Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Knowledge sharing Related Abstracts

41 The Relationship between Social Capital and Knowledge Sharing in the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance(Iran)

Authors: Narges Sadat Myrmousavy, Maryam Eslampanah

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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social capital and knowledge sharing is the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. They are descriptive correlation study. The study sample consisted of all the experts in the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance helping professionals headquarters in Tehran in the summer period is 2012, the number is 650. Random sampling is targeted. The sample size is 400. The data collection tool was a questionnaire that was used for the preparation of a standard questionnaire. They also examine the assumptions of the regression coefficient for the relationship between variables in order to investigate the main hypothesis test is used. The findings suggest that the structural and knowledge-sharing between components, there is a direct relationship. The components of the relationship between Impression management and knowledge sharing, there is a direct relationship. There was no significant relationship between Individual pro-social motives and knowledge sharing. Both components of the cognitive aspects of open mindedness and competence are directly related with knowledge sharing. Finally, the comparison between the different dimensions of social capital, the largest of its structure, and its relationship with knowledge sharing is the least relation.

Keywords: Knowledge sharing, Social Capital, ministry of culture and Islamic guidance (Iran), open mindedness, pro-social motives

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40 Investigating the Interaction of Individuals' Knowledge Sharing Constructs

Authors: Eugene Okyere-Kwakye

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Knowledge sharing is a practice where individuals commonly exchange both tacit and explicit knowledge to jointly create a new knowledge. Knowledge management literature vividly express that knowledge sharing is the keystone and perhaps it is the most important aspect of knowledge management. To enhance the understanding of knowledge sharing domain, this study is aimed to investigate some factors that could influence employee’s attitude and behaviour to share their knowledge. The researchers employed the social exchange theory as a theoretical foundation for this study. Three essential factors namely: Trust, mutual reciprocity and perceived enjoyment that could influence knowledge sharing behaviour has been incorporated into a research model. To empirically validate this model, data was collected from one hundred and twenty respondents. The multiple regression analysis was employed to analyse the data. The results indicate that perceived enjoyment and trust have a significant influence on knowledge sharing. Surprisingly, mutual reciprocity did not influence knowledge sharing. The paper concludes by highlight the practical implications of the findings and areas for future research to consider.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Trust, Knowledge sharing, perceived enjoyment

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39 Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Community: Societal Culture Considerations

Authors: Imran Khan, Shahnaz Bashir, Abel Usoro

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Hofstede’s culture model is an important model to study culture between different societies. He collected data from world-wide and performed a comprehensive study. Hofstede’s cultural model is widely accepted and has been used to study cross cultural influences in different areas like cross-cultural psychology, cross cultural management, information technology, and intercultural communication. This study investigates the societal cultural aspects of knowledge sharing in virtual communities.

Keywords: Virtual Communities, Knowledge Management, Knowledge sharing, societal culture

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38 Antecedents of Knowledge Sharing: Investigating the Influence of Knowledge Sharing Factors towards Postgraduate Research Supervision

Authors: Arash Khosravi, Mohamad Nazir Ahmad

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Today’s economy is a knowledge-based economy in which knowledge is a crucial facilitator to individuals, as well as being an instigator of success. Due to the impact of globalization, universities face new challenges and opportunities. Accordingly, they ought to be more innovative and have their own competitive advantages. One of the most important goals of universities is the promotion of students as professional knowledge workers. Therefore, knowledge sharing and transferring at tertiary level between students and supervisors is vital in universities, as it decreases the budget and provides an affordable way of doing research. Knowledge-sharing impact factors can be categorized into three groups, namely: organizational, individual and technical factors. There are some individual barriers to knowledge sharing, namely: lack of time and trust, lack of communication skills and social networks. IT systems such as e-learning, blogs and portals can increase knowledge sharing capability. However, it must be stated that IT systems are only tools and not solutions. Individuals are still responsible for sharing information and knowledge. This paper proposes new research model to examine the effect of individual factors and organisational factors, namely: learning strategy, trust culture, supervisory support, as well as technological factor on knowledge sharing in a research supervision process at the University of Technology Malaysia.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge sharing, research supervision, knowledge transferring

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37 Knowledge-Based Virtual Community System (KBVCS) for Enhancing Knowledge Sharing in Mechatronics System Diagnostic and Repair: A Case of Automobile

Authors: Adedeji W. Oyediran, Yekini N. Asafe

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Mechatronics is synergistic integration of mechanical engineering, with electronics and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacturing of industrial products and processes. Automobile (auto car, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor) is a mechatronic system which served as major means of transportation around the world. Virtually all community has a need for automobile. This makes automobile issues as related to diagnostic and repair interesting to all communities. Consequent to the diversification of skill in diagnosing automobile faults and approaches in solving some problems and innovation in automobile industry. It is appropriate to say that repair and diagnostic of automobile will be better enhanced if community has opportunity of sharing knowledge and idea globally. This paper discussed the desirable elements in automobile as mechatronics system and present conceptual framework of virtual community model for automobile users.

