Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

knowledge transfer Related Abstracts

17 Educational Knowledge Transfer in Indigenous Mexican Areas Using Cloud Computing

Authors: L. R. Valencia Pérez, J. M. Peña Aguilar, A. Lamadrid Álvarez, A. Pastrana Palma, H. F. Valencia Pérez, M. Vivanco Vargas

Abstract:

This work proposes a Cooperation-Competitive (Coopetitive) approach that allows coordinated work among the Secretary of Public Education (SEP), the Autonomous University of Querétaro (UAQ) and government funds from National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT) or some other international organizations. To work on an overall knowledge transfer strategy with e-learning over the Cloud, where experts in junior high and high school education, working in multidisciplinary teams, perform analysis, evaluation, design, production, validation and knowledge transfer at large scale using a Cloud Computing platform. Allowing teachers and students to have all the information required to ensure a homologated nationally knowledge of topics such as mathematics, statistics, chemistry, history, ethics, civism, etc. This work will start with a pilot test in Spanish and initially in two regional dialects Otomí and Náhuatl. Otomí has more than 285,000 speaking indigenes in Queretaro and Mexico´s central region. Náhuatl is number one indigenous dialect spoken in Mexico with more than 1,550,000 indigenes. The phase one of the project takes into account negotiations with indigenous tribes from different regions, and the Information and Communication technologies to deliver the knowledge to the indigenous schools in their native dialect. The methodology includes the following main milestones: Identification of the indigenous areas where Otomí and Náhuatl are the spoken dialects, research with the SEP the location of actual indigenous schools, analysis and inventory or current schools conditions, negotiation with tribe chiefs, analysis of the technological communication requirements to reach the indigenous communities, identification and inventory of local teachers technology knowledge, selection of a pilot topic, analysis of actual student competence with traditional education system, identification of local translators, design of the e-learning platform, design of the multimedia resources and storage strategy for “Cloud Computing”, translation of the topic to both dialects, Indigenous teachers training, pilot test, course release, project follow up, analysis of student requirements for the new technological platform, definition of a new and improved proposal with greater reach in topics and regions. Importance of phase one of the project is multiple, it includes the proposal of a working technological scheme, focusing in the cultural impact in Mexico so that indigenous tribes can improve their knowledge about new forms of crop improvement, home storage technologies, proven home remedies for common diseases, ways of preparing foods containing major nutrients, disclose strengths and weaknesses of each region, communicating through cloud computing platforms offering regional products and opening communication spaces for inter-indigenous cultural exchange.

Keywords: Education, Cloud Computing, Language, knowledge transfer, Mexicans indigenous tribes, otomi, Náhuatl

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16 Process Driven Architecture For The ‘Lessons Learnt’ Knowledge Sharing Framework: The Case Of A ‘Lessons Learnt’ Framework For KOC

Authors: Rima Al-Awadhi, Abdul Jaleel Tharayil

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On a regular basis, KOC engages into various types of Projects. However, due to very nature and complexity involved, each project experience generates a lot of ‘learnings’ that need to be factored into while drafting a new contract and thus avoid repeating the same mistakes. But, many a time these learnings are localized and remain as tacit leading to scope re-work, larger cycle time, schedule overrun, adjustment orders and claims. Also, these experiences are not readily available to new employees leading to steep learning curve and longer time to competency. This is to share our experience in designing and implementing a process driven architecture for the ‘lessons learnt’ knowledge sharing framework in KOC. It high-lights the ‘lessons learnt’ sharing process adopted, integration with the organizational processes, governance framework, the challenges faced and learning from our experience in implementing a ‘lessons learnt’ framework.

Keywords: Knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer, lessons learnt, successful practices, Lessons Learnt Workshop, governance framework

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15 Higher Education for Knowledge and Technology Transfer in Egypt

Authors: M. A. Zaki Ewiss, S. Afifi

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Nahda University (NUB) believes that internationalisation of higher educational is able to provide global society with an education that meets current needs and that can respond efficiently to contemporary demands and challenges, which are characterized by globalisation, interdependence, and multiculturalism. In this paper, we will discuss the the challenges of the Egyptian Higher Education system and the future vision to improve this system> In this report, the following issues will be considered: Increasing knowledge on the development of specialized programs of study at the university. Developing international cooperation programs, which focus on the development of the students and staff skills, and providing academic culture and learning opportunities. Increasing the opportunities for student mobility, and research projects for faculty members. Increased opportunities for staff, faculty and students to continue to learn foreign universities, and to benefit from scholarships in various disciplines. Taking the advantage of the educational experience and modern teaching methods; Providing the opportunities to study abroad without increasing the period of time required for graduation, and through greater integration in the curricula and programs; More cultural interaction through student exchanges.Improving and providing job opportunities for graduates through participation in the global labor market. This document sets out NUB strategy to move towards that vision. We are confident that greater explicit differentiation, greater freedom and greater collaboration are the keys to delivering the further improvement in quality we shall need to retain and strengthen our position as one of the world’s leading higher education systems.

