Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Kenya Related Abstracts

22 Modelling Public Knowledge and Attitude towards Genetically Modified Maize in Kenya

Authors: Ezrah Kipkirui Tonui, George Otieno Orwa

Abstract:

A survey of 138 farmers was conducted in Rift valley, Kenya, in November and December 2013 in three counties (Uasin-gishu, Elgeyo-marakwet, and Tranzoia) to determine public knowledge and attitude towards genetically modified (GM) maize. Above two third (70%) of the respondents had knowledge of GM maize, mostly those educated and male. Female was found to be having low knowledge on GM maize. Public acknowledged the technology’s potential positive impacts, with more than 90% willing to adopt and more than 98% willing to buy GM seedlings at any given price. A small percentage less than 3% were of a negative opinion about willing to buy and adopt GM seeds. We conclude that GM technology has a role to play in food security in Kenya. However, the public needs more information about the technology, which can be provided through established sources of information and training. Finally, public knowledge and attitude on GM maize should be studied on a regular basis, and the survey population broadened to 47 counties.

Keywords: Knowledge, attitudes, Public, GM maize, Kenya

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21 Competition, Performance and Ethnicity: Explaining Corruption in Ghana and Kenya

Authors: Roxanne J. Kovacs

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This paper shows that political corruption in Ghana and Kenya does not, as is assumed by a considerable part of the academic literature, depend on the level of party competition as such, but rather on the kinds of issues that parties compete about. Party competition in Ghana revolves around party performance, which gives political leaders a strong incentive to control corruption. In contrast, party competition in Kenya revolves around ethnic identities, which directly reduces competition based on candidate quality and therefore fosters corruption.

Keywords: Corruption, Electoral Competition, Kenya, Ghana

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20 Factors Influencing Prevalence of HIV/AIDS Among Men Who Have Sex With men (MSM) Aged 18-24 years in Mtwapa Town, Kilifi County, Kenya

Authors: Oscar Maina Irungu

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Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mtwapa Town, Kilifi County are at high risk of HIV infection. Probability sample surveys to determine HIV prevalence among MSM in Mtwapa are needed to inform prevention and care services. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among MSM aged 18-24 years old, using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Mtwapa. Consenting MSM were tested for HIV (fingerstick rapid test). Population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS Analysis Tool (RDSAT). Results: Among 274 MSM, the median age was 20 years (IQR: 19-23 years). Fifty percent of MSM reported not selling sex, while 13.2 % reported sex work as their “main occupation”, and another 28.4 % reported selling sex in the past two months (but not as their main occupation).Overall HIV prevalence was 19.2 % (CI: 12.2-23.6%). HIV prevalence was higher among MSM who reported sex work as their main occupation (28.3%,CI: 12.1-42.3%) or selling sex in the past two months (26.6 %, CI: 17.2-35.7 %),than among MSM who did not sell sex (11.6%,CI: 7.0-18.1%). Conclusion: HIV prevalence among MSM were high than among Kilifi’s general population aged 15-64 years (8.8%; 2010 KAIS) and highest in male sex workers. Health programs need to address concerns and modify services to meet needs of diverse subgroups of MSM. We recommend continued, periodic surveillance to monitor HIV prevalence among MSM in Mtwapa, and expansion to other areas in Kenya.

Keywords: Sex, Homosexuality, Kenya, power point

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19 Retail Managers’ Perception on Coca-Cola Company’s Success of Glass Package Recovery and Recycling in Nairobi, Kenya

Authors: Brigitte Wabuyabo-Okonga

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Little research has been done to establish the level of success of Coca Cola Company in recycling and reusing their glass bottles. This paper attempts to establish retail managers’ perception of the company’s self acclaimed success. Retail managers of supermarkets in the CBD of Nairobi, Kenya were considered for the study. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive (mean, frequencies and percentages) and inferential statistics (correlation analysis) were used to analyze the data. The study found out that there is relative success although a lot needs to be done. For example, improving in communicating policy issues and in practice enhance the actual collection of broken and/or non-broken Coca Cola Company glass bottles through providing drop-off points in open areas such as on the streets and in parks.

