Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Kidney Related Abstracts

15 Pioglitazone Ameliorates Methotrexate-Induced Renal Endothelial Dysfunction via Amending Detrimental Changes in Antioxidant Profile, Systemic Cytokines and Apoptotic Factors

Authors: Sahar M. El-Gowilly, Mai M. Helmy, Hanan M. El-Gowelli

Abstract:

Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases. However, nephrotoxicity is one of the most important side effects of MTX. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, pioglitazone (PIO), is known to exert anti-inflammatory and reno-protective effects in various kidney injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential involvement of endothelial damage in MTX-induced renal injury and to elaborate the possible protective effect of PIO against MTX-induced nephropathy. Compared with saline-treated rats, treatment with MTX (7 mg/kg for 3 day) caused significant elevations in serum levels of urea and creatinine, increased renal nitrate/nitrite level and impaired renovascular responsiveness of isolated perfused kidney to endothelium-dependent vasodilations induced by acetylcholine (0.01-2.43 nmol) and isoprenaline (1µmol). These effects were abolished by concurrent treatment with PIO (2.5 mg/kg, for 5 days starting two days before MTX). Alternatively, MTX treatment did not affect endothelium-independent renovascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (1-30 μmole). The possibility that alterations in renal antioxidants, circulating cytokine and apoptotic factor (Fas) levels contributed to MTX-PIO interaction was assessed. PIO treatment abrogated renal oxidative stress (decreased reduced glutathione and catalase activity and increased malondialdehyde), elevated serum cytokine (interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1) and Fas induced by MTX. Histologically, MTX caused defused tubular cells swelling and vacuolization associated with endothelial damage in renal arterioles. These effects disappeared upon co-treated with PIO. Collectively, PIO abolished MTX-induced endothelium dysfunction and nephrotoxicity via ameliorating oxidative stress and rectifying cytokines and Fas abnormalities caused by MTX.

Keywords: Kidney, methotrexate, pioglitazone, endothelium

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14 Acute Toxicity Studies of Total Alkaloids of Seeds of Datura stramonium in Female Rats: Effect on Liver and Kidney

Authors: Bouzidi Abdelouahab, Ghadjati Nadhra, Bettihi Sara, Mahdeb Nadia, Daamouche Z. El Youm

Abstract:

The effects of acute administration of TOTAL alkaloids, the main active principle of Datura stramonium, with toxic properties, were studied in female Albino-Wistar rats. After acute intraperitoneal administration of dose 120 mg kg-1 (≈1/3 DL50) of total alkaloids to the seeds of D. stramonium, there were no remarkable changes in general appearance and no deaths occurred in any experimental group. After 5 days a significant reduction was observed in total alkaloids of seeds. The Red Blood Cells (RBC), Hematocrit (HCT) and Hemoglobin (HGB) show significant changes in the treated groups. There were no statistical differences in Glutamic-pyruvic Transaminase (GPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), urea, glucose and total protein observed between groups. After 24 h Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) and creatinine were significantly higher in the treated male rats than the control group histological examination of liver showed no histopathological changes.

Keywords: Toxicity, Liver, Kidney, Alkaloids, rat, datura stramonium

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13 Subacute Toxicity Study of Total Alkaloids of Seeds of Peganum harmala in Female Rat

Authors: Bouzidi Abdelouahab, Ghadjati Nadhra, Bettihi Sara, Mahdeb Nadia, Daamouche Z. El Youm

Abstract:

The effects of subacute administration of total alkaloids of seeds Peganum harmala were studied in female Albino-Wistar rats. After intraperitoneal administration of dose 50 mg/kg for 10 days and 40 mg/kg for 7 days of total alkaloids to the seeds of Peganum harmala (animal treatment lasted 17 days), there were remarkable changes in general appearance and deaths occurred in experimental group. After 17 days a significant reduction was observed in the surviving animals treated with total alkaloid seeds.The Red Blood Cells (RBC), Hematocrit (HCT), Hemoglobin (HGB) and White blood cells (WBCs), show significant reduction in the treated groups. There were no statistical differences in Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT), Glutamic-pyruvic Transaminase (GPT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, glucose and creatinine observed between groups. However the urea was significantly higher in the treated female rats than the control group. Histological examination of liver showed no histopathological changes. Alkaloids of Peganum harmala showed significant toxicity in female rats.