Keywords: virtual community, Knowledge sharing, Automobile, automobile users, mechatronics system

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36 Proposal for Knowledge-Based Virtual Community System (KBVCS) for Enhancing Knowledge Sharing in Mechatronics System Diagnostic and Repair

Authors: Adedeji W. Oyediran, Yekini N. Asafe, Adetoba B. Tiwalola, Akinwole A. Kikelomo

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Mechatronics is synergistic integration of mechanical engineering, with electronics and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacturing of industrial products and processes. Automobile (auto car, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor) is a mechatronic system which served as major means of transportation around the world. Virtually all community has a need for automobile. This makes automobile issues as related to diagnostic and repair interesting to all communities. Consequent to the diversification of skill in diagnosing automobile faults and approaches in solving some problems and innovation in automobile industry. It is appropriate to say that repair and diagnostic of automobile will be better enhanced if community has opportunity of sharing knowledge and idea globally. This paper discussed the desirable elements in automobile as mechatronics system and present conceptual framework of virtual community model for knowledge sharing among automobile users.

Keywords: virtual community, Knowledge sharing, Automobile, automobile users, mechatronics system

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35 Knowledge and Information Sharing in the Opinion of the Polish Academic Community

Authors: Marzena Świgoń

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The purpose of this paper is to describe the perceptions of knowledge and information sharing by the Polish academic community. An electronic questionnaire was used to gather opinions of respondents. The presented results are a part of the findings of empirical studies carried out amongst academics from various types of universities and academia located throughout Poland.

Keywords: Knowledge sharing, Academics, Information Sharing, Scholarly Communication

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34 Support of Knowledge Sharing in Manufacturing Companies: A Case Study

Authors: Zuzana Crhová, Karel Kolman, Drahomíra Pavelkova

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Knowledge is considered as an important asset which can help organizations to create competitive advantage. The necessity of taking care of these assets is more important in these days – in days of turbulent changes in business environment. Knowledge could facilitate adaption to constant changes. The aim of this paper is to describe how the knowledge sharing can be supported in the manufacturing companies. The methods of case studies and grounded theory were used to present information gained by carrying out semi-structured interviews. Results show that knowledge sharing is supported in very similar ways in respondent companies.

Keywords: Human resource management, Knowledge, Knowledge sharing, Case study

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33 Positioning Organisational Culture in Knowledge Management Research

Authors: Said Al Saifi

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This paper proposes a conceptual model for understanding the impact of organisational culture on knowledge management processes and their link with organisational performance. It is suggested that organisational culture should be assessed as a multi-level construct comprising artifacts, espoused beliefs and values, and underlying assumptions. A holistic view of organisational culture and knowledge management processes, and their link with organisational performance, is presented. A comprehensive review of previous literature was undertaken in the development of the conceptual model. Taken together, the literature and the proposed model reveal possible relationships between organisational culture, knowledge management processes, and organisational performance. Potential implications of organisational culture levels for the creation, sharing, and application of knowledge are elaborated. In addition, the paper offers possible new insight into the impact of organisational culture on various knowledge management processes and their link with organisational performance. A number of possible relationships between organisational culture factors, knowledge management processes, and their link with organisational performance were employed to examine such relationships. The research model highlights the multi-level components of organisational culture. These are: the artifacts, the espoused beliefs and values, and the underlying assumptions. Through a conceptualisation of the relationships between organisational culture, knowledge management processes, and organisational performance, the study provides practical guidance for practitioners during the implementation of knowledge management processes. The focus of previous research on knowledge management has been on understanding organisational culture from the limited perspective of promoting knowledge creation and sharing. This paper proposes a more comprehensive approach to understanding organisational culture in that it draws on artifacts, espoused beliefs and values, and underlying assumptions, and reveals their impact on the creation, sharing, and application of knowledge which can affect overall organisational performance.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge sharing, knowledge creation, organisational culture, organisational performance, knowledge application

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32 The Role of Quality Management Tools and Knowledge Sharing in Improving the Level of Academic Staff: An Empirical Investigation of the Jordanian Universities

