responses to survey questions present an overview of the e-learning experience in this country, and draw a framework through which implications and suggestions for future research can be discussed to better serve the advancement of e-education in developing countries.

Keywords: e-Learning, Social Media, Communication Technologies, Kuwait

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20 The Information-Seeking Behaviour of Kuwaiti Judges (KJs)

Authors: Essam Mansour

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The key purpose of this study is to show information-seeking behaviour of Kuwaiti Judges (KJs). Being one of the few studies about the information needs and information-seeking behaviour conducted in Arab and developing countries, this study is a pioneer one among many studies conducted in information seeking, especially with this significant group of information users. The authors tried to investigate this seeking behavior in terms of KJs' thoughts, perceptions, motivations, techniques, preferences, tools and barriers met when seeking information. The authors employed a questionnaire, with a response rate 77.2 percent. This study showed that most of KJs were likely to be older, educated and with a work experience ranged from new to old experience. There is a statistically reliable significant difference between KJs' demographic characteristics and some sources of information, such as books, encyclopedias, references and mass media. KJs were using information moderately to make a decision, to be in line with current events, to collect statistics and to make a specific/general research. The office and home were the most frequent location KJs were accessing information from. KJs' efficiency level of the English language is described to be moderately good, and a little number of them confirmed that their efficiency level of French was not bad. The assistance provided by colleagues, followed by consultants, translators, sectaries and librarians were found to be most strong types of assistance needed when seeking information. Mobile apps, followed by PCs, information networks (the Internet) and information databases were the highest technology tool used by KJs. Printed materials, followed by non-printed and audiovisual materials were the most preferred information formats KJs use. The use of languages, the recency of information and the place of information, the deficit role of the library to deliver information were at least significant barriers to KJs when seeking information.

Keywords: Kuwait, information users, information-seeking behaviour, information needs, judges

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19 Relationship between Monthly Shrimp Catch Rates and the Oceanography-Related Variables

Authors: James M. Bishop, Hussain M. Al-foudari, Weizhong Chen

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Correlations between oceanographic variables and monthly catch rates of total shrimp and those of each of the major species (Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis and Parapenaeopsis stylifera) showed significant differences for particular conditions. Catches of P. semisulcatus were basically positively correlated with temperature, i.e., the higher the temperature, the higher the catch rate, while those of M. affinis and P. stylifera were negatively correlated with temperature, i.e., high catch rates occurred in the low temperature waters. Thus, during the months January and April, P. semisulcatus preferred waters with high temperature, usually the offshore and southern areas, while M. affinis and P. stylifera preferred waters with low temperature, usually inshore and northern areas. The relationships between the catch rate of P. semisulcatus and salinity were not so clear. Results indicated that although salinity was one of the factors affecting the distribution of P. semisulcatus, it was not the principal factor, and impacts from other variables, such as temperature, might overshadow the correlation between the catch rates of P. semisulcatus and salinity. The relationship between shrimp catch rates and dissolved oxygen (DO) also showed mixed results. The catch rates of M. affinis increased with a decrease of surface DO in November 2013, but decreased with lower bottom DO in December. These results indicated that DO might be a factor affecting distributions of the shrimp; however; the true correlation between catch rate and DO might be easily overshadowed by other environmental variables. Catch rates of P. semisulcatus did not show any relationship with depth. P. semisulcatus is a migratory species and widely distributed in Kuwait's waters.During the shrimp season from July through December, P. semisulcatus occurs in almost all areas in Kuwait's waters irrespective of water depth. The catch rates of M. affinis and P. stylifera, however, showed clear relationships with depth. Both species had significantly higher catch rates in shallower waters, indicative of their restricted distribution.