Keywords: Toxicity, Liver, Kidney, Alkaloids, rat, Peganum harmala

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12 Nitrate-Induced Biochemical and Histopathological Changes in the Kidney of Rats: Attenuation by Hyparrhenia hirta

Authors: Ghada Ben Salah, Kamel Jamoussi, Najiba Zeghal, Hanen Bouaziz, Moez Rafrafi, Tahia Boudawara

Abstract:

The present study investigated the protective role of Hyparrhenia hirta against sodium nitrate (NaNO3)-induced nephrotoxicity. A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS) method was developed to separate and identify flavonoids in Hyparrhenia hirta. Seven flavonoids were identified as 3-O-methylquercetin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-8-C-glucoside, luteolin-8-C-glucoside and luteolin-6-C-glucoside. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group and two treated groups during 50 days with NaNO3 administered either alone in drinking water or co-administered with Hyparrhenia hirta. NaNO3 treatment induced a significant increase in plasma levels of creatinine, urea and uric while urinary level decreased significantly. Nephrotoxicity induced by NaNO3 was characterized by significant increase in creatinine clearance. In parallel, a significant increase in malondialdehyde level along with a concomitant decrease in total glutathione content and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were observed in the kidney after NaNO3 treatment. The histopathological changes in kidney after NaNO3 administration were shrunken. There were renal tubule cell degeneration and infiltration of mononuclear cells. Most glomeruli revealed shrinkage, a wide capsular space and a peri-glomerular mononuclear cells infiltration. Hyparrhenia hirta supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of the abnormalities cited above. The results concluded that the treatment with Hyparrhenia hirta had a significant role in protecting the animals from nitrate-induced kidney dysfunction.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Kidney, Flavonoids, rat, Hyparrhenia hirta, nitrate toxicity

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11 Jelly and Beans: Appropriate Use of Ultrasound in Acute Kidney Injury

Authors: Raja Ezman Raja Shariff

Abstract:

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly seen in inpatients, and places a great cost on the NHS and patients. Timely and appropriate management is both nephron sparing and potentially life-saving. Ultrasound scanning (USS) is a well-recognised method for stratifying patients. Subsequently, the NICE AKI guidance has defined groups in whom scanning is recommended within 6 hours of request (pyonephrosis), within 24 hours (obstruction/cause unknown), and in whom routine scanning isn't recommended (cause for AKI identified). The audit looks into whether Stockport NHS Trust USS practice was in line with such recommendations. The audit evaluated 92 patients with AKI who had USS, between 01/01/14 to 30/04/14. Data collection was divided into 2 parts. Firstly, radiology request cards and the online imaging software (PACS) were evaluated. Then, the electronic case notes (ADVANTIS) was evaluated further. Based on request cards, 10% of requests were for pyonephrosis. Only 33% were scanned within 6hours and a further 33% within 24hours. 75% were requested for possible obstructions and unknown cause collectively. Of those due to possible obstruction, 71% of patients were scanned within 24 hours. Of those with unknown cause, 50% were scanned within 24 hours. 15% of requests had a cause declared and so potentially did not require scanning. Evaluation of the patients’ notes suggested further interesting findings. Firstly, potentially 39% of patients had a known cause for AKI, therefore, did not need USS. Subsequently, the cohort of unknown cause and possible obstruction was collectively reduced to 45%. Alarmingly the patient cohort with possible pyonephrosis went up to 16%, suggesting an under-recognition of this life-threatening condition. We plan to highlight these findings within our institution and make changes to encourage more appropriate requesting and timely scanning. Time will tell if we manage to save or increase our costs in this cost-conscious NHS. Patient benefits, though, seem to be guaranteed.

Keywords: Renal, Kidney, AKI, ARF

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10 Pioglitazone Ameliorates Methotrexate-Induced Renal Endothelial Dysfunction via Amending Detrimental Changes in Antioxidant Profile, Systemic Cytokines and Fas Production

Authors: Sahar M. El-Gowilly, Mai M. Helmy, Hanan M. El-Gowelli

Abstract:

Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases. However, nephrotoxicity is one of its most important side effects. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, pioglitazone, is known to exert antiinflammatory and reno-protective effects in various kidney injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential involvement of endothelial damage in MTX-induced renal injury and to elaborate the possible protective effect of pioglitazone against MTX-induced endothelial impairment. Compared with saline-treated rats, treatment with MTX (7 mg/kg for 3 day) caused significant elevations in serum levels of urea and creatinine, increased renal nitrate/nitrite level and impaired renovascular responsiveness of isolated perfused kidney to endothelium-dependent vasodilations induced by acetylcholine (0.01-2.43 nmol) and isoprenaline (1µmol). These effects were abolished by concurrent treatment with pioglitazone (2.5 mg/kg, for 5 days starting two days before MTX). Alternatively, MTX treatment did not affect endothelium-independent renovascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (0.001-10 μmole). The possibility that alterations in renal antioxidants, circulating cytokine and apoptotic factor (Fas) levels contributed to MTX-pioglitazone interaction was assessed. Pioglitazone treatment abrogated renal oxidative stress (decreased reduced glutathione and catalase activity and increased malondialdehyde), elevated serum cytokine (interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1) and Fas induced by MTX. Histologically, MTX caused defused tubular cells swelling and vacuolization associated with endothelial damage in renal arterioles. These effects disappeared upon co-treated with pioglitazone. Collectively, pioglitazone abolished MTX-induced endothelium dysfunction and nephrotoxicity via ameliorating oxidative stress and rectifying cytokines and Fas abnormalities caused by MTX.

Keywords: Kidney, methotrexate, pioglitazone, endothelium

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9 Effect of Omeprazole on the Renal Cortex of Adult Male Albino Rats and the Possible Protective Role of Ginger: Histological and Immunohistochemical study

Authors: Nashwa A. Mohamed

Abstract:

Introduction: Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor used commonly in the treatment of acid-peptic disorders. Although omeprazole is generally well tolerated, serious adverse effects such as renal failure have been reported. Ginger is an antioxidant that could play a protective role in models of experimentally induced nephropathies. Aim of the work: The aim of this work was to study the possible histological changes induced by omeprazole on renal cortex and evaluate the possible protective effect of ginger on omeprazole-induced renal damage in adult male albino rats. Materials and methods: Twenty-four adult male albino rats divided into four groups (six rats each) were used in this study. Group I served as the control group. Rats of group II received only an aqueous extract of ginger daily for 3 months through a gastric tube. Rats of group III were received omeprazole orally through a gastric tube for 3 months. Rats of group IV were given both ginger and omeprazole at the same doses and through the same routes as the previous two groups. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed. Renal tissue samples were processed for light, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic examination. The obtained results were analysed morphometrically and statistically. Results: Omeprazole caused several histological changes in the form of loss of normal appearance of renal cortex with degenerative changes in the renal corpuscle and tubules. Cellular infilteration was also observed. The filteration barrier was markedly affected. Ginger ameliorated the omeprazole-induced histological changes. Conclusion: Omeprazole induced injurious effects on renal cortex. Coadministration of ginger can ameliorate the histological changes induced by omeprazole.

Keywords: Kidney, rat, ginger, omeprazole

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8 Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Nephrotoxicity Induced by Cadmium in Rats

Authors: Amr A. Fouad, Iyad Jresat, Hamed A. Alwadaani

Abstract:

The present study investigated the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), against cadmium-induced kidney injury in rats. Cadmium chloride (1.2 mg Cd/kg/day, s.c.), was given for nine weeks. TQ treatment (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.) started on the same day of cadmium administration and continued for nine weeks. TQ significantly decreased serum creatinine, renal malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and significantly increased renal reduced glutathione in rats received cadmium. Histopathological examination showed that TQ markedly minimized renal tissue damage induced by cadmium. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TQ markedly decreased the cadmium-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, and caspase-3 in renal tissue. It was concluded that TQ significantly protected against cadmium nephrotoxicity in rats, through its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiapoptotic actions.

Keywords: rats, Kidney, cadmium, thymoquinone

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7 The Assessment of Nephrotoxic Effects of Peganum Harmala In Rat

Authors: Elachouri Mostafa, Lazaar Jamila, Amal Yamani, Jaber Elgtou, Aziz Mohammed

Abstract:

Peganum harmala used traditionally as an emenagogue and abortifacient agent in Morocco phytotherapy. Even thought its benefits effects, Peganum harmala remained severely toxic for the organism especially in strong doses. The present study was initiated to evaluate the nephrotoxic effects of aqueous extract of Peganum harmala seeds (PHS). The solution containing aqueous extract of PHS was administered orally by gavage at the dose of 2g/kg body weight during twenty days. Rats were used in this study, two groups were considered, a treated group received an extract of PHS at dose 2g/kg bodyweight and control group received an amount of tap water equivalent to the volume of the vehicle used for the dose of PHS extract. The data we collected showed that aqueous extracts of PHS administered during twenty days induced a significant changes in renal function expressed in decreases of diuresis (from 10 ± 0,58 to 5,33 ± 0,33 ml/24 hours) and the same profile for mean arterial blood pressure (from 125 ± 2,89 to 96,67 ± 6,01 mmHg). The histopathological study showed an alteration of kidney cells in treated group with regard the control group which is not affected. In conclusion: our results indicate that the aqueous extract of PHS induces toxicity may affect severely kidney function and causes renal histopathology.

