Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Kinematic Analysis Related Abstracts

5 Kinematic Gait Analysis Is a Non-Invasive, More Objective and Earlier Measurement of Impairment in the Mdx Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Authors: P. J. Sweeney, T. Ahtoniemi, J. Puoliväli, T. Laitinen, K. Lehtimäki, A. Nurmi, D. Wells


Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by an X linked mutation in the dystrophin gene; lack of dystrophin causes a progressive muscle necrosis which leads to a progressive decrease in mobility in those suffering from the disease. The MDX mouse, a mutant mouse model which displays a frank dystrophinopathy, is currently widely employed in pre clinical efficacy models for treatments and therapies aimed at DMD. In general the end-points examined within this model have been based on invasive histopathology of muscles and serum biochemical measures like measurement of serum creatine kinase (sCK). It is established that a “critical period” between 4 and 6 weeks exists in the MDX mouse when there is extensive muscle damage that is largely sub clinical but evident with sCK measurements and histopathological staining. However, a full characterization of the MDX model remains largely incomplete especially with respect to the ability to aggravate of the muscle damage beyond the critical period. The purpose of this study was to attempt to aggravate the muscle damage in the MDX mouse and to create a wider, more readily translatable and discernible, therapeutic window for the testing of potential therapies for DMD. The study consisted of subjecting 15 male mutant MDX mice and 15 male wild-type mice to an intense chronic exercise regime that consisted of bi-weekly (two times per week) treadmill sessions over a 12 month period. Each session was 30 minutes in duration and the treadmill speed was gradually built up to 14m/min for the entire session. Baseline plasma creatine kinase (pCK), treadmill training performance and locomotor activity were measured after the “critical period” at around 10 weeks of age and again at 14 weeks of age, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months of age. In addition, kinematic gait analysis was employed using a novel analysis algorithm in order to compare changes in gait and fine motor skills in diseased exercised MDX mice compared to exercised wild type mice and non exercised MDX mice. In addition, a morphological and metabolic profile (including lipid profile), from the muscles most severely affected, the gastrocnemius muscle and the tibialis anterior muscle, was also measured at the same time intervals. Results indicate that by aggravating or exacerbating the underlying muscle damage in the MDX mouse by exercise a more pronounced and severe phenotype in comes to light and this can be picked up earlier by kinematic gait analysis. A reduction in mobility as measured by open field is not apparent at younger ages nor during the critical period, but changes in gait are apparent in the mutant MDX mice. These gait changes coincide with pronounced morphological and metabolic changes by non-invasive anatomical MRI and proton spectroscopy (1H-MRS) we have reported elsewhere. Evidence of a progressive asymmetric pathology in imaging parameters as well as in the kinematic gait analysis was found. Taken together, the data show that chronic exercise regime exacerbates the muscle damage beyond the critical period and the ability to measure through non-invasive means are important factors to consider when performing preclinical efficacy studies in the MDX mouse.

Keywords: muscular dystrophy, Kinematic Analysis, gait, neuromuscular disease

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4 A Knee Modular Orthosis Design Based on Kinematic Considerations

Authors: C. Copilusi, C. Ploscaru


This paper addresses attention to a research regarding the design of a knee orthosis in a modular form used on children walking rehabilitation. This research is focused on the human lower limb kinematic analysis which will be used as input data on virtual simulations and prototype validation. From this analysis, important data will be obtained and used as input for virtual simulations of the knee modular orthosis. Thus, a knee orthosis concept was obtained and validated through virtual simulations by using MSC Adams software. Based on the obtained results, the modular orthosis prototype will be manufactured and presented in this article.

Keywords: Kinematic Analysis, human lower limb, children orthoses, knee orthosis

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3 Nonuniformity of the Piston Motion in a Radial Aircraft Engine

Authors: K. Pietrykowski, M. Bialy, M. Duk


One of the main disadvantages of radial engines is non-uniformity of operating cycles of each cylinder. This paper discusses the results of the kinematic analysis of pistons motion of the ASz-62IR radial engine. The ASz-62IR engine is produced in Poland and mounted in the M-18 Dromader and the An-2. The results are shown as the courses of the motion of the pistons. The discrepancies in the courses for individual pistons can result in different masses of the charge to fill the cylinders. Besides, pistons acceleration of individual cylinders is different, which triggers an additional vibration in the engine.