Keywords: Mobility, knowledge transfer, internationalisation, technology transfer higher education

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14 An Investigation into Enablers and Barriers of Reverse Technology Transfer

Authors: Nirmal Kundu, Chandan Bhar, Visveswaran Pandurangan

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Technology is the most valued possession for a country or an organization. The economic development depends not on stock of technology but on the capabilities how the technology is being exploited. The technology transfer is the best way how the developing countries have an access to state-of- the-art technology. Traditional technology transfer is a unidirectional phenomenon where technology is transferred from developed to developing countries. But now there is a change of wind. There is a general agreement that global shift of economic power is under way from west to east. As China and India are making the transition from users to producers, and producers to innovators, this has increasing important implications on economy, technology and policy of global trade. As a result, Reverse technology transfer has become a phenomenon and field of study in technology management. The term “Reverse Technology Transfer” is not well defined. Initially the concept of Reverse technology transfer was associated with the phenomenon of “Brain drain” from developing to developed countries. In the second phase, Reverse Technology Transfer was associated with the transfer of knowledge and technology from subsidiaries to multinationals. Finally, time has come now to extend the concept of reverse technology transfer to two different organizations or countries related or unrelated by traditional technology transfer but the transfer or has essentially received the technology through traditional mode of technology transfer. The objective of this paper is to study; 1) the present status of Reverse technology transfer, 2) the factors which are the enablers and barriers of Reverse technology transfer and 3) how the reverse technology transfer strategy can be integrated in the technology policy of a country which will give the countries an economic boost. The research methodology used in this study is a combination of literature review, case studies and key informant interviews. The literature review includes both published as well as unpublished sources of literature. In case study, attempt has been made to study the records of reverse technology transfer that have been occurred in developing countries. In case of key informant interviews, informal telephonic discussions have been carried out with the key executives of the organizations (industry, university and research institutions) who are actively engaged in the process of technology transfer- traditional as well as reverse. Reverse technology transfer is possible only by creating technological capabilities. Following four important enablers coupled with government active and aggressive action can help to build technology base to reach to the goal of Reverse technology transfer 1) Imitation to innovation, 2) Reverse engineering, 3) Collaborative R & D approach, and 4) Preventing reverse brain drain. The barriers that come in the way are the mindset of over dependence, over subordination and parent–child attitude (not adult attitude). Exploitation of these enablers and overcoming the barriers of reverse technology transfer, the developing countries like India and China can prove that going “reverse” is the best way to move forward and again establish themselves as leader of the future world.

Keywords: Technology Transfer, knowledge transfer, barriers of reverse technology transfer, enablers of reverse technology transfer, reverse technology transfer

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13 Making Food Science Education and Research Activities More Attractive for University Students and Food Enterprises by Utilizing Open Innovative Space-Approach

Authors: Anna-Maria Saarela

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At the Savonia University of Applied Sciences (UAS), curriculum and studies have been improved by applying an Open Innovation Space approach (OIS). It is based on multidisciplinary action learning. The key elements of OIS-ideology are work-life orientation, and student-centric communal learning. In this approach, every participant can learn from each other and innovations will be created. In this social innovation educational approach, all practices are carried out in close collaboration with enterprises in real-life settings, not in classrooms. As an example, in this paper, Savonia UAS’s Future Food RDI hub (FF) shows how OIS practices are implemented by providing food product development and consumer research services for enterprises in close collaboration with academicians, students and consumers. In particular one example of OIS experimentation in the field is provided by a consumer research carried out utilizing verbal analysis protocol combined with audio-visual observation (VAP-WAVO). In this case, all co-learners were acting together in supermarket settings to collect the relevant data for a product development and the marketing department of a company. The company benefitted from the results obtained, students were more satisfied with their studies, educators and academicians were able to obtain good evidence for further collaboration as well as renewing curriculum contents based on the requirements of working life. In addition, society will benefit over time as young university adults find careers more easily through their OIS related food science studies. Also this knowledge interaction model re-news education practices and brings working-life closer to educational research institutes.