Keywords: Kidney, peganum harmala seeds, nephrotoxic, diuresi, histpathology

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6 Subclinical Renal Damage Induced by High-Fat Diet in Young Rats

Authors: Larissa M. Vargas, Julia M. Sacchi, Renata O. Pereira, Lucas S. Asano, Iara C. Araújo, Patricia Fiorino, Vera Farah

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of subclinical organ injuries induced by high-fat diet. Male wistar rats (n=5/group) were divided in control diet group (CD), commercial rat chow, and hyperlipidic diet (30% lipids) group (HD) administrated during 8 weeks, starting after weaning. All the procedures followed the rules of the Committee of Research and Ethics of the Mackenzie University (CEUA Nº 077/03/2011). At the end of protocol the animals were euthanized by anesthesia overload and the left kidney was removed. Intrarenal lipid deposition was evaluated by histological analyses with oilred. Kidney slices were stained with picrosirius red to evaluate the area of the Bowman's capsule (AB) and space (SB), and glomerular tuft area (GT). The renal expression of sterol regulatory element–binding protein (SREBP-2) was performed by Western Blotting. Creatinine concentration (serum and urine) and lipid profile were determined by colorimetric kit (Labtest). At the end of the protocol there was no differences in body weight between the groups, however the HD showed a marked increase in lipid deposits, glomeruli and tubules, and biochemical analysis for cholesterol and triglycerides. Moreover, in the kidney, the high-fat diet induced a reduction in the AB (13%), GT (18%) and SB (17%) associated with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (creatinine clearance). The renal SRBP2 expression was increased in HD group. These data suggests that consumption of high-fat diet starting in childhood is associated with subclinical renal damage and function.

Keywords: Kidney, high-fat diet, intrarenal lipid deposition, SRBP2

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5 Protective Role of Peroxiredoxin V against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice

Authors: Eun Gyeong Lee, Ji Young Park, Hyun Ae Woo

Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is involved in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in kidney of mice. Oxidative stress develops from an imbalance between ROS production and reduced antioxidant defenses. Many enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems including peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are present in kidney to maintain an appropriate level of ROS and prevent oxidative damage. Prxs are a family of peroxidases that reduce peroxides, with a conserved cysteine residue serving as the site of oxidation by peroxides. In this study, we examined the protective role of Prx V against I/R-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) using Prx V wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. We compared the response of Prx V WT and KO mice in mice model of I/R injury. Renal structure, functions, oxidative stress markers, protein levels of oxidative damage marker were worse in Prx V KO mice. Ablation of Prx V enhanced susceptibility to I/R-induced oxidative stress. Prx V KO mice were seen to have more severe renal damage than Prx V WT mice in mice model of I/R injury. Our results demonstrate that Prx V is protective against I/R-induced AKI.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Kidney, peroxiredoxin, ischemia/reperfusion

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4 Use of Pig as an Animal Model for Assessing the Differential MicroRNA Profiling in Kidney after Aristolochic Acid Intoxication

Authors: Cornelia Braicu, Ionelia Taranu, Daniela E. Marin, Gina C. Pistol, Roxana Cojocneanu-Petric, Ioana Berindan Neagoe, Mihail A. Gras

Abstract:

Aristolochic acid (AA) is a carcinogenic, mutagenic, and nephrotoxic compound commonly found in the Aristolochiaceae family of plants. AA is frequently associated with urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract in human and animals and is considered as being responsible for Balkan Endemic Nephropathy. The pig provides a good animal model because the porcine urological system is very similar to that of humans, both in aspects of physiology and anatomy. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that have an impact on a wide range of biological processes by regulating gene expression at post-transcriptional level. The objective of this study was to analyze the miRNA profiling in the kidneys of AA intoxicated swine. For this purpose, ten TOPIGS-40 crossbred weaned piglets, 4-week-old, male and females with an initial average body weight of 9.83 ± 0.5 kg were studied for 28 days. They were given ad libitum access to water and feed and randomly allotted to one of the following groups: control group (C) or aristolochic acid group (AA). They were fed a maize-soybean-meal-based diet contaminated or not with 0.25mgAA/kg. To profile miRNA in the kidneys of pigs, microarrays and bioinformatics approaches were applied to analyze the miRNA in the kidney of control and AA intoxicated pigs. After normalization, our results have shown that a total of 5 known miRNAs and 4 novel miRNAs had different profiling in the kidney of intoxicated animals versus control ones. Expression of miR-32-5p, miR-497-5p, miR-423-3p, miR-218-5p, miR-128-3p were up-regulated by 0.25mgAA/kg feed, while the expression of miR-9793-5p, miR-9835-3p, miR-9840-3p, miR-4334-5p was down-regulated. The microRNA profiling in kidney of intoxicated animals was associated with modified expression of target genes as: RICTOR, LASP1, SFRP2, DKK2, BMI1, RAF1, IGF1R, MAP2K1, WEE1, HDGF, BCL2, EIF4E etc, involved in cell division cycle, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cell migration, cell signaling, cancer etc. In conclusion, this study provides new data concerning the microRNA profiling in kidney after aristolochic acid intoxications with important implications for human and animal health.