Authors: Tasneem Alfalah, Salsabeel Alfalah, Jannat Alfalah

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The quality of higher education as a service is fundamental to a country’s development because universities prepare the professionals who will work as managers in companies and manage public and private resources and care for the health and education of new generations. Knowledge sharing involves the interaction of all activities between individuals. Thus, the higher education institutions are aiming to improve and assist their academics in generating new ideas by encouraging them to work as a team, to simplify the exchange of the new knowledge and to further improve the learning process and achieving institutional aims. Moreover, the sources of competitive advantage in universities derive from intellectual capital and innovations in which innovation comes through knowledge sharing. Using quality tools is to define the exact requirements needed to create the concept of knowledge sharing and what are the barriers to achieve this in universities. The purpose of this research is critically evaluating the role of using quality tools to facilitate the concept of knowledge sharing and improve the academic staff level in the Jordanian universities.

Keywords: Higher Education, Quality, Knowledge sharing, management tools

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31 Knowledge Sharing within a Team: Exploring the Antecedents and Role of Trust

Authors: Li Yan Hei, Au Wing Tung

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Knowledge sharing is a process in which individuals mutually exchange existing knowledge and co-create new knowledge. Previous research has confirmed that trust is positively associated with knowledge sharing. However, only few studies systematically examined the antecedents of trust and these antecedents’ impacts on knowledge sharing. In order to explore and understand the relationships between trust and knowledge sharing in depth, this study proposed a relationship maintenance-based model to examine the antecedents of trust in knowledge sharing in project teams. Three critical elements within a project team were measured, including the environment, project team partner and interaction. It was hypothesized that the trust would lead to knowledge sharing and in turn result in perceived good team performance. With a sample of 200 Hong Kong employees, the proposed model was evaluated with structural equation modeling. Expected findings are trust will contribute to knowledge sharing, resulting in better team performance. The results will also offer insights into antecedents of trust that play a heavy role in the focal relationship. The present study contributes to a more holistic understanding of relationship between trust and knowledge sharing by linking the antecedents and outcomes. The findings will raise the awareness of project managers on ways to promote knowledge sharing.

Keywords: Project Management, Trust, Knowledge sharing, team

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30 Effect of Incentives on Knowledge Sharing and Learning: Evidence from the Indian IT Sector

Authors: Asish O. Mathew, Lewlyn L. R. Rodrigues

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The organizations in the knowledge economy era have recognized the importance of building knowledge assets for sustainable growth and development. In comparison to other industries, Information Technology (IT) enterprises, holds an edge in developing an effective Knowledge Management (KM) program, thanks to their in-house technological abilities. This paper tries to study the various knowledge-based incentive programs and its effect on Knowledge Sharing and Learning in the context of the Indian IT sector. A conceptual model is developed linking KM incentives, knowledge sharing, and learning. A questionnaire study is conducted to collect primary data from the knowledge workers of the IT organizations located in India. The data was analysed using Structural Equation Modeling using Partial Least Square method. The results show a strong influence of knowledge management incentives on knowledge sharing and an indirect influence on learning.

Keywords: Learning, Knowledge Management, Knowledge sharing, knowledge management incentives

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29 Knowledge Sharing Model Based on Individual and Organizational Factors Related to Faculty Members of University

Authors: Mitra Sadoughi

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This study presents the knowledge-sharing model based on individual and organizational factors related to faculty members. To achieve this goal, individual and organizational factors were presented through qualitative research in the form of open codes, axial, and selective observations; then, the final model was obtained using structural equation model. Participants included 1,719 faculty members of the Azad Universities, Mazandaran Province, Region 3. The samples related to the qualitative survey included 25 faculty members experienced at teaching and the samples related to the quantitative survey included 326 faculty members selected by multistage cluster sampling. A 72-item questionnaire was used to measure the quantitative variables. The reliability of the questionnaire was 0.93. Its content and face validity was determined with the help of faculty members, consultants, and other experts. For the analysis of quantitative data obtained from structural model and regression, SPSS and LISREL were used. The results showed that the status of knowledge sharing is moderate in the universities. Individual factors influencing knowledge sharing included the sharing of educational materials, perception, confidence and knowledge self-efficiency, and organizational factors influencing knowledge sharing included structural social capital, cognitive social capital, social capital relations, organizational communication, organizational structure, organizational culture, IT infrastructure and systems of rewards. Finally, it was found that the contribution of individual factors on knowledge sharing was more than organizational factors; therefore, a model was presented in which contribution of individual and organizational factors were determined.