Keywords: Education, Food Science, Collaboration, Industry, Student, knowledge transfer, RDI

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12 Contribution of Research to Innovation Management in the Traditional Fruit Production

Authors: Camille Aouinaït, Danilo Christen, Christoph Carlen

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Introduction: Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are facing different challenges such as pressures on environmental resources, the rise of downstream power, and trade liberalization. Remaining competitive by implementing innovations and engaging in collaborations could be a strategic solution. In Switzerland, the Federal Institute for Research in Agriculture (Agroscope), the Federal schools of technology (EPFL and ETHZ), Cantonal universities and Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS) can provide substantial inputs. UAS were developed with specific missions to match the labor markets and society needs. Research projects produce patents, publications and improved networks of scientific expertise. The study’s goal is to measure the contribution of UAS and research organization to innovation and the impact of collaborations with partners in the non-academic environment in Swiss traditional fruit production. Materials and methods: The European projects Traditional Food Network to improve the transfer of knowledge for innovation (TRAFOON) and Social Impact Assessment of Productive Interactions between science and society (SIAMPI) frame the present study. The former aims to fill the gap between the needs of traditional food producing SMEs and innovations implemented following European projects. The latter developed a method to assess the impacts of scientific research. On one side, interviews with market players have been performed to make an inventory of needs of Swiss SMEs producing apricots and berries. The participative method allowed matching the current needs and the existing innovations coming from past European projects. Swiss stakeholders (e.g. producers, retailers, an inter-branch organization of fruits and vegetables) directly rated the needs on a five-Likert scale. To transfer the knowledge to SMEs, training workshops have been organized for apricot and berries actors separately, on specific topics. On the other hand, a mapping of a social network is drawn to characterize the links between actors, with a focus on the Swiss canton of Valais and UAS Valais Wallis. Type and frequency of interactions among actors have identified thanks to interviews. Preliminary results: A list of 369 SMEs needs grouped in 22 categories was produced with 37 fulfilled questionnaires. Swiss stakeholders rated 31 needs very important. Training workshops on apricot are focusing on varietal innovations, storage, disease (bacterial blight), pest (Drosophila suzukii), sorting and rootstocks. Entrepreneurship was targeted through trademark discussions in berry production. The UAS Valais Wallis collaborated on a few projects with Agroscope along with industries, at European and national levels. Political and public bodies interfere with the central area of agricultural vulgarization that induces close relationships between the research and the practical side. Conclusions: The needs identified by Swiss stakeholders are becoming part of training workshops to incentivize innovations. The UAS Valais Wallis takes part in collaboration projects with the research environment and market players that bring innovations helping SMEs in their contextual environment. Then, a Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda will be created in order to pursue research and answer the issues facing by SMEs.

Keywords: Innovation, Agriculture, knowledge transfer, university and research collaboration

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11 Knowledge Management Strategies within a Corporate Environment of Papers

Authors: Daniel J. Glauber

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Knowledge transfer between personnel could benefit an organization’s improved competitive advantage in the marketplace from a strategic approach to knowledge management. The lack of information sharing between personnel could create knowledge transfer gaps while restricting the decision-making processes. Knowledge transfer between personnel can potentially improve information sharing based on an implemented knowledge management strategy. An organization’s capacity to gain more knowledge is aligned with the organization’s prior or existing captured knowledge. This case study attempted to understand the overall influence of a KMS within the corporate environment and knowledge exchange between personnel. The significance of this study was to help understand how organizations can improve the Return on Investment (ROI) of a knowledge management strategy within a knowledge-centric organization. A qualitative descriptive case study was the research design selected for this study. The lack of information sharing between personnel may create knowledge transfer gaps while restricting the decision-making processes. Developing a knowledge management strategy acceptable at all levels of the organization requires cooperation in support of a common organizational goal. Working with management and executive members to develop a protocol where knowledge transfer becomes a standard practice in multiple tiers of the organization. The knowledge transfer process could be measurable when focusing on specific elements of the organizational process, including personnel transition to help reduce time required understanding the job. The organization studied in this research acknowledged the need for improved knowledge management activities within the organization to help organize, retain, and distribute information throughout the workforce. Data produced from the study indicate three main themes including information management, organizational culture, and knowledge sharing within the workforce by the participants. These themes indicate a possible connection between an organizations KMS, the organizations culture, knowledge sharing, and knowledge transfer.