Keywords: packaging, Kenya, Coca Cola Company glass bottles, Nairobi, retail manager

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18 Corporate Social Responsibility Practices of Local Large Firms in the Developing Economies: The Case of the East Africa Region

Authors: Lilian Kishimbo

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This study aims to examine Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices of local large firms of East Africa region. In this study CSR is defined as all actions that go beyond obeying minimum legal requirements as espoused by other authors. Despite the increase of CSR literature empirical evidence clearly demonstrate an imbalance of CSR studies in the developing countries . Moreover, it is evident that most of the research on CSR in developing economies emerges from large fast-growing economies or BRICS members (i.e. Brazil, India, China and South Africa), and Indonesia and Malaysia and a further call for more research in Africa is particularly advocated. Taking Africa as an example, there are scanty researches on CSR practices, and the few available studies are mainly from Nigeria and South Africa leaving other parts of Africa for example East Africa underrepresented. Furthermore, in the face of globalization, experience shows that literature has focused mostly on multinational companies (MNCs) operating in either North-North or North-South and less on South-South indigenous local firms. Thus the existing literature in Africa shows more studies of MNCs and little is known about CSR of local indigenous firms operating in the South particularly in the East Africa region. Accordingly, this paper explores CSR practices of indigenous local large firms of East Africa region particularly Kenya and Tanzania with the aim of testing the hypothesis that do local firms of East Africa region engage in similar CSR practices as firms in other parts of the world?. To answer this question only listed local large firms were considered based on the assumption that they are large enough to engage. Newspapers were the main source of data and information collected was supplemented by business Annual Reports for the period 2010-2012. The research finding revealed that local firms of East Africa engage in CSR practices. However, there are some differences in the set of activities these firms prefers to engage in compared to findings from previous studies. As such some CSR that were given priority by firms in East Africa were less prioritized in the other part of the world including Indonesia. This paper will add knowledge to the body of CSR and experience of CSR practices of South-South indigenous firms where is evidenced to have a relative dearth of literature on CSR. Finally, the paper concludes that local firms of East Africa region engage in similar activities like other firms globally. But firms give more priority to some activities such education and health related activities. Finally, the study intends to assist policy makers at firm’s levels to plan for long lasting projects related to CSR for their stakeholders.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, developing countries, Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, indigenous firms

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17 Estimating Marine Tidal Power Potential in Kenya

Authors: Lucy Patricia Onundo, Wilfred Njoroge Mwema

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The rapidly diminishing fossil fuel reserves, their exorbitant cost and the increasingly apparent negative effect of fossil fuels to climate changes is a wake-up call to explore renewable energy. Wind, bio-fuel and solar power have already become staples of Kenyan electricity mix. The potential of electric power generation from marine tidal currents is enormous, with oceans covering more than 70% of the earth. However, attempts to harness marine tidal energy in Kenya, has yet to be studied thoroughly due to its promising, cyclic, reliable and predictable nature and the vast energy contained within it. The high load factors resulting from the fluid properties and the predictable resource characteristics make marine currents particularly attractive for power generation and advantageous when compared to others. Global-level resource assessments and oceanographic literature and data have been compiled in an analysis of the technology-specific requirements for tidal energy technologies and the physical resources. Temporal variations in resource intensity as well as the differences between small-scale applications are considered.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Tidal Power, Energy Assessment, Kenya

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16 The Role of Vernacular Radio Stations in Enhancing Agricultural Development in Kenya; A Case of KASS FM