Keywords: Perception, Trust, Organizational Communication, Knowledge sharing, Social Capital, Organizational Culture, knowledge self-efficiency

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28 Digital Learning Repositories for Vocational Teaching and Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Prachyanun Nilsook, Panita Wannapiroon

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The purpose of this research is to study a Digital Learning Repository System (DLRS) on vocational teachers and teaching in Thailand. The innobpcd.net is a DLRS being utilized by the Office of Vocational Education Commission and operationalized by the Bureau of Personnel Competency Development for vocational education teachers. The aim of the system is to support and enhance the process of vocational teaching and to improve staff development by providing teachers with a variety of network connections and information. The system provides centralized hosting and access to content, and the ability to share digital objects or files, to set permissions and controls for access to content that can be used vocational education teachers for their teaching and for their own development. The elements of DLRS include; Digital learning system, Media Library, Knowledge-based system and Mobile Application. The system aims to link vocational teachers to the most effective emerging technologies available for learning, so they are better resourced to support their vocational students. The initial results from this evaluation indicate that there is a range of services provided by the system being used by vocational teachers and this paper indicates which facilities have the greatest usage and impact on vocational teaching in Thailand.

Keywords: Knowledge sharing, Vocational Education, digital learning repositories, learning objects

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27 Integrating Knowledge into Health Care Systems: A Case Study Investigation on UAE Health Care

Authors: Alya Al Ghufli, Kelaithim Al Tunaiji, Sara Al Ali, Khalid Samara

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It is well known that health care systems encompass a variety of key knowledge sources that need to be integrated and shared amongst all types of users to attain higher-levels of motivation and productivity. The development of Health Integrated Systems (HIS) is often seen as a crucial step in strengthening the integration of knowledge to help serve the information needs of health care users. As an emergent economy, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is regarded as a new arrival in the area of health information systems. As a new nation, there may be several challenges in terms of organisational climate and the sufficient skills and knowledge activities for effective use of HIS. In this regard, the lack of coordination, attitudes and practice of health-related systems can eventually result in unnecessary data and generally poor use of the system. This paper includes results from a qualitative preliminary study carried out from a case study investigation in a single large primary health care organisation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) comprising various health care users. The study explored health care user’s perceptions about health integration and the impact it has on their practice. The main sources of information were semi-structured interviews and non-obtrusive observations. The authors conclude by presenting various recommendations for the development of HIS and knowledge activities and areas for further study.

Keywords: Health information systems, Knowledge sharing, health integrated systems, knowledge activities

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26 Process Driven Architecture For The ‘Lessons Learnt’ Knowledge Sharing Framework: The Case Of A ‘Lessons Learnt’ Framework For KOC

Authors: Abdul Jaleel Tharayil, Rima Al-Awadhi

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On a regular basis, KOC engages into various types of Projects. However, due to very nature and complexity involved, each project experience generates a lot of ‘learnings’ that need to be factored into while drafting a new contract and thus avoid repeating the same mistakes. But, many a time these learnings are localized and remain as tacit leading to scope re-work, larger cycle time, schedule overrun, adjustment orders and claims. Also, these experiences are not readily available to new employees leading to steep learning curve and longer time to competency. This is to share our experience in designing and implementing a process driven architecture for the ‘lessons learnt’ knowledge sharing framework in KOC. It high-lights the ‘lessons learnt’ sharing process adopted, integration with the organizational processes, governance framework, the challenges faced and learning from our experience in implementing a ‘lessons learnt’ framework.

Keywords: Knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer, lessons learnt, successful practices, Lessons Learnt Workshop, governance framework

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25 Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Performance: A System Dynamics Approach

Authors: Shachi Pathak

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We are living in knowledge based economy where firms can gain competitive advantage with the help of managing knowledge within the organization. The purpose the study is to develop a conceptual model to explain the relationship between factors affecting knowledge sharing, called as knowledge enablers, in an organization, knowledge sharing activities and organizational performance, using system dynamics approach. This research is important since it will provide better understandings on what are the key knowledge enablers to support knowledge sharing activities, and how knowledge sharing activities will affect the capability of an organization to enhance the performance of the organization.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge sharing, System Dynamics, organizational performance

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24 Utilising an Online Data Collection Platform for the Development of a Community Engagement Database: A Case Study on Building Inter-Institutional Partnerships at UWC