Keywords: Management, knowledge transfer, Organizational learning, knowledge management strategies, codification

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10 Knowledge Transfer and the Translation of Technical Texts

Authors: Ahmed Alaoui

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This paper contributes to the ongoing debate as to the relevance of translation studies to professional practitioners. It exposes the various misconceptions permeating the links between theory and practice in the translation landscape in the Arab World. It is a thesis of this paper that specialization in translation should be redefined; taking account of the fact, that specialized knowledge alone is neither crucial nor sufficient in technical translation. It should be tested against the readability of the translated text, the appropriateness of its style and the usability of its content by end-users to carry out their intended tasks. The paper also proposes a preliminary model to establish a working link between theory and practice from the perspective of professional trainers and practitioners, calling for the latter to participate in the production of knowledge in a systematic fashion. While this proposal is driven by a rather intuitive conviction, a research line is needed to specify the methodological moves to establish the mediation strategies that would relate the components in the model of knowledge transfer proposed in this paper.

Keywords: knowledge transfer, misconceptions, specialized texts, translation theory, translation practice

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9 The Impact of Bayh-Dole Act on Knowledge Transfer in the States and a Study on Applicability in Turkey

Authors: Murat Sengoz, Mustafa Kemal Topcu

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This study aims to contribute to efforts of Turkey to increase research and development to overcome mid-income level trap by discussing regulations on patenting and licensing. Knowledge and technology transfer from universities to business world is attached great significance to increase innovation. Through literature survey, it is observed that the States accomplished to boost the economy and increase welfare by the Bayh-Dole Act enacted in 1980. Thus, this good practice is imitated by other nations to make technological developments. The Act allows universities to acquire patent right in research programs funded by government to increase technology transfer from universities whilst motivating real sector to use research pools in the universities. An act similar with Bayh-Dole could be beneficial to Turkey since efforts in Turkey are to promote research, development and innovation. Towards this end, the impact of Bayh-Dole Act on the patent system for universities in the Sates is deliberately examined, applicability in Turkey is discussed. However, it is conceded that success rate of applying Bayh-Dole Act in Turkey would be low once Turkey mainly differs from the States regarding social, economic and cultural traits.

Keywords: knowledge transfer, license, patent, Bayh-Dole Act, spin-off

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8 Knowledge Transfer among Cross-Functional Teams as a Continual Improvement Process

Authors: Sergio Mauricio Pérez López, Luis Rodrigo Valencia Pérez, Juan Manuel Peña Aguilar, Adelina Morita Alexander

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The culture of continuous improvement in organizations is very important as it represents a source of competitive advantage. This article discusses the transfer of knowledge between companies which formed cross-functional teams and used a dynamic model for knowledge creation as a framework. In addition, the article discusses the structure of cognitive assets in companies and the concept of "stickiness" (which is defined as an obstacle to the transfer of knowledge). The purpose of this analysis is to show that an improvement in the attitude of individual members of an organization creates opportunities, and that an exchange of information and knowledge leads to generating continuous improvements in the company as a whole. This article also discusses the importance of creating the proper conditions for sharing tacit knowledge. By narrowing gaps between people, mutual trust can be created and thus contribute to an increase in sharing. The concept of adapting knowledge to new environments will be highlighted, as it is essential for companies to translate and modify information so that such information can fit the context of receiving organizations. Adaptation will ensure that the transfer process is carried out smoothly by preventing "stickiness". When developing the transfer process on cross-functional teams (as opposed to working groups), the team acquires the flexibility and responsiveness necessary to meet objectives. These types of cross-functional teams also generate synergy due to the array of different work backgrounds of their individuals. When synergy is established, a culture of continuous improvement is created.