Authors: Thomas Kipkurgat, Silahs Chemwaina

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Communication and ICT is a crucial component in realization of vision 2030, radio has played a key role in dissemination of information to mass audience. Since time immemorial, mass media has played a vital role in passing information on agricultural development issues both locally and internationally. This paper aimed at assessing the role of community radio stations in enhancing agricultural development in Kenya. The paper sought to identify the main contributions of KASS FM radio in the agricultural development especially in rural areas, the study also aimed to establish the appropriate adjustments in editorial policies of KASS FM radio in helping to promote agricultural development related programmes in rural areas. Despite some weaknesses in radio programming and the mode of interaction with the rural people, the findings of this study showed that the rural communities are better off today than in the old days when FM radios were non-existent. KASS FM has come up with different developmental programmes that have positively contributed to changing the rural people’s ways of life. These programmes include farming, health, marital values, environment, cultural issues, human rights, democracy, religious teachings, peace and reconciliation. Such programmes feature experts, professionals and opinion leaders who address numerous topics of interest to the community. The local people participate in the production of these programmes through letters to the editor, and phone-ins, among others. Programmes such as political talk shows, which feature in KASS FM, has become one of the most important ways of community participation. The interpretation and conclusions are based on the empirical data analysis and the theories of development advanced by international development communication scholars, as presented in the paper. The study ends with some recommendations on how KASS FM can best serve the interests of the poor people in rural areas, and helps improve their lives.

Keywords: Development, Communication, Agriculture, Radio, rural areas, Kenya, KASS FM

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15 My Dress, My Body and My Choice Politics in Kenya

Authors: Emmy Kipsoi

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Kenya legalized the Sexual offence bill (2001), after vigorous campaigning and lobbying by feminist both in and out of parliament to ensure that the bill passed with minimal amendments. The sexual offense act provides for a good description on what constitutes sexual offences and the penalties that follow. It is from this context that the paper explores and interrogated the lived experiences of women living and working in Kenyan urban towns, who had experienced some form of sexual harassment. The study employed phenomenology to interpret the experiences of twenty (20) women in an urban town between the ages of 20 to 65 years women who had received at least some formal education and where engaged in some formal form of employment. The findings indicated that various forms of sexual harassment were experienced in the Kenyan town. Secondly, the knowledge about the contents of the bill wanting most of the women interviews were not aware of the protection accorded by law. The number of reported cases of sexual harassment shed light on the isolation, frustration and fear that women live despite a progressive law in print

Keywords: Women, phenomenology, Sexual harassment, Kenya

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14 Investigation of Clusters of MRSA Cases in a Hospital in Western Kenya

Authors: Lillian Musila, Valerie Oundo, Daniel Erwin, Willie Sang

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Staphylococcus aureus infections are a major cause of nosocomial infections in Kenya. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections are a significant burden to public health and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. At a hospital in Western Kenya two clusters of MRSA cases emerged within short periods of time. In this study we explored whether these clusters represented a nosocomial outbreak by characterizing the isolates using phenotypic and molecular assays and examining epidemiological data to identify possible transmission patterns. Specimens from the site of infection of the subjects were collected, cultured and S. aureus isolates identified phenotypically and confirmed by APIStaph™. MRSA were identified by cefoxitin disk screening per CLSI guidelines. MRSA were further characterized based on their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and spa gene typing. Characteristics of cases with MRSA isolates were compared with those with MSSA isolated around the same time period. Two cases of MRSA infection were identified in the two week period between 21 April and 4 May 2015. A further 2 MRSA isolates were identified on the same day on 7 September 2015. The antibiotic resistance patterns of the two MRSA isolates in the 1st cluster of cases were different suggesting that these were distinct isolates. One isolate had spa type t2029 and the other had a novel spa type. The 2 isolates were obtained from urine and an open skin wound. In the 2nd cluster of MRSA isolates, the antibiotic susceptibility patterns were similar but isolates had different spa types: one was t037 and the other a novel spa type different from the novel MRSA spa type in the first cluster. Both cases in the second cluster were admitted into the hospital but one infection was community- and the other hospital-acquired. Only one of the four MRSA cases was classified as an HAI from an infection acquired post-operatively. When compared to other S. aureus strains isolated within the same time period from the same hospital only one spa type t2029 was found in both MRSA and non-MRSA strains. None of the cases infected with MRSA in the two clusters shared any common epidemiological characteristic such as age, sex or known risk factors for MRSA such as prolonged hospitalization or institutionalization. These data suggest that the observed MRSA clusters were multi strain clusters and not an outbreak of a single strain. There was no clear relationship between the isolates by spa type suggesting that no transmission was occurring within the hospital between these cluster cases but rather that the majority of the MRSA strains were circulating in the community. There was high diversity of spa types among the MRSA strains with none of the isolates sharing spa types. Identification of disease clusters in space and time is critical for immediate infection control action and patient management. Spa gene typing is a rapid way of confirming or ruling out MRSA outbreaks so that costly interventions are applied only when necessary.