Authors: P. Daniels, T. Adonis, P. September-Brown, R. Comalie

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The community engagement unit at the University of the Western Cape was tasked with establishing a community engagement database. The database would store information of all community engagement projects related to the university. The wealth of knowledge obtained from the various disciplines would be used to facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration within the university, as well as facilitating community university partnership opportunities. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore electronic data collection through the development of a database. Two types of electronic data collection platforms were used, namely online questionnaire and email. The semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data related to community engagement projects from different faculties and departments at the university. There are many benefits for using an electronic data collection platform, such as reduction of costs and time, ease in reaching large numbers of potential respondents, and the possibility of providing anonymity to participants. Despite all the advantages of using the electronic platform, there were as many challenges, as depicted in our findings. The findings suggest that certain barriers existed by using an electronic platform for data collection, even though it was in an academic environment, where knowledge and resources were in abundance. One of the challenges experienced in this process was the lack of dissemination of information via email to staff within faculties. The actual online software used for the questionnaire had its own limitations, such as only being able to access the questionnaire from the same electronic device. In a few cases, academics only completed the questionnaire after a telephonic prompt or face to face meeting about "Is higher education in South Africa ready to embrace electronic platform in data collection?"

Keywords: Database, Knowledge sharing, Community Engagement, data collection, University, electronic platform, electronic tools

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23 People Management, Knowledge Sharing and Intermediary Variables

Authors: Nizar Mansour, Chiha Gaha, Emna Gara

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The present research investigates the relationship among HRM practices, knowledge sharing behavior and a certain number of intermediary variables in the context of Tunisian knowledge-intensive firms. Results suggest that five HR practices influence either directly or indirectly the knowledge sharing behavior through enhancing the value of human capital and fostering a learning-oriented organizational climate. Results have strong theoretical implications for both the fields of knowledge management and strategic human resource management. Managerial implications are also derived.

Keywords: Knowledge sharing, Organizational Climate, Human Capital, Tunisia, knowledge intensive firms

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22 An Online Space for Practitioners in the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Sector

Authors: Laura A. S. MacDonald, Olivier Mills, Bernard McDonell

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The increasing availability and quality of internet access throughout the developing world provides an opportunity to utilize online spaces to disseminate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) knowledge to practitioners. Since 2001, CAWST has provided in-person education, training and consulting services to thousands of WASH practitioners all over the world, supporting them to start, troubleshoot, improve and expand their WASH projects. As CAWST continues to grow, the organization faces challenges in meeting demand from clients and in providing consistent, timely technical support. In 2012, CAWST began utilizing online spaces to expand its reach by developing a series of resources websites and webinars. CAWST has developed a WASH Education and Training resources website, a Biosand Filter (BSF) Knowledge Base, a Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Knowledge Base, a mobile app for offline users, a live chat support tool, a WASH e-library, and a series of webinar-style online training sessions to complement its in-person capacity development services. In order to determine the preliminary outcomes of providing these online services, CAWST has monitored and analyzed registration to the online spaces, downloads of the educational materials, and webinar attendance; as well as conducted user surveys. The purpose of this analysis was to find out who was using the online spaces, where users came from, and how the resources were being used. CAWST’s WASH Resources website has served over 5,800 registered users from 3,000 organizations in 183 countries. Additionally, the BSF Knowledge Base has served over 1000 registered users from 68 countries, and over 540 people from 73 countries have attended CAWST’s online training sessions. This indicates that the online spaces are effectively reaching a large numbers of users, from a range of countries. A 2016 survey of the Biosand Filter Knowledge Base showed that approximately 61% of users are practitioners, and 39% are either researchers or students. Of the respondents, 46% reported using the BSF Knowledge Base to initiate a BSF project and 43% reported using the information to train BSF technicians. Finally, 61% indicated they would like even greater support from CAWST’s Technical Advisors going forward. The analysis has provided an encouraging indication that CAWST’s online spaces are contributing to its objective of engaging and supporting WASH practitioners to start, improve and expand their initiatives. CAWST has learned several lessons during the development of these online spaces, in particular related to the resources needed to create and maintain the spaces, and respond to the demand created. CAWST plans to continue expanding its online spaces, improving user experience of the sites, and involving new contributors and content types. Through the use of online spaces, CAWST has been able to increase its global reach and impact without significantly increasing its human resources by connecting WASH practitioners with the information they most need, in a practical and accessible manner. This paper presents on CAWST’s use of online spaces through the CAWST-developed platforms discussed above and the analysis of the use of these platforms.