Keywords: Kinematic Analysis, radial engine, nonuniformity, piston motion

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2 A Leader-Follower Kinematic-Based Control System for a Cable-Driven Hyper-Redundant Manipulator

Authors: Abolfazl Zaraki, Yoshikatsu Hayashi, Harry Thorpe, Vincent Strong, Gisle-Andre Larsen, William Holderbaum


Thanks to the high maneuverability of the cable-driven hyper-redundant manipulators (HRMs), this class of robots has shown a superior capability in highly confined and unstructured space applications. Although the large number of degrees of freedom (DOF) of HRMs enhances the motion flexibility and the robot’s reachability range, it highly increases the complexity of the kinematic configuration which makes the kinematic control problem very challenging or even impossible to solve. This paper presents our current progress achieved on the development of a kinematic-based leader-follower control system which is designed to control not only the robot’s body posture but also to control the trajectory of the robot’s movement in a semi-autonomous manner (the human operator is retained in the robot’s control loop). To obtain the forward kinematic model, the coordinate frames are established by the classical Denavit–Hartenburg (D-H) convention for a hyper-redundant serial manipulator which has a controlled cables-driven mechanism. To solve the inverse kinematics of the robot, unlike the conventional methods, a leader-follower mechanism, based on the sequential inverse kinematic, is followed. Using this mechanism, the inverse kinematic problem is solved for all sequential joints starting from the head joint to the base joint of the robot. To verify the kinematic design and simulate the robot motion, the MATLAB robotic toolbox is used. The simulation result demonstrated the promising capability of the proposed leader-follower control system in controlling the robot motion and trajectory in our confined space application.

Keywords: Kinematic Analysis, Hyper-Redundant Robots, semi-autonomous control, serial manipulators

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1 Slope Instability Study Using Kinematic Analysis and Lineament Density Mapping along a Part of National Highway 58, Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Kush Kumar, Varun Joshi


Slope instability is a major problem of the mountainous region, especially in parts of the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). The on-going tectonic, rugged topography, steep slope, heavy precipitation, toe erosion, structural discontinuities, and deformation are the main triggering factors of landslides in this region. Besides the loss of life, property, and infrastructure caused by a landslide, it also results in various environmental problems, i.e., degradation of slopes, land use, river quality by increased sediments, and loss of well-established vegetation. The Indian state of Uttarakhand, being a part of the active Himalayas, also faces numerous cases of slope instability. Therefore, the vulnerable landslide zones need to be delineated to safeguard various losses. The study area is focused in Garhwal and Tehri -Garhwal district of Uttarakhand state along National Highway 58, which is a strategic road and also connects the four important sacred pilgrims (Char Dham) of India. The lithology of these areas mainly comprises of sandstone, quartzite of Chakrata formation, and phyllites of Chandpur formation. The greywacke and sandstone rock of Saknidhar formation dips northerly and is overlain by phyllite of Chandpur formation. The present research incorporates the lineament density mapping using remote sensing satellite data supplemented by a detailed field study via kinematic analysis. The DEM data of ALOS PALSAR (12.5 m resolution) is resampled to 10 m resolution and used for preparing various thematic maps such as slope, aspect, drainage, hill shade, lineament, and lineament density using ARCGIS 10.6 software. Furthermore, detailed field mapping, including structural mapping, geomorphological mapping, is integrated for kinematic analysis of the slope using Dips 6.0 software of Rockscience. The kinematic analysis of 40 locations was carried out, among which 15 show the planar type of failure, five-show wedge failure, and rest, 20 show no failures. The lineament density map is overlapped with the location of the unstable slope inferred from kinematic analysis to infer the association of the field information and remote sensing derived information, and significant compatibility was observed. With the help of the present study, location-specific mitigation measures could be suggested. The mitigation measures would be helping in minimizing the probability of slope instability, especially during the rainy season, and reducing the hampering of road traffic.

Keywords: Kinematic Analysis, Slope Instability, Indian Himalayan region, lineament density mapping

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