Keywords: Cluster, Kenya, MRSA, spa typing

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13 Post Harvest Fungi Diversity and Level of Aflatoxin Contamination in Stored Maize: Cases of Kitui, Nakuru and Trans-Nzoia Counties in Kenya

Authors: Gachara Grace, Kebira Anthony, Harvey Jagger, Wainaina James

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Aflatoxin contamination of maize in Africa poses a major threat to food security and the health of many African people. In Kenya, aflatoxin contamination of maize is high due to the environmental, agricultural and socio-economic factors. Many studies have been conducted to understand the scope of the problem, especially at pre-harvest level. This research was carried out to gather scientific information on the fungi population, diversity and aflatoxin level during the post-harvest period. The study was conducted in three geographical locations of; Kitui, Kitale and Nakuru. Samples were collected from storage structures of farmers and transported to the Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA), International Livestock and Research Institute (ILRI) hub laboratories. Mycoflora was recovered using the direct plating method. A total of five fungal genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Bssyochlamys spp.) were isolated from the stored maize samples. The most common fungal species that were isolated from the three study sites included A. flavus at 82.03% followed by A.niger and F.solani at 49% and 26% respectively. The aflatoxin producing fungi A. flavus was recovered in 82.03% of the samples. Aflatoxin levels were analysed on both the maize samples and in vitro. Most of the A. flavus isolates recorded a high level of aflatoxin when they were analysed for presence of aflatoxin B1 using ELISA. In Kitui, all the samples (100%) had aflatoxin levels above 10ppb with a total aflatoxin mean of 219.2ppb. In Kitale, only 3 samples (n=39) had their aflatoxin levels less than 10ppb while in Nakuru, the total aflatoxin mean level of this region was 239.7ppb. When individual samples were analysed using Vicam fluorometer method, aflatoxin analysis revealed that most of the samples (58.4%) had been contaminated. The means were significantly different (p=0.00<0.05) in all the three locations. Genetic relationships of A. flavus isolates were determined using 13 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) markers. The results were used to generate a phylogenetic tree using DARwin5 software program. A total of 5 distinct clusters were revealed among the genotypes. The isolates appeared to cluster separately according to the geographical locations. Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) of the genetic distances among the 91 A. flavus isolates explained over 50.3% of the total variation when two coordinates were used to cluster the isolates. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) showed a high variation of 87% within populations and 13% among populations. This research has shown that A. flavus is the main fungal species infecting maize grains in Kenya. The influence of aflatoxins on human populations in Kenya demonstrates a clear need for tools to manage contamination of locally produced maize. Food basket surveys for aflatoxin contamination should be conducted on a regular basis. This would assist in obtaining reliable data on aflatoxin incidence in different food crops. This would go a long way in defining control strategies for this menace.

Keywords: Kenya, Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin, Genotyping

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12 Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Anthrax among Community Members, Health and Veterinary Workers in Maragua, Kenya