Keywords: Teamwork, knowledge transfer, continuous improvement, cognitive assets

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7 Information Technology Outsourcing and Knowledge Transfer: Achieving Strategic Alignment through Organizational Learning

Authors: M. Kolotylo, H. Zheng, R. Parente, R. Dahiya

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Large number of organizations, frequently motivated by budget and cost cuts, outsource their Information Technology (IT) positions every year. Although the objective of reduction in financial obligations is often not accomplished, many buyer companies still manage to benefit from outsourcing projects. Knowledge Transfer (KT), being one of the major processes that take place during IT outsourcing partnership, may exert a strong impact on the performance of the parties involved, particularly that of the buyer. Research, however, lacks strong conceptual basis for the possible benefits that KT from supplier may bring to the buyer; and for the mechanisms that may be adopted by the buyer to maximize such benefit. This paper aims to fill this gap by proposing a conceptual framework of organizational learning and development of dynamic capabilities enabled by KT from the supplier to the buyer. The study examines buyer-supplier relationships in the context of IT outsourcing transactions, and theorizes how KT from the supplier to the buyer helps the performance of the buyer. It warrants that more research is carried out in order to explicate and provide evidence regarding the role that KT plays in strategic improvements for the buyer. The paper proposes to take up a two-fold approach to the research: conceptual development that utilizes logical argumentation and interpretive historical research, as well as a qualitative case study which aims to capture and understand the complex processes involved. Thus, the study provides a comprehensive visualization of the dynamics of the conditions under which participation in IT outsourcing partnership might be of benefit to the buyer company. The framework demonstrates the mechanisms involved in buyer’s achievement of strategic alignment through organizational learning enabled by KT from the supplier. It highlights that organizational learning involves a balance between exploitation of assets and exploration of new possibilities, and further notes that the dynamic capabilities mediate the effect of organizational learning on firm performance. The paper explicates in what ways managers can leverage outsourcing projects to execute strategy, which would enable their organization achieve better performance. The study concludes that organizational learning enables the firm to develop IT capabilities of strategic planning, IT integration, and IT relationships in the outsourcing context, and that IT capabilities developed through the organizational learning would help the firm in achieving strategic alignment.

Keywords: knowledge transfer, Organizational learning, Strategic alignment, dynamic capabilities, it outsourcing

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6 Practice on Design Knowledge Management and Transfer across the Life Cycle of a New-Built Nuclear Power Plant in China

Authors: Danying Gu, Xiaoyan Li, Yuanlei He

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As a knowledge-intensive industry, nuclear industry highly values the importance of safety and quality. The life cycle of a NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) can last 100 years from the initial research and design to its decommissioning. How to implement the high-quality knowledge management and how to contribute to a more safe, advanced and economic NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) is the most important issue and responsibility for knowledge management. As the lead of nuclear industry, nuclear research and design institute has competitive advantages of its advanced technology, knowledge and information, DKM (Design Knowledge Management) of nuclear research and design institute is the core of the knowledge management in the whole nuclear industry. In this paper, the study and practice on DKM and knowledge transfer across the life cycle of a new-built NPP in China is introduced. For this digital intelligent NPP, the whole design process is based on a digital design platform which includes NPP engineering and design dynamic analyzer, visualization engineering verification platform, digital operation maintenance support platform and digital equipment design, manufacture integrated collaborative platform. In order to make all the design data and information transfer across design, construction, commissioning and operation, the overall architecture of new-built digital NPP should become a modern knowledge management system. So a digital information transfer model across the NPP life cycle is proposed in this paper. The challenges related to design knowledge transfer is also discussed, such as digital information handover, data center and data sorting, unified data coding system. On the other hand, effective delivery of design information during the construction and operation phase will contribute to the comprehensive understanding of design ideas and components and systems for the construction contractor and operation unit, largely increasing the safety, quality and economic benefits during the life cycle. The operation and maintenance records generated from the NPP operation process have great significance for maintaining the operating state of NPP, especially the comprehensiveness, validity and traceability of the records. So the requirements of an online monitoring and smart diagnosis system of NPP is also proposed, to help utility-owners to improve the safety and efficiency.

Keywords: Life Cycle, knowledge transfer, design knowledge management, digital nuclear power plant

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5 Creating a New Agenda for Foreign Direct Investment: Intersectoral Competition and Knowledge Management Issues in Trinidad and Tobago's Construction Industry

Authors: Shelly-Ann Gajadhar

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Over the last twenty years, the traditional economic motivations of foreign direct investment have been amalgamated with geopolitical motivations. This is evidenced by the extensive ratification of bilateral investment treaties (BIT) globally and the emergence of state-owned multinational companies (SOMNCs) that directly compete with local domestic enterprises (LDE). This paper investigates the impact that Chinese SOMNCs have on LDEs within Trinidad and Tobago’s construction sector and, determines whether knowledge transfer occurs. The paper employed semi-structured interviews of industry experts and concluded that LDEs predominantly experience adverse spillovers, inclusive of a long-term competition effect, with no technology transfer occurring.