Keywords: Kuwait, Arabian Gulf, Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis stylifera

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18 Palliative Performance Scale Differences between Patients Referred by Specialized Cancer Center and General Hospitals to the Palliative Care Center in Kuwait

Authors: Khalid Al Saleh, Najlaa AlSayed

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Background: Palliative care is changing from just ‘end of life care’ to care delivered earlier in the disease course. Metanalysis showed that Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) is associated with increased length of survival. The Palliative Care Center (PCC) in Kuwait is the only stand-alone center in Eastern Mediterranean Region with a capacity of 92 beds. We compared clinical characteristics between patients referred from the Specialized Cancer Center and general hospitals in Kuwait to PCC. Method: A cross Sectional survey was conducted since the opening of PCC in January 2011 to June 2013. Patients’ data on demographics, type of the cancer, PPS score and referring hospital were collected and analyzed. Results: Total number of the patients was 142. Mean age was 61.05±14.79 years, 66 patients (47.1%) were males and 74 (52.9%) were females. The most common cancers in males were lung (n=18, 27.3%) followed by head and neck cancers (n=8, 12.1%) and brain tumors (n=7, 10.6%) while in females, the most common cancers were breast cancer (n=12, 16.7%) followed by ovarian cancer (n=10, 13.9%) and Cancer Colon (n=8, 11.1%). Patients with PPS score 30% were 27.9% (n=39), 40% in 40.7% (n=57), and 50% in 17.1% (n=24) respectively. Patients referred from the Specialized Cancer Center had significantly higher portion of patients with PPS score > 30% (73.4%, n=94), compared to patients coming from general hospitals (33.3%, n=4), P value= 0.007. Conclusion: There is significant difference in PPS scores between patients referred from the Specialized Cancer Center compared to patients referred from general hospitals. We encourage that all cancer patients should be treated in Specialized Cancer Centers and earlier involvement of Palliative Care Centers to achieve better survival. Training workshops are needed for health care professionals working in general hospitals to raise awareness about earlier referral of patients to palliative care services.

Keywords: palliative care, Kuwait, performance scale differences, pps score, specialized hospitals

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17 Building Information Modeling and Its Application in the State of Kuwait

Authors: Martin Jaeger, Michael Gerges, Ograbe Ahiakwo, Ahmad Asaad

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Recent advances of Building Information Modeling (BIM) especially in the Middle East have increased remarkably. Dubai has been taking a lead on this by making it mandatory for BIM to be adopted for all projects that involve complex architecture designs. This is because BIM is a dynamic process that assists all stakeholders in monitoring the project status throughout different project phases with great transparency. It focuses on utilizing information technology to improve collaboration among project participants during the entire life cycle of the project from the initial design, to the supply chain, resource allocation, construction and all productivity requirements. In view of this trend, the paper examines the extent of applying BIM in the State of Kuwait, by exploring practitioners’ perspectives on BIM, especially their perspectives on main barriers and main advantages. To this end structured interviews were carried out based on questionnaires and with a range of different construction professionals. The results revealed that practitioners perceive improved communication and mitigated project risks by encouraged collaboration between project participants. However, it was also observed that the full implementation of BIM in the State of Kuwait requires concerted efforts to make clients demanding BIM, counteract resistance to change among construction professionals and offer more training for design team members. This paper forms part of an on-going research effort on BIM and its application in the State of Kuwait and it is on this basis that further research on the topic is proposed.

Keywords: construction industry, Building Information Modeling, bim, Kuwait

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16 A Performance Study of Fixed, Single-Axis and Dual-Axis Photovoltaic Systems in Kuwait

Authors: A. Al-Rashidi, A. El-Hamalawi

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In this paper, a performance study was conducted to investigate single and dual-axis PV systems to generate electricity in five different sites in Kuwait. Relevant data were obtained by using two sources for validation purposes. A commercial software, PVsyst, was used to analyse the data, such as metrological data and other input parameters, and compute the performance parameters such as capacity factor (CF) and final yield (YF). The results indicated that single and dual-axis PV systems would be very beneficial to electricity generation in Kuwait as an alternative source to conventional power plants, especially with the increased demand over time. The ranges were also found to be competitive in comparison to leading countries using similar systems. A significant increase in CF and YF values around 24% and 28.8% was achieved related to the use of single and dual systems, respectively.

