Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

knee Related Abstracts

8 Effect of Retained Posterior Horn of Medial Meniscus on Functional Outcome of ACL Reconstructed Knees

Authors: Kevin Syam, Devendra K. Chauhan, Mandeep Singh Dhillon

Abstract:

Background: The posterior horn of medial meniscus (PHMM) is a secondary stabilizer against anterior translation of tibia. Cadaveric studies have revealed increased strain on the ACL graft and greater instrumented laxity in Posterior horn deficient knees. Clinical studies have shown higher prevalence of radiological OA after ACL reconstruction combined with menisectomy. However, functional outcomes in ACL reconstructed knee in the absence of Posterior horn is less discussed, and specific role of posterior horn is ill-documented. This study evaluated functional and radiological outcomes in posterior horn preserved and posterior horn sacrificed ACL reconstructed knees. Materials: Of the 457 patients who had ACL reconstruction done over a 6 year period, 77 cases with minimum follow up of 18 months were included in the study after strict exclusion criteria (associated lateral meniscus injury, other ligamentous injuries, significant cartilage degeneration, repeat injury and contralateral knee injuries were excluded). 41 patients with intact menisci were compared with 36 patients with absent posterior horn of medial meniscus. Radiological and clinical tests for instability were conducted, and knees were evaluated using subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score and the Orthopadische Arbeitsgruppe Knie score (OAK). Results: We found a trend towards significantly better overall outcome (OAK) in cases with intact PHMM at average follow-up of 43.03 months (p value 0.082). Cases with intact PHMM had significantly better objective stability (p value 0.004). No significant differences were noted in the subjective IKDC score (p value 0.526) and the functional OAK outcome (category D) (p value 0.363). More cases with absent posterior horn had evidence of radiological OA (p value 0.022) even at mid-term follow-up. Conclusion: Even though the overall OAK and subjective IKDC scores did not show significant difference between the two subsets, the poorer outcomes in terms of objective stability and radiological OA noted in the absence of PHMM, indicates the importance of preserving this important part of the meniscus.

Keywords: ACL, functional outcome, knee, posterior of medial meniscus

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
7 Gel-Based Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (GACI) in the Knee: Multicentric Short Term Study

Authors: Shaival Dalal, Nilesh Shah, Dinshaw Pardiwala, David Rajan, Satyen Sanghavi, Charul Bhanji

Abstract:

Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) is used worldwide since 1998 to treat cartilage defect. GEL based ACI is a new tissue-engineering technique to treat full thickness cartilage defect with fibrin and thrombin as scaffold for chondrocytes. Purpose of this study is to see safety and efficacy of gel based ACI for knee cartilage defect in multiple centres with different surgeons. Gel-based Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (GACI) has shown effectiveness in treating isolated cartilage defect of knee joint. Long term results are still needed to be studied. This study was followed-up up to two years and showed benefit to patients. All enrolled patients with a mean age of 28.5 years had an average defect size of3 square centimeters, and were grade IV as per ICRS grading. All patients were followed up several times and at several intervals at 6th week, 8th week, 11th week, 17th week, 29th week, 57th week after surgery. The outcomes were measured based on the IKDC (subjective and objective) and MOCART scores.

Keywords: chondrocyte, knee, autologous chondrocyte implantation, fibrin gel based

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
6 Effects of the Amount of Static Stretching on the Knee Isokinetic Muscle Strength

Authors: Chungyu Chen, Hui-Ju Chang, Pei-Shan Guo, Huei-Ling Jhan, Yi-Ping Lin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the amount of acutely static stretching on muscular strength and power. There were 15 males, and 7 females recruited voluntarily as the participants in the study. The mean age, body height, and weight of participants were 23.4 ± 2.8 years old, 171.0 ± 7.2 cm, and 65.7 ± 8.7 kg, respectively. Participants were repeated to stretch hamstring muscles 2 or 6 30-s bouts randomly on a separate day spaced 5-7 days apart in a passive, static, sit-and-reach stretching exercise. Before and after acutely static stretching, the Biodex System 4 Pro was used to acquire the peak torque, power, total work, and range of motion for right knee under the loading of 180 deg/s. The 2 (test-retest) × 2 (number of stretches) repeated measures two-way analysis of variance were used to compare the parameters of muscular strength/power (α = .05). The results showed that the peak torque, power, and total work increased significantly after acutely passive static stretching (ps < .05) in flexor and extensor of knee. But there were no significant differences found between the 2 and 6 30-s bouts hamstring muscles stretching (ps > .05). It indicated that the performance of muscular strength and power in knee flexion and extension do not inhibit following the increase of amount of stretching.