Keywords: Knowledge sharing, water and sanitation, Education and training, online resources

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21 The Effects of Transformational Leadership on Process Innovation through Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Sawsan J. Al-Husseini, Talib A. Dosa

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Transformational leadership has been identified as the most important factor affecting innovation and knowledge sharing; it leads to increased goal-directed behavior exhibited by followers and thus to enhanced performance and innovation for the organization. However, there is a lack of models linking transformational leadership, knowledge sharing, and process innovation within higher education (HE) institutions in general within developing countries, particularly in Iraq. This research aims to examine the mediating role of knowledge sharing in the transformational leadership and process innovation relationship. A quantitative approach was taken and 254 usable questionnaires were collected from public HE institutions in Iraq. Structural equation modelling with AMOS 22 was used to analyze the causal relationships among factors. The research found that knowledge sharing plays a pivotal role in the relationship between transformational leadership and process innovation, and that transformational leadership would be ideal in an educational context, promoting knowledge sharing activities and influencing process innovation in the public HE in Iraq. The research has developed some guidelines for researchers as well as leaders and provided evidence to support the use of TL to increase process innovation within HE environment in developing countries, particularly in Iraq.

Keywords: Knowledge sharing, developing countries, Transformational leadership, Process innovation, structural equation modelling

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20 Importance of Knowledge in the Interdisciplinary Production Processes of Innovative Medical Tools

Authors: Katarzyna Mleczko

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Processes of production of innovative medical tools have interdisciplinary character. They consist of direct and indirect close cooperation of specialists of different scientific branches. The Knowledge they have seems to be important for undertaken design, construction and manufacturing processes. The Knowledge exchange between participants of these processes is therefore crucial for the final result, which are innovative medical products. The paper draws attention to the necessity of feedback from the end user to the designer / manufacturer of medical tools which will allow for more accurate understanding of user needs. The study describes prerequisites of production processes of innovative medical (surgical) tools including participants and category of knowledge resources occurring in these processes. They are the result of research in selected Polish organizations involved in the production of medical instruments and are the basis for further work on the development of knowledge sharing model in interdisciplinary teams geographically dispersed.

Keywords: Knowledge sharing, knowledge exchange, interdisciplinary production processes, medical tools

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19 Key Factors Influencing Individual Knowledge Capability in KIFs

Authors: Salman Iqbal

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Knowledge management (KM) literature has mainly focused on the antecedents of KM. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of specific human resource management (HRM) practices on employee knowledge sharing and its outcome as individual knowledge capability. Based on previous literature, a model is proposed for the study and hypotheses are formulated. The cross-sectional dataset comes from a sample of 19 knowledge intensive firms (KIFs). This study has run an item parceling technique followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) on the latent constructs of the research model. Employees’ collaboration and their interpersonal trust can help to improve their knowledge sharing behaviour and knowledge capability within organisations. This study suggests that in future, by using a larger sample, better statistical insight is possible. The findings of this study are beneficial for scholars, policy makers and practitioners. The empirical results of this study are entirely based on employees’ perceptions and make a significant research contribution, given there is a dearth of empirical research focusing on the subcontinent.

Keywords: Knowledge sharing, structural equation modelling, employees’ collaboration, individual knowledge capability, monetary rewards

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18 The Impact of Motivation, Trust, and National Cultural Differences on Knowledge Sharing within the Context of Electronic Mail

Authors: Said Abdullah Al Saifi

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The goal of this research is to examine the impact of trust, motivation, and national culture on knowledge sharing within the context of electronic mail. This study is quantitative and survey based. In order to conduct the research, 200 students from a leading university in New Zealand were chosen randomly to participate in a questionnaire survey. Motivation and trust were found to be significantly and positively related to knowledge sharing. The research findings illustrated that face saving, face gaining, and individualism positively moderates the relationship between motivation and knowledge sharing. In addition, collectivism culture negatively moderates the relationship between motivation and knowledge sharing. Moreover, the research findings reveal that face saving, individualism, and collectivism culture positively moderate the relationship between trust and knowledge sharing. In addition, face gaining culture negatively moderates the relationship between trust and knowledge sharing. This study sets out several implications for researchers and practitioners. The study produces an integrative model that shows how attributes of national culture impact knowledge sharing through the use of emails. A better understanding of the relationship between knowledge sharing and trust, motivation, and national culture differences will increase individuals’ ability to make wise choices when sharing knowledge with those from different cultures.