Keywords: International Business, Foreign Direct Investment, knowledge transfer, bilateral investment treaties, Caribbean

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4 Project Management and International Development: Competencies for International Assignment

Authors: M. P. Leroux, C. Coulombe

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Projects are popular vehicles through which international aid is delivered in developing countries. To achieve their objectives, many northern organizations develop projects with local partner organizations in the developing countries through technical assistance projects. International aid and international development projects precisely have long been criticized for poor results although billions are spent every year. Little empirical research in the field of project management has the focus on knowledge transfer in international development context. This paper focuses particularly on personal dimensions of international assignees participating in project within local team members in the host country. We propose to explore the possible links with a human resource management perspective in order to shed light on the less research problematic of knowledge transfer in development cooperation projects. The process leading to capacity building being far complex, involving multiple dimensions and far from being linear, we propose here to assess if traditional research on expatriate in multinational corporations pertain to the field of project management in developing countries. The following question is addressed: in the context of international development project cooperation, what personal determinants should the selection process focus when looking to fill a technical assistance position in a developing country? To answer that question, we first reviewed the literature on expatriate in the context of inter organizational knowledge transfer. Second, we proposed a theoretical framework combining perspectives of development studies and management to explore if parallels can be draw between traditional international assignment and technical assistance project assignment in developing countries. We conducted an exploratory study using case studies from technical assistance initiatives led in Haiti, a country in Central America. Data were collected from multiple sources following qualitative study research methods. Direct observations in the field were allowed by local leaders of six organization; individual interviews with present and past international assignees, individual interview with local team members, and focus groups were organized in order to triangulate information collected. Contrary from empirical research on knowledge transfer in multinational corporations, results tend to show that technical expertise rank well behind many others characteristics. Results tend to show the importance of soft skills, as a prerequisite to succeed in projects where local team have to collaborate. More importantly, international assignees who were talking knowledge sharing instead of knowledge transfer seemed to feel more satisfied at the end of their mandate than the others. Reciprocally, local team members who perceived to have participated in a project with an expat looking to share instead of aiming to transfer knowledge seemed to describe the results of project in more positive terms than the others. Results obtained from this exploratory study open the way for a promising research agenda in the field of project management. It emphasises the urgent need to achieve a better understanding on the complex set of soft skills project managers or project chiefs would benefit to develop, in particular, the ability to absorb knowledge and the willingness to share one’s knowledge.

Keywords: knowledge transfer, soft skills, international assignee, international project cooperation

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3 Identifying Enablers and Barriers of Healthcare Knowledge Transfer: A Systematic Review

Authors: Yousuf Nasser Al Khamisi

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Purpose: This paper presents a Knowledge Transfer (KT) Framework in healthcare sectors by applying a systematic literature review process to the healthcare organizations domain to identify enablers and barriers of KT in Healthcare. Methods: The paper conducted a systematic literature search of peer-reviewed papers that described key elements of KT using four databases (Medline, Cinahl, Scopus, and Proquest) for a 10-year period (1/1/2008–16/10/2017). The results of the literature review were used to build a conceptual framework of KT in healthcare organizations. The author used a systematic review of the literature, as described by Barbara Kitchenham in Procedures for Performing Systematic Reviews. Findings: The paper highlighted the impacts of using Knowledge Management (KM) concept at a healthcare organization in controlling infectious diseases in hospitals, improving family medicine performance and enhancing quality improvement practices. Moreover, it found that good-coding performance is analytically linked with a knowledge sharing network structure rich in brokerage and hierarchy rather than in density. The unavailability or ignored of the latest evidence on more cost-effective or more efficient delivery approaches leads to increase the healthcare costs and may lead to unintended results. Originality: Search procedure produced 12,093 results, of which 3523 were general articles about KM and KT. The titles and abstracts of these articles had been screened to segregate what is related and what is not. 94 articles identified by the researchers for full-text assessment. The total number of eligible articles after removing un-related articles was 22 articles.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, knowledge transfer, healthcare organisation, KT framework

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2 Facilitating Knowledge Transfer for New Product Development in Portfolio Entrepreneurship: A Case Study of a Sodium-Ion Battery Start-up in China