Keywords: Kuwait, capacity factor, single-axis and dual-axis photovoltaic systems, final yield

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15 The Influence of Wasta on Organizational Practices in Kuwait

Authors: Abrar Al-Enzi

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Despite being frequently used everyday in the Arab World, Wasta, which is seen as a type of social capital, has received little attention from previous scholars, even in the Middle East. In simple words, Wasta basically means granting deserved or undeserved privileges to others through personal contacts. This paper suggests that Wasta is an important determinant of how some employees get recruited and turn to Wasta for privileges and favors in organizations. It is said, that Wasta accelerates career advancement and other work practices for employees, whether they deserve it or even are suitable for it or not. The overall goal of this paper is to see how Wasta influences human resource management practices by viewing the history of Wasta, the importance of using it, and how it affects employees as well as organizations in terms of recruitment and work practices. Accordingly, the question that will be addressed is: Does Wasta influence human resource management, knowledge sharing and innovation in Kuwait, which in turn affects employees’ commitment within organizations? Therefore, a mixed method sequential exploratory research design will be used to explore the research topic through initial exploratory interviews, paper-based and online surveys (Quantitative method) and semi-structured interviews (Qualitative method). The reason behind such a choice is because both qualitative and quantitative methods complement each other when combined by providing a clearer picture of the topic.

Keywords: Social Capital, Kuwait, human resource management practices, Wasta

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14 Reasons and Implications of the Use of Social Media by Kuwaiti Women

Authors: Bashayer Alsana

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Communication technologies are changing the way we experience life. More specifically, such technologies have changed the interaction system through which women express themselves. Interaction with the other gender, accessibility to useful content, and creative public expression are but a few facets of the new living experience now being offered to women through the use of technology, especially in areas where females are bounded by societal taboos and traditions. An evaluation of the new female experience of expressing themselves through technology is yet to be done. This study aims to fill the void of research conducted around that topic. The study explores women’s use of communication technologies in Kuwait in terms of reasons and effects. women’s responses to survey questions present an overview of the new and changing female experience in this traditional middle eastern country, and draws a framework through which implications and suggestions for future research are discussed to better serve the advancement of women in developing countries.

Keywords: communications, Social Media, Women, Kuwait

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13 Establishment of Decision Support Center for Managing Natural Hazard Consequence in Kuwait

Authors: Abdullah Alenezi, Mane Alsudrawi, Rafat Misak

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Kuwait is faced with a potentially wide and harmful range of both natural and anthropogenic hazardous events such as dust storms, floods, fires, nuclear accidents, earthquakes, oil spills, tsunamis and other disasters. For Kuwait can be highly vulnerable to these complex environmental risks, an up-to-date and in-depth understanding of their typology, genesis, and impact on the Kuwaiti society is needed. Adequate anticipation and management of environmental crises further require a comprehensive system of decision support to the benefit of decision makers to further bridge the gap between (technical) risk understanding and public action. For that purpose, the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR), intends to establish a decision support center for management of the environmental crisis in Kuwait. The center will support policy makers, stakeholders and national committees with technical information that helps them efficiently and effectively assess, monitor to manage environmental disasters using decision support tools. These tools will build on state of the art quantification and visualization techniques, such as remote sensing information, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), simulation and prediction models, early warning systems, etc. The center is conceived as a central facility which will be designed, operated and managed by KISR in coordination with national authorities and decision makers of the country. Our vision is that by 2035 the center will be recognized as a leading national source of scientific advice on national risk management in Kuwait and build unity of effort among Kuwaiti’s institutions, government agencies, public and private organizations through provision and sharing of information. The project team now focuses on capacity building through upgrading some KISR facilities manpower development, build strong collaboration with international alliance.