Keywords: microRNA, Kidney, Swine, aristolochic acid

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3 Detecting Rat’s Kidney Inflammation Using Real Time Photoacoustic Tomography

Authors: S. H. Park, D. H. Shin, M. Y. Lee, W.C. Ham, S.K. Ko, C. G. Song

Abstract:

Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT) is a promising medical imaging modality that combines optical imaging contrast with the spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging. It can also distinguish the changes in biological features. But, real-time PAT system should be confirmed due to photoacoustic effect for tissue. Thus, we have developed a real-time PAT system using a custom-developed data acquisition board and ultrasound linear probe. To evaluate performance of our system, phantom test was performed. As a result of those experiments, the system showed satisfactory performance and its usefulness has been confirmed. We monitored the degradation of inflammation which induced on the rat’s kidney using real-time PAT.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Kidney, rat, photoacoustic tomography, contrast agent, inflammation detection

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2 Renal Amyloidosis in Domestic Iranian Sheep

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Fateme Behbahani, Sara Omidi, Nadia Shahi, Alireza Farkhonde

Abstract:

Amyloidosis represents a heterogenous group of diseases that have in common the deposition of fibrils composed of proteins of beta-pleated sheet structure, which can be specifically identified by histochemistry using the Congo red or similar stains. Between October 2013 to April 2014 (6 months) different patterns of renal amyloidosis was diagnosed on histopathological examination of kidneys belong to 196 out of 7065 slaughtered sheep subjected to postmortem examination. Microscopic examination of renal tissue sections stained with H&E and CR staining techniques revealed 3 patterns of renal amyloid deposition; including glomerular (22.72%), medullary (68.18%), and vascular (9.09%) were recognized. Renal medullary amyloidosis (RMA) was detected as the most prevalence pattern of renal amyloidosis in domestic sheep.

Keywords: Sheep, Kidney, slaughterhouse, amyloidosis

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1 No Histological and Biochemical Changes Following Administration of Tenofovir Nanoparticles: Animal Model Study

Authors: T. Govender, Aniekan Peter, ECS Naidu, Edidiong Akang, U. Offor, R. Kalhapure, A. A. Chuturgoon, O. O. Azu

Abstract:

Introduction: Nano-drugs are novel innovations in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, especially resistant strains of the virus in their sanctuary sites: testis and the brain. There are safety concerns to be addressed to achieve the full potential of this new drug delivery system. Aim of study: Our study was designed to investigate toxicity profile of Tenofovir Nanoparticle (TDF-N) synthesized by University of Kwazulu-Natal (UKZN) Nano-team for prevention and treatment of HIV infection. Methodology: Ten adult male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained at the Animal House of the Biomedical Resources Unit UKZN were used for the study. The animals were weighed and divided into two groups of 5 animal each. Control animals (A) were administered with normal saline. Therapeutic dose (4.3 mg/kg) of TDF-N was administered to group B. At the end of four weeks, animals were weighed and sacrificed. Liver and kidney were removed fixed in formal saline, processed and stained using H/E, PAS and MT stains for light microscopy. Serum was obtained for renal function test (RFT), liver function test (LFT) and full blood count (FBC) using appropriate analysers. Cellular measurements were done using ImageJ and Leica software 2.0. Data were analysed using graph pad 6, values < 0.05 were significant. Results: We reported no histological alterations in the liver, kidney, FBC, LFT and RFT between the TDF-N animals and saline control. There were no significant differences in weight, organo-somatic index and histological measurements in the treatment group when compared with saline control. Conclusion/recommendations: TDF-N is not toxic to the liver, kidney and blood cells in our study. More studies using human subjects is recommended.

Keywords: Liver, Kidney, blood cells, tenofovir nanoparticles

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