Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

kinetic study Related Abstracts

7 Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto Untreated Coffee Grounds

Authors: N. Azouaou, H. Mokaddem, D. Senadjki, K. Kedjit, Z. Sadaoui


Introduction: Water contamination caused by dye industries, including food, leather, textile, plastic, cosmetics, paper-making, printing and dye synthesis, has caused more and more attention, since most dyes are harmful to human being and environments. Untreated coffee grounds were used as a high-efficiency adsorbent for the removal of a cationic dye (methylene blue, MB) from aqueous solution. Characterization of the adsorbent was performed using several techniques such as SEM, surface area (BET), FTIR and pH zero charge. The effects of contact time, adsorbent dose, initial solution pH and initial concentration were systematically investigated. Results showed the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Langmuir isotherm model is in good agreement with the experimental data as compared to Freundlich and D–R models. The maximum adsorption capacity was found equal to 52.63mg/g. In addition, the possible adsorption mechanism was also proposed based on the experimental results. Experimental: The adsorption experiments were carried out in batch at room temperature. A given mass of adsorbent was added to methylene blue (MB) solution and the entirety was agitated during a certain time. The samples were carried out at quite time intervals. The concentrations of MB left in supernatant solutions after different time intervals were determined using a UV–vis spectrophotometer. The amount of MB adsorbed per unit mass of coffee grounds (qt) and the dye removal efficiency (R %) were evaluated. Results and Discussion: Some chemical and physical characteristics of coffee grounds are presented and the morphological analysis of the adsorbent was also studied. Conclusions: The good capacity of untreated coffee grounds to remove MB from aqueous solution was demonstrated in this study, highlighting its potential for effluent treatment processes. The kinetic experiments show that the adsorption is rapid and maximum adsorption capacities qmax= 52.63mg/g achieved in 30min. The adsorption process is a function of the adsorbent concentration, pH and metal ion concentration. The optimal parameters found are adsorbent dose m=5g, pH=5 and ambient temperature. FTIR spectra showed that the principal functional sites taking part in the sorption process included carboxyl and hydroxyl groups.

Keywords: Adsorption, methylene blue, coffee grounds, kinetic study

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6 Stability Indicating RP – HPLC Method Development, Validation and Kinetic Study for Amiloride Hydrochloride and Furosemide in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Authors: Jignasha Derasari, Patel Krishna M, Modi Jignasa G.


Chemical stability of pharmaceutical molecules is a matter of great concern as it affects the safety and efficacy of the drug product.Stability testing data provides the basis to understand how the quality of a drug substance and drug product changes with time under the influence of various environmental factors. Besides this, it also helps in selecting proper formulation and package as well as providing proper storage conditions and shelf life, which is essential for regulatory documentation. The ICH guideline states that stress testing is intended to identify the likely degradation products which further help in determination of the intrinsic stability of the molecule and establishing degradation pathways, and to validate the stability indicating procedures. A simple, accurate and precise stability indicating RP- HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Amiloride Hydrochloride and Furosemide in tablet dosage form. Separation was achieved on an Phenomenexluna ODS C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) by using a mobile phase consisting of Ortho phosphoric acid: Acetonitrile (50:50 %v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min (pH 3.5 adjusted with 0.1 % TEA in Water) isocratic pump mode, Injection volume 20 µl and wavelength of detection was kept at 283 nm. Retention time for Amiloride Hydrochloride and Furosemide was 1.810 min and 4.269 min respectively. Linearity of the proposed method was obtained in the range of 40-60 µg/ml and 320-480 µg/ml and Correlation coefficient was 0.999 and 0.998 for Amiloride hydrochloride and Furosemide, respectively. Forced degradation study was carried out on combined dosage form with various stress conditions like hydrolysis (acid and base hydrolysis), oxidative and thermal conditions as per ICH guideline Q2 (R1). The RP- HPLC method has shown an adequate separation for Amiloride hydrochloride and Furosemide from its degradation products. Proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines for specificity, linearity, accuracy; precision and robustness for estimation of Amiloride hydrochloride and Furosemide in commercially available tablet dosage form and results were found to be satisfactory and significant. The developed and validated stability indicating RP-HPLC method can be used successfully for marketed formulations. Forced degradation studies help in generating degradants in much shorter span of time, mostly a few weeks can be used to develop the stability indicating method which can be applied later for the analysis of samples generated from accelerated and long term stability studies. Further, kinetic study was also performed for different forced degradation parameters of the same combination, which help in determining order of reaction.

Keywords: furosemide, kinetic study, amiloride hydrochloride, stability indicating RP-HPLC method validation

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5 Competitive Adsorption of Heavy Metals onto Natural and Activated Clay: Equilibrium, Kinetics and Modeling

Authors: M. Bagane, L. Khalfa, M. L. Cervera, S. Najjar


The aim of this work is to present a low cost adsorbent for removing toxic heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Therefore, we are interested to investigate the efficiency of natural clay minerals collected from south Tunisia and their modified form using sulfuric acid in the removal of toxic metal ions: Zn(II) and Pb(II) from synthetic waste water solutions. The obtained results indicate that metal uptake is pH-dependent and maximum removal was detected to occur at pH 6. Adsorption equilibrium is very rapid and it was achieved after 90 min for both metal ions studied. The kinetics results show that the pseudo-second-order model describes the adsorption and the intraparticle diffusion models are the limiting step. The treatment of natural clay with sulfuric acid creates more active sites and increases the surface area, so it showed an increase of the adsorbed quantities of lead and zinc in single and binary systems. The competitive adsorption study showed that the uptake of lead was inhibited in the presence of 10 mg/L of zinc. An antagonistic binary adsorption mechanism was observed. These results revealed that clay is an effective natural material for removing lead and zinc in single and binary systems from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Modeling, heavy metal, kinetic study, competitive adsorption, activated clay