Keywords: Decision Support, Environment, Hazard, Kuwait

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12 The New Face of TV: An Exploratory Study on the Effects of Snapchat on TV Ratings in Kuwait

Authors: Bashaiar Alsanaa

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The advent of new forms of media has always led to a change in the way existing media deliver content. No medium has been replaced by another yet over the course of history. Whether this fact changes with the introduction of new age technology and social media remains to be seen. Snapchat may be the first application, to seriously challenge TV. It is perhaps the new face of television. The individualistic nature of Snapchat, whereby users control who, when, and in what order to watch, assesses user freedom from traditional broadcasters’ control. This study aims to fill the void in research conducted around such topic. The research explores how Snapchat maybe slowly but replacing TV. The study surveys users in Kuwait in order to present an overview of the topic. It also draws a framework through which implications and suggestions for future research may be discussed to better serve the advancement of media research.

Keywords: Media, Television, Kuwait, snapchat

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11 Life Cycle Assessment of an Onshore Wind Turbine in Kuwait

Authors: Ashraf El-Hamalawi, Badriya Almutairi

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Wind energy technologies are considered to be among the most promising types of renewable energy sources due to the growing concerns over climate change and energy security. Kuwait is amongst the countries that began realising the consequences of climate change and the long-term economic and energy security situation, considering options when oil runs out. Added to this are the fluctuating oil prices, rapid increase in population, high electricity consumption and protection of the environment It began to make efforts in the direction of greener solutions for energy needs by looking for alternative forms of energy and assessing potential renewable energy resources, including wind and solar. The aim of this paper is to examine wind energy as an alternative renewable energy source in Kuwait, due to its availability and low cost, reducing the dependency on fossil fuels compared to other forms of renewable energy. This paper will present a life cycle assessment of onshore wind turbine systems in Kuwait, comprising 4 stages; goal and scope of the analysis, inventory analysis, impact assessment and interpretation of the results. It will also provide an assessment of potential renewable energy resources and technologies applied for power generation and the environmental benefits for Kuwait. An optimum location for a site (Shagaya) will be recommended for reasons such as high wind speeds, land availability and distance to the next grid connection, and be the focus of this study. The potential environmental impacts and resources used throughout the wind turbine system’s life-cycle are then analysed using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The results show the total carbon dioxide (CO₂) emission for a turbine with steel pile foundations is greater than emissions from a turbine with concrete foundations by 18 %. The analysis also shows the average CO₂ emissions from electricity generated using crude oil is 645gCO₂/kWh and the carbon footprint per functional unit for a wind turbine ranges between 6.6 g/kWh to 10 g/kWh, an increase of 98%, thus providing cost and environmental benefits by creating a wind farm in Kuwait. Using a cost-benefit analysis, it was also found that the electricity produced from wind energy in Kuwait would cost 17.6fils/kWh (0.05834 $/kWh), which is less than the cost of electricity currently being produced using conventional methods at 22 fils/kW (0.07$/kWh), i.e., a reduction of 20%.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Wind energy, Life Cycle Assessment, Co2 Emissions, Kuwait

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10 Phases of Marital Conflict among Married Kuwaiti Women

Authors: Hend Almaseb

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Gottman proposed a model of marital conflict with three phases: Agenda-Building, Arguing, and Negotiation. Among a sample of 520 married Kuwaiti women, this study examined the relationship between these phases and the following demographic variables: Level of education, Family income, Health, Occupation, and Tribal affiliation. In addition, the study 1) investigated the marital conflict phases the participants reported having experienced or are currently experiencing and 2) identified the variables that predict one of these conflict phases. The results showed a significant relationship between the following: 1) the Agenda-Building phase and Health; 2) the Arguing phase and Family income, Occupation, and Tribal Affiliation; and 3) the Negotiation phase and Level of education. In addition, a linear regression shows a substantial correlation between the two predictor variables (Level of education and Health problems) and the Agenda Building and Negotiation phases and 5) another substantial correlation between Family income and Arguing.