Authors: Isaiah Chacha, Samuel Arimi, Andrew Thaiya

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Background: This study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding anthrax in Maragua, Kenya to provide baseline information to design interventions. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among head of households, health and veterinary workers in Maragua Sub-county in August and September 2014. Administered questionnaires were used to collect data from household members and a key informant interview held with health and veterinary workers. Multi stage sampling was used to obtain participants’ knowledge, attitudes and practices. Questions were scored and descriptively analyzed using Excel spreadsheet then exported to GenStat Discovery Edition 4. Results: A total of 293 community members were recruited in this study. The overall level of knowledge was 77.9% of all community members regarding cause, transmission, symptoms and prevention of the disease in both humans and animals. Majority of the participants (96.3%) had heard about anthrax. A total of 99 (33.8%) correspondents had seen a person with anthrax and 75.1% think that anthrax is a very serious disease in the area. Of the interviewed correspondents, 14.3% of them have had their animals (mostly cattle) suffer from anthrax while 15.7% had either suffered from anthrax or have had their family member who suffered from anthrax. Conclusion: The study findings indicate above average knowledge on cause, symptoms, transmission and prevention of anthrax among community members in humans and animals. Practices in this study were still risk among community members. Veterinary and Medical health planners should design anthrax awareness interventions as a team targeting to reach these communities and the public through barazas, radio, CHW and other communication channel on a regular basis.

Keywords: Knowledge, Practices, attitudes, Kenya, anthrax, Maragua

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11 Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption and Organizational Structure

Authors: George Nyori Makari

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Data on 92 industrial organizations point to the existence of relationships between advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) adoption and some aspects of organizational structure, including the number of specialized sub-units, the number of levels of authority, span of control, degree of role programming specification, degree of communication programming specification and the degree of output programming. Primary finding is that as the investments and integration of AMTs increases, the more likely the foregoing aspects of structure increase. The findings hold with size and a number of other organizational variables controlled. The results indicate that a company’s capacity to assimilate technology depends on its organizational capabilities. The study encapsulates the need for companies to increase their organizational capabilities during investment and integration of AMTs.

Keywords: Advanced manufacturing technology, Organizational structure, Adoption, Kenya

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10 Limitations of Recent National Enactments on International Crimes: The Case of Kenya, Uganda and Sudan

Authors: Emma Charlene Lubaale

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The International Criminal Court (ICC) operates based on the principle of complementarity. On the basis of this principle, states enjoy the primary right to prosecute international crimes, with the ICC intervening only when a state with jurisdiction over an international crime is unable or unwilling to prosecute. To ably exercise their primary right to prosecute international crimes domestically, a number of states are taking steps to criminalise international crimes in their national laws. Significant to note, many of the laws enacted are not being applied in the prosecution of the international crimes allegedly committed. Kenya, Uganda and Sudan are some notable states where commission of international crimes is documented. All these states have recently enacted laws on international crimes. Kenya enacted the International Crimes Act in 2008, Uganda enacted the International Criminal Court Act in 2010 and in 2007, Sudan made provision for international crimes under its Armed Forces Act. However, in all these three states, the enacted national laws on international crimes have thus far not featured in any of the proceedings before these states’ courts. Instead, these states have either relied on ordinary crimes to prosecute international crimes or not prosecuted international crimes altogether. This paper underscores the limitations of the enacted laws, explaining why, even with efforts taken by these states to enact national laws on international crimes, these laws cannot be relied on to advance accountability for the international crimes. Notably, the laws in Kenya and Uganda do not have retroactive application. In Sudan, despite the 2007 reforms, the structure of military justice in Sudan has the effect of placing certain categories of individuals beyond the reach of international criminal justice. For Kenya and Uganda, it is concluded that the only benefit that flows from these enactments is reliance on them to prosecute future international crimes. For Sudan, the 2007 reforms will only have the desired impact if reforms are equally made to the structure of military justice.

Keywords: Complementarity, Uganda, Kenya, sudan, limitations, national laws, international crimes

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9 Overall Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment Inflows in Kenya

Authors: George Ogono Muok, N. Obange, S. A. Odhiambo

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Empirical literature on the determinants of foreign direct investments (FDI) flows is extensive but controversial over some determinants of FDI in-flows in developing countries. The objective of this study therefore was to investigate the overall determinants of FDI inflows in Kenya. Dynamic macroeconomic theory and correlational study design provided theoretical framework for specification of a time series model. The study used data observed from 1970 to 2015 in World Development Indicators (WDI) data bank. The results show that annual growth rate of GDP, inflation rates and external debt as a proportion of GDP are significant determinants of FDI inflows in Kenya and are therefore important macroeconomic parameters for policy formulation for promotion of FDI inflows in Kenya.