Keywords: Power, Flexibility, Strength, knee

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
5 Preliminary Report on the Assessment of the Impact of the Kinesiology Taping Application versus Placebo Taping on the Knee Joint Position Sense

Authors: Sebastian Wójtowicz, Zbigniew Wroński, Anna Mosiolek, Dariusz Bialoszewski, Patryk Wąsowski, Anna Hadamus

Abstract:

Introduction: Kinesiology Taping is a very popular physiotherapy method, often used for healthy people, especially athletes, in order to stimulate the muscles and improve their performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the muscle application of Kinesiology Taping on the joint position sense in active motion. Material and Methods: The study involved 50 healthy people - 30 men and 20 women, mean age was 23.2 years (range 18-30 years). The exclusion criteria were injuries and operations of the knee, which could affect the test results. The participants were divided randomly into two equal groups. The first group consisted of individuals with the applied Kinesiology Taping muscle application (KT group), whereas in the rest of the individuals placebo application from red adhesive tape was used (placebo group). Both applications were to enhance the effects of quadriceps muscle activity. Joint position sense (JPS) was evaluated in this study. Error of Active Reproduction of the Joint Position (EARJP) of the knee was measured in 45° flexion. The test was performed prior to applying the patch, with the applied application, then 24 hours after wearing, and after removing the tape. The interval between trials was not less than 30 minutes. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 12.0. We calculated distribution characteristics, Wilcoxon test, Friedman‘s ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test. Results. In the KT group and the placebo group average test score of JPS before applying application KT were 3.48° and 5.16° respectively, after its application it was 4.84° and 4.88°, then after 24 hours of experiment JPS was 5.12° and 4.96°, and after application removal we measured 3.84° and 5.12° respectively. Differences over time in any of the groups were not statistically significant. There were also no significant differences between the groups. Conclusions: 1. Applying Kinesiology Taping to quadriceps muscle had no significant effect on the knee joint proprioception. Its use in order to improve sensorimitor skills seems therefore to be unreasonable. 2. No differences between applications of KT and placebo indicates that the clinical effect of stretch tape is minimal or absent. 3. The results are the basis for the continuation of prospective, randomized trials of numerous study groups.

Keywords: knee, joint position sense, kinesiology taping, kinesiotaping

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
4 Differential Effect of Technique Majors on Isokinetic Strength in Youth Judoka Athletes

Authors: Yi-Cheng Chen, Chungyu Chen, Po-Hsian Hsu, Hsin-Ying Chen, Yen-Po Hsiao

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to assess the muscular strength performance of upper and lower extremity in isokinetic system for the youth judo players, and also to compare the strength difference between major techniques. Sixteen male and 20 female judo players (age: 16.7 ± 1.6 years old, training age: 4.5 ± 0.8 years) were served as the volunteers for this study. There were 21 players major hand techniques and 15 players major foot techniques. The Biodex S4 Pro was used to assess the strength performance of extensor and flexor of concentric action under the load condition of 30 degree/sec, 60 degree/sec, and 120 degree/sec for elbow joints and knee joints. The strength parameters were included the maximal torque, the normalized maximal torque, the average power, and the average maximal torque. A t test for independent groups was used to evaluate whether hand major and foot major differ significantly with an alpha level of .05. The result showed the maximal torque of left knee extensor in foot major players (243.5 ± 36.3 Nm) was higher significantly than hand major (210.7 ± 21.0 Nm) under the load of 30 degree/sec (p < .05). There were no differences in upper extremity strength between the hand and foot techniques major in three loads (ps < .05). It indicated that the judo player is required to develop the upper extremity strength overall to secure the execution of major techniques.

Keywords: Power, Judo, elbow, knee

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
3 The Effect of Blood Flow Restriction on the Knee Rehabilitation

Authors: P. Alvarez, A. Pérez-Bellmunt, O. Casasayas, M. Vigo, R. Navarro, P. Ragazzi

Abstract:

Introduction: The blood flow restriction training (BFR) is a method of muscle training that allows increasing the stress of muscle tissue to enhance the muscle cross-section and strength. This type of training has clear benefits in the rehabilitation field since it can improve muscle strength using low mechanical loads. The aim of this study is to know in which knee pathologies BFR has been used, what methodology was used and what were the obtained results. Study design: We performed a systematic literature search using strategies for the concepts of “blood flow restriction OR blood flow restriction training AND knee” in Medline. Articles were screened by authors and included if they used the blood flow restriction training in pathology of the knee. Results: The pathology more frequently treated by BFR was knee osteoarthritis and the variables most analyzed were strength and pain. The vascular occlusion used was 80% in the major part of studies. The groups of BFR obtained an increase of strength with less pain but not always the results are statistically significant. The evidence levels are poor in the high number of studies because in some cases there is not a control group or the evaluators were not blinded. Conclusion: The use of BFR is useful to improve muscle strength in knee pathology since it does not increase the pain, but more studies are needed to see (comprehend) if this type of treatment obtains better results than a conventional therapy. No studies have been found that compare the different occlusion effects in both the strength improvement and the pain reduction. Neither studies that analyse the effects of BFR on the muscle contractile parameters have been found.

Keywords: Physical Therapy, knee, blood flow restriction training, arthroscopy knee

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
2 A Combination of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Low-Intensity Ultrasound for Knee Meniscus Regeneration: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Mohammad Nasb, Muhammad Rehan, Chen Hong

Abstract:

Background Meniscus defects critically alter knee function and lead to degenerative changes. Regenerative medicine applications including stem cell transplantation have showed a promising efficacy in finding alternatives to overcome traditional treatment limitations. However, stem cell therapy remains limited due to the substantially reduced viability and inhibitory microenvironment. Since tissue growth and repair are under the control of biochemical and mechanical signals, several approaches have recently been investigated (e.g., low intensity pulsed ultrasound [LIPUS]) to promote the regeneration process. This study employed LIPUS to improve growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells to improve the regeneration of meniscus tissue. Methodology: The Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were transplanted into the epicenter of the injured meniscus in rabbits, which were randomized into two main groups: a treatment group (n=32 New Zealand rabbits) including 4 subgroups of 8 rabbits in each subgroup (LIPUS treatment, MSC treatment, LIPUS with MSC and control), and a second group (n=9) to track implanted cells and their progeny using green fluorescence protein (GFP). GFP consists of the MSC and LIPUS-MSC combination subgroups. Rabbits were then subjected to histological, immunohistochemistry, and MRI assessment. Results: The quantity of the newly regenerated tissue in the combination treatment group that had Ultrasound irradiation after mesenchymal stem cells were better at all end points. Likewise, Tissue quality scores were also greater in knees treated with both approaches compared with controls and single treatment at all end points, achieving significance at twelve and twenty-four weeks [p < 0.05], and [p = 0.008] at twelve weeks. Differentiation into type-I and II collagen-expressing cells were higher in the combination group at up to twenty-four weeks. Conclusions: the combination of mesenchymal stem cells and LIPUS showed greater adhering to the sites of meniscus injury, differentiate into cells resembling meniscal fibrochondrocytes, and improve both quality and quantity of meniscal regeneration.

Keywords: Stem Cells, Osteoarthritis, Regenerative medicine, knee

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
1 Identification of Knee Dynamic Profiles in High Performance Athletes with the Use of Motion Tracking

Authors: G. Espriú-Pérez, F. A. Vargas-Oviedo, I. Zenteno-Aguirrezábal, M. D. Moya-Bencomo

Abstract:

One of the injuries with a higher incidence among university-level athletes in the North of Mexico is presented in the knee. This injury generates absenteeism in training and competitions for at least 8 weeks. There is no active quantitative methodology, or protocol, that directly contributes to the clinical evaluation performed by the medical personnel at the prevalence of knee injuries. The main objective is to contribute with a quantitative tool that allows further development of preventive and corrective measures to these injuries. The study analyzed 55 athletes for 6 weeks, belonging to the disciplines of basketball, volleyball, soccer and swimming. Using a motion capture system (Nexus®, Vicon®), a three-dimensional analysis was developed that allows the measurement of the range of movement of the joint. To focus on the performance of the lower limb, eleven different movements were chosen from the Functional Performance Test, Functional Movement Screen, and the Cincinnati Jump Test. The research identifies the profile of the natural movement of a healthy knee, with the use of medical guidance, and its differences between each sport. The data recovered by the single-leg crossover hop managed to differentiate the type of knee movement among athletes. A maximum difference of 60° of offset was found in the adduction movement between male and female athletes of the same discipline. The research also seeks to serve as a guideline for the implementation of protocols that help identify the recovery level of such injuries.

Keywords: functional movement screen, knee, Cincinnati jump test, functional performance test, motion capture system

Procedia PDF Downloads 7