Keywords: Women, Clinical Social Work, Kuwait, marital conflict

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9 Effects of Social Media on Class Layers in Kuwait

Authors: Bashaiar Al-Sanaa

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Class has always been a vital distinguishing factor among people within any society. Clear borders between social layers; such as royals, nobles, aristocrats, the bourgeoisie, and working class; have been minimized and blurred due to the advent of social media. Unprecedented access to information has played a significant role in teaching different individuals about the nature of other social layers, hence, allowing for imitation and integration. This study aims to fill the void in research conducted on such topic. The research explores how social media may be slowly but surely dissolving apparent and rigid borderlines of social class. In order to present an overview of the topic, the study surveys individuals in Kuwait to measure how using social media changed their views and style of social class. It also draws a framework through which implications and suggestions for future research may be discussed to better serve the advancement of human communication.

Keywords: Communication, Social Media, Class, Kuwait

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8 Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility in Kuwait: Assessment of Environmental Responsibility Efforts and Targeted Stakeholders

Authors: Manaf Bashir

Abstract:

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become a tool for corporations to meet the expectations of different stakeholders about economic, social and environmental issues. It has become indispensable for an organization’s success, positive image and reputation. Equally important is how corporations communicate and report their CSR. Employing the stakeholder theory, the purpose of this research is to analyse CSR content of leading Kuwaiti corporations. No research analysis of CSR reporting has been conducted in Kuwait and this study is an attempt to redress in part this empirical deficit in the country and the region. It attempts to identify the issues and stakeholders of the CSR and if corporations are following CSR reporting standards. By analysing websites, annual and CSR reports of the top 100 Kuwaiti corporations, this study found low mentions of the CSR issues and even lower mentions of CSR stakeholders. Environmental issues were among the least mentioned despite an increasing global concern toward the environment. ‘Society’ was mentioned the most as a stakeholder and ‘The Environment’ was among the least mentioned. Cross-tabulations found few significant relationships between type of industry and the CSR issues and stakeholders. Independent sample t-tests found no significant difference between the issues and stakeholders that are mentioned on the websites and the reports. Only two companies from the sample followed reporting standards and both followed the Global Reporting Initiative. Successful corporations would be keen to identify the issues that meet the expectations of different stakeholders and address them through their corporate communication. Kuwaiti corporations did not show this keenness. As the stakeholder theory suggests, extending the spectrum of stakeholders beyond investors can open mutual dialogue and understanding between corporations and various stakeholders. However, Kuwaiti corporations focus on few CSR issues and even fewer CSR stakeholders. Kuwaiti corporations need to pay more attention to CSR and particularly toward environmental issues. They should adopt a strategic approach and allocate specialized personnel such as marketers and public relations practitioners to manage it. The government and non-profit organizations should encourage the private sector in Kuwait to do more CSR and meet the needs and expectations of different stakeholders and not only shareholders. This is in addition to reporting the CSR information professionally because of its benefits to corporate image, reputation, and transparency.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Kuwait, stakeholder theory, environmental responsibility

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7 Working Title: Estimating the Power Output of Photovoltaics in Kuwait Using a Monte Carlo Approach

Authors: Mohammad Alshawaf, Rahmat Poudineh, Nawaf Alhajeri

Abstract:

The power generated from photovoltaic (PV) modules is non-dispatchable on demand due to the stochastic nature of solar radiation. The random variations in the measured intensity of solar irradiance are due to clouds and, in the case of arid regions, dust storms which decrease the intensity of intensity of solar irradiance. Therefore, modeling PV power output using average, maximum, or minimum solar irradiance values is inefficient to predict power generation reliably. The overall objective of this paper is to predict the power output of PV modules using Monte Carlo approach based the weather and solar conditions measured in Kuwait. Given the 250 Wp PV module used in study, the average daily power output is 1021 Wh/day. The maximum power was generated in April and the minimum power was generated in January 1187 Wh/day and 823 Wh/day respectively. The certainty of the daily predictions varies seasonally and according to the weather conditions. The output predictions were far more certain in the summer months, for example, the 80% certainty range for August is 89 Wh/day, whereas the 80% certainty range for April is 250 Wh/day.