Keywords: Trust, Knowledge sharing, Motivation, national culture

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17 Knowledge Management Barriers: A Statistical Study of Hardware Development Engineering Teams within Restricted Environments

Authors: Nicholas S. Norbert Jr., John E. Bischoff, Christopher J. Willy

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Knowledge Management (KM) is globally recognized as a crucial element in securing competitive advantage through building and maintaining organizational memory, codifying and protecting intellectual capital and business intelligence, and providing mechanisms for collaboration and innovation. KM frameworks and approaches have been developed and defined identifying critical success factors for conducting KM within numerous industries ranging from scientific to business, and for ranges of organization scales from small groups to large enterprises. However, engineering and technical teams operating within restricted environments are subject to unique barriers and KM challenges which cannot be directly treated using the approaches and tools prescribed for other industries. This research identifies barriers in conducting KM within Hardware Development Engineering (HDE) teams and statistically compares significance to barriers upholding the four KM pillars of organization, technology, leadership, and learning for HDE teams. HDE teams suffer from restrictions in knowledge sharing (KS) due to classification of information (national security risks), customer proprietary restrictions (non-disclosure agreement execution for designs), types of knowledge, complexity of knowledge to be shared, and knowledge seeker expertise. As KM evolved leveraging information technology (IT) and web-based tools and approaches from Web 1.0 to Enterprise 2.0, KM may also seek to leverage emergent tools and analytics including expert locators and hybrid recommender systems to enable KS across barriers of the technical teams. The research will test hypothesis statistically evaluating if KM barriers for HDE teams affect the general set of expected benefits of a KM System identified through previous research. If correlations may be identified, then generalizations of success factors and approaches may also be garnered for HDE teams. Expert elicitation will be conducted using a questionnaire hosted on the internet and delivered to a panel of experts including engineering managers, principal and lead engineers, senior systems engineers, and knowledge management experts. The feedback to the questionnaire will be processed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify and rank statistically significant barriers of HDE teams within the four KM pillars. Subsequently, KM approaches will be recommended for upholding the KM pillars within restricted environments of HDE teams.

Keywords: Engineering Management, Knowledge Management, Knowledge sharing, knowledge barriers

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16 Applying the Fuzzy Analytic Network Process to Establish the Relative Importance of Knowledge Sharing Barriers

Authors: Van Dong Phung, Igor Hawryszkiewycz, Kyeong Kang, Muhammad Hatim Binsawad

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Knowledge sharing (KS) is the key to creativity and innovation in any organizations. Overcoming the KS barriers has created new challenges for designing in dynamic and complex environment. There may be interrelations and interdependences among the barriers. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of literature of KS barriers and impute the relative importance of them through the fuzzy analytic network process that is a generalization of the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). It helps to prioritize the barriers to find ways to remove them to facilitate KS. The study begins with a brief description of KS barriers and the most critical ones. The FANP and its role in identifying the relative importance of KS barriers are explained. The paper, then, proposes the model for research and expected outcomes. The study suggests that the use of the FANP is appropriate to impute the relative importance of KS barriers which are intertwined and interdependent. Implications and future research are also proposed.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge sharing, ANP, FANP, knowledge sharing barriers, removing barriers

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15 Analyzing the Critical Factors Influencing Employees' Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Sharing Intentions for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: A Systematic Review and a Conceptual Framework

Authors: Made Ayu Aristyana Dewi

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Due to the importance of knowledge in today’s competitive world, an understanding of how to enhance employee knowledge sharing has become critical. This study discerning employees’ knowledge sharing intentions according to the type of knowledge to be shared, whether tacit or explicit. This study provides a critical and systematic review of the current literature on knowledge sharing, with a particular focus on the most critical factors influencing employees’ tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intentions. The extant literature was identified through four electronic databases, from 2006 to 2016. The findings of this review reveal that most of the previous studies only focus on individual and social factors as the antecedents of knowledge sharing intention. Therefore, those previous studies did not consider some other potential factors, like organizational and technological factors that may hinder the progress of knowledge sharing processes. Based on the findings of the critical review, a conceptual framework is proposed, which presents the antecedents of employees’ tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intentions and its impact on innovation and sustainable competitive advantage.

Keywords: Innovation, Knowledge sharing, sustainable competitive advantage, tacit knowledge, antecedents, social factors, organizational factors, intentions, individual factors, technological factors, explicit knowledge

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14 Top Management Support as an Enabling Factor for Academic Innovation through Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Sawsan J. Al-Husseini, Talib A. Dosa

Abstract:

Educational institutions are today facing increasing pressures due to economic, political and social upheaval. This is only exacerbated by the nature of education as an intangible good which relies upon the intellectual assets of the organisation, its staff. Top management support has been acknowledged as having a positive general influence on knowledge management and creativity. However, there is a lack of models linking top management support, knowledge sharing, and innovation within higher education institutions, in general within developing countries, and particularly in Iraq. This research sought to investigate the impact of top management support on innovation through the mediating role of knowledge sharing in Iraqi private HEIs. A quantitative approach was taken and 262 valid responses were collected to test the causal relationships between top management support, knowledge sharing, and innovation. Employing structural equation modelling with AMOS v.25, the research demonstrated that knowledge sharing plays a pivotal role in the relationship between top management support and innovation. The research has produced some guidelines for researchers as well as leaders, and provided evidence to support the use of knowledge sharing to increase innovation within the higher education environment in developing countries, particularly Iraq.