Keywords: Africa, Direct, Kenya, determinants of foreign, investment inflows in

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8 Competition in Kenya: The Legal and Institutional Framework and an Appraisal of Key Market Players

Authors: Edwin Njoroge Kimani, Alan M. Munyao

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Despite Kenya’s status as a regional economic powerhouse, it struggles with economic shocks that expose the consumers. This, however, seems not to affect major cooperates such as those in the telecommunication and energy sectors. Through their operations, they have not only been able to fluctuate prices at will but also they have been accused of curtailing their rivals from penetrating the market. This study, through literature review of the legal and institutional framework, reports and publications interrogates the law and uncovers the following; i) failings of the legal framework to define market dominance and abuse of such positions, ii) the participation of the state, iii) the inertia of the government to prosecute corporations that abuse their market dominance, iv) the role of the state as a market player and as a regulator through the Competition Authority of Kenya. This study concludes that the market distortion is as a result of weak legal and institutional framework as well as conflict of interest by the government. Not much has been researched in the field of competition law the greater East Africa. This research is intended to form part of the growing research in the field and inform legal reform.

Keywords: Competition law, Dominance, Kenya, economic power

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7 Prayer Therapy in a Case of Acute Myeloid Leukemia: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

Authors: Rubai M. Ochieng

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Cancer, which accounts for 7 percent of deaths per year in Kenya, is the third highest cause of death after infectious and cardiovascular diseases. Awareness Campaigns have tended to focus on leading cancers including breast and cervical for women as well as prostrate and Esophageal for men. Consequently, less common cancers such as Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) are rarely properly understood by the general population and a section of the medical fraternity. Diagnoses of AML in patients who may not have heard about it sometimes results in shock, denial and confusion not just to the diagnosed, but also to their family and friends. The diagnosed and caregivers are bound to receive a lot of contradicting information about prognosis, care and treatment of AML. This information, which often comes from diverse sources including doctors, friends, internet and social media platforms, causes further confusion and panic. The situation is handled differently by different people. Religious people sometimes resort to prayer. This paper, written from the perspective of a care giver, is based on data collected from a case of Acute Myeloid Leukemia diagnosed in a 32 year old male who lost his life within six weeks of diagnosis. The sample constitutes of 16 people who participated in prayers. Out of this total, 5 were males including the diagnosed and 11 were females. All the 16 were Christians of protestant orientation including Anglicans, Quakers and Church of God members. Data was collected by the researcher herself through participant of observation. Findings discuss how the 16 participants prayed individually at different times, together in an overnight prayer meeting and every morning through a group social media platform. They shared songs and words of encouragement from the bible. The group prayed for healing, peace and strength to the diagnosed and family, financial breakthrough and doctors’ work and decisions, among other challenges that came with the situation. The paper reveals the immense benefits of prayer to the diagnosed and his close relatives and friends. They include acceptance of the condition and a positive attitude in handling the challenges that arose from the disease and treatment processes. The challenges arising from the prayer approach of handling the situation are also discussed. The paper concludes that prayer as therapy goes a long way in cancer management.

Keywords: Prayer, Participant Observation, Kenya, acute myeloid leukemia

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6 Nutritional Evaluation of Pregnant Women in Nairobi, Kenya for Implementation of a Probiotic Yogurt Program

Authors: Sharareh Hekmat, Michelle Lane

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Pregnancy during adolescence affects both the growth and development of mother and baby, particularly in low socioeconomic and food insecure areas. This mixed methods study is aimed at discovering a need for a community-based probiotic yogurt program to assist pregnant women in the Mukuru slum Nairobi, Kenya. Surveys were conducted with pregnant women (14-25 years old, n=43), which included questionnaires on dietary intake, food access, and health/quality of life perception. The frequency and means procedure was used to analyze maternal characteristics, Women’s Dietary Diversity Score (WDDS) and Household Hunger Scale. 24-hour recalls were analyzed via ESHA Food Processor, and median nutrient intakes were reported as a percent of recommendations. An environmental scan was conducted to assess food availability, accessibility, and quality. WDDS reflected a low-moderate diet variation (3.86 food groups out of 9, SD ± 1.3) among the women. The 24-hour recall suggested an inadequate intake of many nutrients, most significantly B12, potassium and calcium. 86% of women reported little to no household hunger. However, the environmental scan revealed low quality and poor sanitation of food. This study provides evidence that a probiotic program would be desirable, and contribute to the nutritional status of women in the Mukuru community.