Authors: Guohong Wang, Hao Huang, Rui Xing, Liyan Tang, Yu Wang

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Start-ups are consistently under pressure to overcome liabilities of newness and smallness. They must focus on assembling resource and engaging constant renewal and repeated entrepreneurial activities to survive and grow. As an important form of resource, knowledge is constantly vital to start-ups, which will help start-ups with developing new product in hence forming competitive advantage. However, significant knowledge is usually needed to be identified and exploited from external entities, which makes it difficult to achieve knowledge transfer; with limited resources, it can be quite challenging for start-ups balancing the exploration and exploitation of knowledge. The research on knowledge transfer has become a relatively well-developed domain by indicating that knowledge transfer can be achieved through plenty of patterns, yet it is still under-explored that what processes and organizational practices help start-ups facilitating knowledge transfer for new product in the context portfolio entrepreneurship. Resource orchestration theory emphasizes the initiative and active management of company or the manager to explain the fulfillment of resource utility, which will help understand the process of managing knowledge as a certain kind of resource in start-ups. Drawing on the resource orchestration theory, this research aims to explore how knowledge transfer can be facilitated through resource orchestration. A qualitative single-case study of a sodium-ion battery new venture was conducted. The case company is sampled deliberately from representative industrial agglomeration areas in Liaoning Province, China. It is found that distinctive resource orchestration sub-processes are leveraged to facilitate knowledge transfer: (i) resource structuring makes knowledge available across the portfolio; (ii) resource bundling makes combines internal and external knowledge to form new knowledge; and (iii) resource harmonizing balances specific knowledge configurations across the portfolio. Meanwhile, by purposefully reallocating knowledge configurations to new product development in a certain new venture (exploration) and gradually adjusting knowledge configurations to being applied to existing products across the portfolio (exploitation), resource orchestration processes as a whole make exploration and exploitation of knowledge balanced. This study contributes to the knowledge management literature through proposing a resource orchestration view and depicting how knowledge transfer can be facilitated through different resource orchestration processes and mechanisms. In addition, by revealing the balancing process of exploration and exploitation of knowledge, and laying stress on the significance of the idea of making exploration and exploitation of knowledge balanced in the context of portfolio entrepreneurship, this study also adds specific efforts to entrepreneurship and strategy management literature.

Keywords: New Product Development, knowledge transfer, exploration and exploitation, resource orchestration, portfolio entrepreneur

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1 Academic Knowledge Transfer Units in the Western Balkans: Building Service Capacity and Shaping the Business Model

Authors: Andrea Bikfalvi, Josep Llach, Ferran Lazaro, Bojan Jovanovski

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Due to the continuous need to foster university-business cooperation in both developed and developing countries, some higher education institutions face the challenge of designing, piloting, operating, and consolidating knowledge and technology transfer units. University-business cooperation has different maturity stages worldwide, with some higher education institutions excelling in these practices, but with lots of others that could be qualified as intermediate, or even some situated at the very beginning of their knowledge transfer adventure. These latter face the imminent necessity to formally create the technology transfer unit and to draw its roadmap. The complexity of this operation is due to various aspects that need to align and coordinate, including a major change in mission, vision, structure, priorities, and operations. Qualitative in approach, this study presents 5 case studies, consisting of higher education institutions located in the Western Balkans – 2 in Albania, 2 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1 in Montenegro- fully immersed in the entrepreneurial journey of creating their knowledge and technology transfer unit. The empirical evidence is developed in a pan-European project, illustratively called KnowHub (reconnecting universities and enterprises to unleash regional innovation and entrepreneurial activity), which is being implemented in three countries and has resulted in at least 15 pilot cooperation agreements between academia and business. Based on a peer-mentoring approach including more experimented and more mature technology transfer models of European partners located in Spain, Finland, and Austria, a series of initial lessons learned are already available. The findings show that each unit developed its tailor-made approach to engage with internal and external stakeholders, offer value to the academic staff, students, as well as business partners. The latest technology underpinning KnowHub services and institutional commitment are found to be key success factors. Although specific strategies and plans differ, they are based on a general strategy jointly developed and based on common tools and methods of strategic planning and business modelling. The main output consists of providing good practice for designing, piloting, and initial operations of units aiming to fully valorise knowledge and expertise available in academia. Policymakers can also find valuable hints on key aspects considered vital for initial operations. The value of this contribution is its focus on the intersection of three perspectives (service orientation, organisational innovation, business model) since previous research has only relied on a single topic or dual approaches, most frequently in the business context and less frequently in higher education.

Keywords: Capacity building, knowledge transfer, Business Model, entrepreneurial education

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