Keywords: Innovation, Knowledge sharing, structural equation modelling, top management support

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13 Towards a Measuring Tool to Encourage Knowledge Sharing in Emerging Knowledge Organizations: The Who, the What and the How

Authors: Rachel Barker

Abstract:

The exponential velocity in the truly knowledge-intensive world today has increasingly bombarded organizations with unfathomable challenges. Hence organizations are introduced to strange lexicons of descriptors belonging to a new paradigm of who, what and how knowledge at individual and organizational levels should be managed. Although organizational knowledge has been recognized as a valuable intangible resource that holds the key to competitive advantage, little progress has been made in understanding how knowledge sharing at individual level could benefit knowledge use at collective level to ensure added value. The research problem is that a lack of research exists to measure knowledge sharing through a multi-layered structure of ideas with at its foundation, philosophical assumptions to support presuppositions and commitment which requires actual findings from measured variables to confirm observed and expected events. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem by presenting a theoretical approach to measure knowledge sharing in emerging knowledge organizations. The research question is that despite the competitive necessity of becoming a knowledge-based organization, leaders have found it difficult to transform their organizations due to a lack of knowledge on who, what and how it should be done. The main premise of this research is based on the challenge for knowledge leaders to develop an organizational culture conducive to the sharing of knowledge and where learning becomes the norm. The theoretical constructs were derived and based on the three components of the knowledge management theory, namely technical, communication and human components where it is suggested that this knowledge infrastructure could ensure effective management. While it is realised that it might be a little problematic to implement and measure all relevant concepts, this paper presents effect of eight critical success factors (CSFs) namely: organizational strategy, organizational culture, systems and infrastructure, intellectual capital, knowledge integration, organizational learning, motivation/performance measures and innovation. These CSFs have been identified based on a comprehensive literature review of existing research and tested in a new framework adapted from four perspectives of the balanced score card (BSC). Based on these CSFs and their items, an instrument was designed and tested among managers and employees of a purposefully selected engineering company in South Africa who relies on knowledge sharing to ensure their competitive advantage. Rigorous pretesting through personal interviews with executives and a number of academics took place to validate the instrument and to improve the quality of items and correct wording of issues. Through analysis of surveys collected, this research empirically models and uncovers key aspects of these dimensions based on the CSFs. Reliability of the instrument was calculated by Cronbach’s a for the two sections of the instrument on organizational and individual levels.The construct validity was confirmed by using factor analysis. The impact of the results was tested using structural equation modelling and proved to be a basis for implementing and understanding the competitive predisposition of the organization as it enters the process of knowledge management. In addition, they realised the importance to consolidate their knowledge assets to create value that is sustainable over time.

Keywords: Innovation, Knowledge sharing, Intellectual Capital, performance measures

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12 The Role of Knowledge Sharing in Market Response: The Case of Saman Bank of Iran

Authors: Fatemeh Torabi, Jamal El-Den, Narumon Sriratanviriyakul

Abstract:

Perpetual changes in the workplace and daily business activities bring a need for imbedding organizational knowledge sharing within the organizations’ culture, routines and processes. Organizations should adapt to the changing in the environment in order to survive. Accordingly, the management should promote a knowledge sharing culture which might result in knowledge accumulation, hence better response to these changing environmental conditions. Researchers in the field of strategy and marketing stressed that employees’, as well as the overall performance of the organization, would improve as a result of implementing a knowledge-oriented culture. The research investigated the significant impact of knowledge sharing on market response and the competitiveness of organizations. A knowledge sharing framework was developed based on current literary frameworks with additional constructs such as employees’ learning commitments, experiences and prior knowledge. Linear regression was used to analyze the relationships among dependent and independent variables. The research’s results indicated strong positive correlation between the dependent and independent variables, especially in organizational market sharing. We anticipate that this correlation would improve organizational knowledge sharing related practices and the associated knowledge entities. The research posits the introduced framework could be a solid ground for further investigations on how some organizational factors would influence the organization’s response to the market as well as on competitiveness. Final results support all hypotheses. Finding of this research show that knowledge sharing intention had the significant and positive effect on market response and competitiveness of organizations.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge sharing, market response, organizational competitiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 70