Keywords: Probiotics, Pregnant Women, Kenya, dietary diversity, urban slum

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5 The Shrinking Nature of Parliamentary Immunity in Kenya: A Proposal for Judicial Restraint

Authors: Oscar Sang, Shadrack David Rotich

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Parliamentary immunity is grounded on the notion that parliaments need certain rights or immunities to ensure they can operate independently make fair and impartial decisions without capitulating to political pressure or intimidation. The 2013 election in Kenya marked an important milestone in the development of the law of parliamentary privilege. Such importance relates to the dramatic increase in the number of legislatures in the country from one unicameral parliament, to a bicameral national parliament and forty-seven other regional legislative assemblies. The increase in legislatures has resulted in a dramatic increase in political contestations which have led to legal wrangles. The judiciary in Kenya, once considered submissive, has been invited to arbitrate on various matters pitting individual rights and parliamentary privilege and have invalidated a number of legislative action. While judicial intervention is indeed necessary to ensure that legislatures in Kenya live true to the constitutional aspirations of the Kenyan people, certain judicial decisions have had an effect on eroding parliamentary immunity. This paper highlights a number of instances in which it could be argued that parliamentary privilege came under attack by the courts in Kenya. The paper aims to make a case that while Kenya’s progressive constitution necessitates the scope and extent of legislature’s immunities and privilege to be determined by the courts, it is important that courts exercise restraint in its review of legislative action. The paper makes the argument that unrestrained judicial action in Kenya on questions within the realm parliamentary privilege may undermine the functioning of Kenya’s legislatures. The paper explores approaches taken by a number of jurisdictions in establishing a proper balance between maintaining a viable parliamentary privilege regime in a rights-based constitutional system.

Keywords: Constitution, Kenya, judicial restraint, parliamentary privilege

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4 Gender Equality and the Politics of Presence among the Maasai in Kenya

Authors: Shillah Memusi

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Underrepresentation of women in governance structures is a global phenomenon, with patriarchal considerations being among the main, if not the top, reason for this in Sub Saharan Africa. This paper demonstrates that gender norms and informal rules have perpetuated a culture of stereotypical gender roles that have limited women’s public participation and leadership in society. To achieve this, the paper explores barriers to women’s political engagement, and how these are navigated in the face of gender equality laws. Situated in Kenya’s Maasai community, the paper investigates the influence of set laws on the increased involvement of women from the patriarchal community in the political economy. It gives special attention to the intersectionality of formal and informal laws and the subsequent interpretation and implementation of gender equality. The paper then concludes by demonstrating the benefits of exploring alternative gender equality pathways, as informed by contextual realities of settings such as patriarchal communities.

Keywords: Women, Equality, Public Participation, patriarchy, Kenya

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3 Governance vs Diaspora Remittances for Sustainable Development: A Case of Rwanda and Kenya

Authors: Albert Maake, Ifunanya Isama

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International remittances to developing countries reached US$ 485 billion in 2018. By 2015, the East African region had surpassed US$3.5 mark. Considering this, there is no argument as to the contribution of Diaspora remittances as an alternative source of funds in the development process of the developing countries. Nevertheless, this paper seeks to argue that good governance in areas such as policy design, implementation and monitoring play a critical role in the sustainable development process of a nation as opposed to Diaspora remittances in general. Therefore this study intends at analyzing the contribution of Governance as opposed to that of Diaspora remittances for nation development. Employing documentary analysis technique, the secondary data with respect to the countries under study on Diaspora remittances will be collected. Selected indicators for Governance-HDI, Debt-to-GDP Ratio and Corruption Index, will be sourced from the World Bank Data for the purpose of consistency and where applicable the Central Statistical Agencies of the Nations under study. By means of descriptive statistics and content analysis the data will be comparatively analyzed to highlight the unique experiences in Rwanda and Kenya. The findings and interpretations from the study will affirm and promote capacity building for best practices in good governance for the countries under study.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Governance, Kenya, Rwanda, diaspora remittance