Keywords: Solar energy, Monte Carlo, Kuwait, variable renewable energy

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6 A Geographical Spatial Analysis on the Benefits of Using Wind Energy in Kuwait

Authors: Obaid AlOtaibi, Salman Hussain

Abstract:

Wind energy is associated with many geographical factors including wind speed, climate change, surface topography, environmental impacts, and several economic factors, most notably the advancement of wind technology and energy prices. It is the fastest-growing and least economically expensive method for generating electricity. Wind energy generation is directly related to the characteristics of spatial wind. Therefore, the feasibility study for the wind energy conversion system is based on the value of the energy obtained relative to the initial investment and the cost of operation and maintenance. In Kuwait, wind energy is an appropriate choice as a source of energy generation. It can be used in groundwater extraction in agricultural areas such as Al-Abdali in the north and Al-Wafra in the south, or in fresh and brackish groundwater fields or remote and isolated locations such as border areas and projects away from conventional power electricity services, to take advantage of alternative energy, reduce pollutants, and reduce energy production costs. The study covers the State of Kuwait with an exception of metropolitan area. Climatic data were attained through the readings of eight distributed monitoring stations affiliated with Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR). The data were used to assess the daily, monthly, quarterly, and annual available wind energy accessible for utilization. The researchers applied the Suitability Model to analyze the study by using the ArcGIS program. It is a model of spatial analysis that compares more than one location based on grading weights to choose the most suitable one. The study criteria are: the average annual wind speed, land use, topography of land, distance from the main road networks, urban areas. According to the previous criteria, the four proposed locations to establish wind farm projects are selected based on the weights of the degree of suitability (excellent, good, average, and poor). The percentage of areas that represents the most suitable locations with an excellent rank (4) is 8% of Kuwait’s area. It is relatively distributed as follows: Al-Shqaya, Al-Dabdeba, Al-Salmi (5.22%), Al-Abdali (1.22%), Umm al-Hayman (0.70%), North Wafra and Al-Shaqeeq (0.86%). The study recommends to decision-makers to consider the proposed location (No.1), (Al-Shqaya, Al-Dabdaba, and Al-Salmi) as the most suitable location for future development of wind farms in Kuwait, this location is economically feasible.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Wind energy, Spatial analysis, Kuwait

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5 Prevalence of Obesity in Kuwait: A Case Study among Kuwait University Students

Authors: Mohammad Alnasrallah, Muhammad Almatar

Abstract:

This study seeks to understand the relationship between the effect of geography and obesity prevalence among Kuwait University students. The sample involved 735 participants, 231 male, and 504 females, where there is a high percentage of them are overweight and obese. The percentage of overweight is 21% (BMI >25 - 30) while the percentage of obesity is 13.7% (BMI > 30). Both overweight and obese people account for 34.7%. In the study area, there are 327 fast food restaurants located in different places of in the urban area. This study uses the Geographic Information System to analyze the distribution of obesity and fast food restaurants. The study found that within half kilometers of fast food outlets, there are 33% of normal weight (BMI < 25), 30% of overweight while for the obese people there are 43 %, which shows that obesity is linked to the location of fast food restaurants. One of the significant tools that were used in this study hot and cold spots. The study found that areas of hot spots of fast food restaurants tend to be located in areas of hot spots of obese people. In conclusion, studying the prevalence of obesity from geographical perspective help to understand this public health issue and its relation to the effect of geography.

Keywords: GIS, Kuwait, fast food, obesity prevalence

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4 The Impact of Water Resources on Economic and Social Development in Kuwait

Authors: Obaid AlOtaibi

Abstract:

The geographical location of the State of Kuwait contributed significantly to the suffering of Kuwait in the past, due to the scarcity of natural water resources and the inability of the State's financial resources to provide other water resources to meet the needs of the population. The problem of water scarcity in Kuwait remained until the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century, as the country's economic conditions revived with the emergence and export of oil; which was clearly reflected in the steady growth of the population. To cope with this population, increase, it was necessary to expand the various development programs to include all sectors of the state. The process of development and urbanization could not start without finding solutions to the problem of water shortage in Kuwait. The only option for officials to meet the needs of the population and the different sectors of water development is the desalination of seawater. This process necessitated the establishment of six desalination plants along the coast of Kuwait and extended freshwater arteries to reach everywhere on the land. However, this does not mean that the problem of water shortage has been completely solved. The desalination plants are not meeting the country's future water needs, especially considering the increasing population growth. These stations are nearing completion and they need to be replaced, renovation and maintenance, require significant expenses. Therefore, it was necessary for scientific research to address the issue of water in Kuwait, whether in the field of development of existing resources or in the field of rationalization of consumption and protection of available resources. The study focused on how to address the increasing demand for water resulting from population increase, the impact of water on economic and social development, the prospects of water resources in Kuwait and its ability to meet the needs of the country by 2030.

Keywords: Development, Water Resources, Economic, Social, Kuwait

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3 The Use of Geographic Information System and Spatial Statistic for Analyzing Leukemia in Kuwait for the Period of 2006-2012

Authors: Muhammad G. Almatar, Mohammad A. Alnasrallah

Abstract:

This research focuses on the study of three main issues: 1) The temporal analysis of leukemia for a period of six years (2006-2012), 2) spatial analysis by investigating this phenomenon in the Kuwaiti society spatially in the residential areas within the six governorates, 3) the use of Geographic Information System technology in investigating the hypothesis of the research and its variables using the linear regression, to show the pattern of linear relationship. The study depends on utilizing the map to understand the distribution of blood cancer in Kuwait. Several geodatabases were created for the number of patients and air pollution. Spatial interpolation models were used to generate layers of air pollution in the study area. These geodatabases were tested over the past six years to reach the conclusion: Is there a relationship with significant significance between the two main variables of the study: blood cancer and air pollution? This study is the first to our best knowledge. As far as the researchers know, the distribution of this disease has not been studied geographically at the level of regions in Kuwait within six years and in specific areas as described above. This study investigates the concentration of this type of disease. The study found that there is no relationship of significant value between the two variables studied, and this may be due to the nature of the disease, which are often hereditary. On the other hand, this study has reached a number of suggestions and recommendations that may be useful to decision-makers and interested in the study of leukemia in Kuwait by focusing on the study of genetic diseases, which may be a cause of leukemia rather than air pollution.

Keywords: Geography, Cancer, GIS, Kuwait

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2 Microbial Contaminants in Drinking Water Collected from Different Regions of Kuwait

Authors: Abu Salim Mustafa

Abstract:

Introduction: Water plays a major role in maintaining life on earth, but it can also serve as a matrix for pathogenic organisms, posing substantial health threats to humans. Although outbreaks of diseases attributable to drinking water may not be common in industrialized countries, they still occur and can lead to serious acute, chronic, or sometimes fatal health consequences. Objective: The analysis of drinking water samples from different regions of Kuwait for bacterial and viral contaminations. Materials and Methods: Drinking tap water samples were collected from 15 different locations of the six Kuwait governorates. All samples were analyzed by confocal microscopy for the presence of bacteria. The samples were cultured in vitro to detect cultivable organisms. DNA was isolated from the cultured organisms, and the identity of the bacteria was determined by sequencing the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, followed by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis in the database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), USA. RNA was extracted from water samples and analyzed by real-time PCR for the detection of viruses with potential health risks, i.e., Astrovirus, Enterovirus, Norovirus, Rotavirus, and Hepatitis A. Results: Confocal microscopy showed the presence of bacteria in some water samples. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of culture grown organisms, followed by BLAST analysis, identified the presence of several non-pathogenic bacterial species. However, one sample had Acinetobacter baumannii, which often causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised people, but none of the studied viruses could be detected in the drinking water samples analyzed. Conclusion: The results indicate that drinking water samples analyzed from various locations in Kuwait are relatively safe for drinking and do not contain many harmful pathogens.

Keywords: drinking water, Kuwait, microbial contaminant

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