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4 Sulfate Radicals Applied to the Elimination of Selected Pollutants in Water Matrices

Authors: F. Javier Benitez, Juan L. Acero, Francisco J. Real, Elena Rodriguez


Five selected pollutants which are frequently present in waters and wastewaters have been degraded by the advanced oxidation process constituted by UV radiation activated with the additional presence of persulfate (UV/PS). These pollutants were 1H-benzotriazole (BZ), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET (DT), chlorophene (CP), 3-methylindole (ML), and nortriptyline hydrochloride (NH).While UV radiation alone almost not degraded these substances, the addition of PS generated the very reactive and oxidizing sulfate radical SO₄⁻. The kinetic study provided the second order rate constants for the reaction between this radical and each pollutant. An increasing dose of PS led to an increase in the degradation rate, being the highest results obtained at near neutral pH. Several water matrices were tested, and the presence of bicarbonate showed different effects: a decrease in the elimination of DT, BZ, and NH; and an increase in the oxidation of CP and ML. The additional presence of humic acids (AH) decreased this degradation, because of several effects: light screening and radical scavenging. The presence of several natural substances in waters (both types, inorganic and organic matter) usually diminishes the oxidation rates of organic pollutants, but this combination UV/PS process seems to be an efficient solution for the removal of the selected contaminants when are present in contaminated waters.

Keywords: Water Purification, kinetic study, UV activated persulfate, sulfate radicals

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3 Understanding the Thermal Transformation of Random Access Memory Cards: A Pathway to Their Efficient Recycling

Authors: Khushalini N. Ulman, Samane Maroufi, Veena H. Sahajwalla


Globally, electronic waste (e-waste) continues to grow at an alarming rate. Several technologies have been developed to recover valuable materials from e-waste, however, their efficiency can be increased with a better knowledge of the e-waste components. Random access memory cards (RAMs) are considered as high value scrap for the e-waste recyclers. Despite their high precious metal content, RAMs are still recycled in a conventional manner resulting in huge loss of resources. Our research work highlights the precious metal rich components of a RAM. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis of RAMs of six different generations have been carried out and the trends in their metal content have been investigated. Over the past decade, the copper content of RAMs has halved and their tin content has increased by 70 %. The stricter environmental laws have facilitated ~96 % drop in the lead content of RAMs. To comprehend the fundamentals of thermal transformation of RAMs, our research provides their detailed kinetic study. This can assist the e-waste recyclers in optimising their metal recovery processes. Thus, understanding the chemical and thermal behaviour of RAMs can open new avenues for efficient e-waste recycling.

Keywords: Recycling, Electronic Waste, kinetic study, thermal transformation

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2 Removal of Basic Yellow 28 Dye from Aqueous Solutions Using Plastic Wastes

Authors: Samira Amokrane, Djamel Nibou, Nadjib Dahdouh, Elhadj Mekatel


The removal of Basic Yellow 28 (BY28) from aqueous solutions by plastic wastes PMMA was investigated. The characteristics of plastic wastes PMMA were determined by SEM, FTIR and chemical composition analysis. The effects of solution pH, initial Basic Yellow 28 (BY28) concentration C, solid/liquid ratio R, and temperature T were studied in batch experiments. The Freundlich and the Langmuir models have been applied to the adsorption process, and it was found that the equilibrium followed well Langmuir adsorption isotherm. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption of BY28 on the PMMA was evaluated for the pseudo-first-order and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models. It was found that used models were correlated with the experimental data. Intraparticle diffusion model was also used in these experiments. The thermodynamic parameters namely the enthalpy ∆H°, entropy ∆S° and free energy ∆G° of adsorption of BY28 on PMMA were determined. From the obtained results, the negative values of Gibbs free energy ∆G° indicated the spontaneity of the adsorption of BY28 by PMMA. The negative values of ∆H° revealed the exothermic nature of the process and the negative values of ∆S° suggest the stability of BY28 on the surface of SW PMMA.

Keywords: Equilibrium, removal, kinetic study, Waste PMMA, BY28 dye, thermodynamic study

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1 Utilization of Fishbone for the Removal of Nickel Ions from Aqueous Media

Authors: Bukunola A.Oguntade, Abdul- Azeez A. Oderinde


Fishbone is a type of waste generated from food and food processing industries. Fishbone wastes are usually treated as the source of organic matter for the by-production. It is a rich source of hydroxyapatite (HAP). In this study, the adsorption behavior of fishbone was examined in a batch system as an economically viable adsorbent for the removal of Ni⁺² ions from aqueous solution. The powdered fishbone was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer and Scanning Electron microscope (SEM). The study investigated the influence of adsorbent dosage, solution pH, contact time, and initial metal concentration on the removal of Nickel (II) ions at room temperature. The batch kinetics study showed that the optimum adsorption of Ni(II) was 98% at pH 7, metal ion concentration of 30 mg/L. The results obtained from the experimental work showed that fishbone can be used as an adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Adsorption, aqueous media, fishbone, kinetic study

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