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2 Evaluating Aquaculture Farmers Responses to Climate Change and Sustainable Practices in Kenya

Authors: Olalekan Adekola, Margaret Gatonye, Paul Orina

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The growing demand for farmed fish by underdeveloped and developing countries as a means of contributing positively towards eradication of hunger, food insecurity, and malnutrition for their fast growing populations has implications to the environment. Likewise, climate change poses both an immediate and future threat to local fish production with capture fisheries already experiencing a global decline. This not only raises fundamental questions concerning how aquaculture practices affect the environment, but also how ready are aquaculture farmers to adapt to climate related hazards. This paper assesses existing aquaculture practices and approaches to adapting to climate hazards in Kenya, where aquaculture has grown rapidly since the year 2009. The growth has seen rise in aquaculture set ups mainly along rivers and streams, importation of seed and feed and intensification with possible environmental implications. The aquaculture value chain in the context of climate change and their implication for practice is further investigated, and the strategies necessary for an improved implementation of resilient aquaculture system in Kenya is examined. Data for the study are collected from interviews, questionnaires, two workshops and document analysis. Despite acclaimed nutritional benefit of fish consumption in Kenya, poor management of effluents enriched with nitrogen, phosphorus, organic matter, and suspended solids has implications not just on the ecosystem, goods, and services, but is also potential source of resource-use conflicts especially in downstream communities and operators in the livestock, horticulture, and industrial sectors. The study concluded that aquaculture focuses on future orientation, climate resilient infrastructure, appropriate site selection and invest on biosafety as the key sustainable strategies against climate hazards.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Environment, Resilience, Strategies, Kenya

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1 Analyzing the Place of Technology in Communication: Case Study of Kenya during COVID-19

Authors: Josephine K. Mule, Levi Obonyo

Abstract:

Technology has changed human life over time. The COVID-19 pandemic has altered the work set-up, the school system, the shopping experience, church attendance, and even the way athletes train in Kenya. Although the use of technology to communicate and maintain interactions has been on the rise in the last 30 years, the uptake during the COVID-19 pandemic has been unprecedented. Traditionally, ‘paid’ work has been considered to take place outside the “home house” but COVID-19 has resulted in what is now being referred to as “the world’s largest work-from-home experiment” with up to 43 percent of employees working at least some of the time remotely. This study was conducted on 90 respondents from across remote work set-ups, school systems, merchants and customers of online shopping, church leaders and congregants and athletes, and their coaches. Data were collected by questionnaires and interviews that were conducted online. The data is based on the first three months since the first case of coronavirus was reported in Kenya. This study found that the use of technology is in the center of working remotely with work interactions being propelled on various online platforms including, Zoom, Microsoft Teams, and Google Meet, among others. The school system has also integrated the use of technology, including students defending their thesis/dissertations online and university graduations being conducted virtually. Kenya is known for its long-distance runners, due to the directives to reduce interactions; coaches have taken to providing their athletes with guidance on training on social media using applications such as WhatsApp. More local stores are now offering the shopping online option to their customers. Churches have also felt the brunt of the situation, especially because of the restrictions on crowds resulting in online services becoming more popular in 2020 than ever before. Artists, innovatively have started online musical concerts. The findings indicate that one of the outcomes in the Kenyan society that is evident as a result of the COVID-19 period is a population that is using technology more to communicate and get work done. Vices that have thrived in this season where the use of technology has increased, include the spreading of rumors on social media and cyberbullying. The place of technology seems to have been cemented by demand during this period.

Keywords: Communication, Technology, Kenya, COVID-19, coronavirus

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