Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

kaolinite Related Abstracts

8 Preparation and Characterization of Conductive Poly(N-Ethyl Aniline)/Kaolinite Composite Material by Chemical Polymerization

Authors: Hande Taşdemir, Meral Şahin, Mehmet Saçak


Conductive composite materials obtained by physical or chemical mixing of two or more components having conducting and insulating properties have been increasingly attracted. Kaolinite in kaolin clays is one of silicates with two layers of molecular sheets of (Si2O5)2− and [Al2(OH)4]2+ with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. The most abundant hydrophillic kaolinite is extensively used in industrial processes and therefore it is convenient for the preparation of organic/inorganic composites. In this study, conductive poly(N-ethylaniline)/kaolinite composite was prepared by chemical polymerization of N-ethyl aniline in the presence of kaolinite particles using ammonium persulfate as oxidant in aqueous acidic medium. Poly(N-ethylaniline) content and conductivity of composite prepared were systematically investigated as a function of polymerization conditions such as ammonium persulfate, N-ethyl aniline and HCl concentrations. Poly(N-ethylaniline) content and conductivity of composite increased with increasing oxidant and monomer concentrations up to 0.1 M and 0.2 M, respectively, and decreased at higher concentrations. The maximum yield of polymer in the composite (15.0%) and the highest conductivity value of the composite (5.0×10-5 S/cm) was achieved by polymerization for 2 hours at 20°C in HCl of 0.5 M. The structure, morphological analyses and thermal behaviours of poly(N-ethylaniline)/kaolinite composite were characterized by FTIR and XRD spectroscopy, SEM and TGA techniques.

Keywords: kaolinite, poly(N-ethylaniline), conductive composite, chemical polymerization

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7 Surprising Behaviour of Kaolinitic Soils under Alkaline Environment

Authors: P. Hari Prasad Reddy, Shimna Paulose, V. Sai Kumar, C. H. Rama Vara Prasad


Soil environment gets contaminated due to rapid industrialisation, agricultural-chemical application and improper disposal of waste generated by the society. Unexpected volume changes can occur in soil in the presence of certain contaminants usually after the long duration of interaction. Alkali is one of the major soil contaminant that has a considerable effect on behaviour of soils and capable of inducing swelling potential in soil. Chemical heaving of clayey soils occurs when they are wetted by aqueous solutions of alkalis. Mineralogical composition of the soil is one of the main factors influencing soil- alkali interaction. In the present work, studies are carried out to understand the swell potential of soils due to soil-alkali interaction with different concentrations of NaOH solution. Locally available soil, namely, red earth containing kaolinite which is of non-swelling nature is selected for the study. In addition to this, two commercially available clayey soils, namely ball clay and china clay containing mainly of kaolinite are selected to understand the effect of alkali interaction in various kaolinitic soils. Non-swelling red earth shows maximum swell at lower concentrations of alkali solution (0.1N) and a slightly decreasing trend of swelling with further increase in concentration (1N, 4N, and 8N). Marginal decrease in swell potential with increase in concentration indicates that the increased concentration of alkali solution exists as free solution in case of red earth. China clay and ball clay both falling under kaolinite group of clay minerals, show swelling with alkaline solution. At lower concentrations of alkali solution both the soils shows similar swell behaviour, but at higher concentration of alkali solution ball clay shows high swell potential compared to china clay which may be due to lack of well ordered crystallinity in ball clay compared to china clay. The variations in the results obtained were corroborated by carrying XRD and SEM studies.

Keywords: SEM, XRD, kaolinite, alkali, swell potential

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6 Influence of Thermal Annealing on Phase Composition and Structure of Quartz-Sericite Minerale

Authors: Atabaev I. G., Fayziev Sh. A., Irmatova Sh. K.


Raw materials with high content of Kalium oxide widely used in ceramic technology for prevention or decreasing of deformation of ceramic goods during drying process and under thermal annealing. Becouse to low melting temperature it is also used to decreasing of the temperature of thermal annealing during fabrication of ceramic goods [1,2]. So called “Porceline or China stones” - quartz-sericite (muscovite) minerals is also can be used for prevention of deformation as the content of Kalium oxide in muscovite is rather high (SiO2, + KAl2[AlSi3O10](OH)2). [3] . To estimation of possibility of use of this mineral for ceramic manufacture, in the presented article the influence of thermal processing on phase and a chemical content of this raw material is investigated. As well as to other ceramic raw materials (kaoline, white burning clays) the basic requirements of the industry to quality of "a porcelain stone» are following: small size of particles, relative high uniformity of disrtribution of components and phase, white color after burning, small content of colorant oxides or chromophores (Fe2O3, FeO, TiO2, etc) [4,5]. In the presented work natural minerale from the Boynaksay deposit (Uzbekistan) is investigated. The samples was mechanically polished for investigation by Scanning Electron Microscope. Powder with size of particle up to 63 μm was used to X-ray diffractometry and chemical analysis. The annealing of samples was performed at 900, 1120, 1350oC during 1 hour. Chemical composition of Boynaksay raw material according to chemical analysis presented in the table 1. For comparison the composition of raw materials from Russia and USA are also presented. In the Boynaksay quartz – sericite the average parity of quartz and sericite makes 55-60 and 30-35 % accordingly. The distribution of quartz and sericite phases in raw material was investigated using electron probe scanning electronic microscope «JEOL» JXA-8800R. In the figure 1 the scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograps of the surface and the distributions of Al, Si and K atoms in the sample are presented. As it seen small granular, white and dense mineral includes quartz, sericite and small content of impurity minerals. Basically, crystals of quartz have the sizes from 80 up to 500 μm. Between quartz crystals the sericite inclusions having a tablet form with radiant structure are located. The size of sericite crystals is ~ 40-250 μm. Using data on interplanar distance [6,7] and ASTM Powder X-ray Diffraction Data it is shown that natural «a porcelain stone» quartz – sericite consists the quartz SiO2, sericite (muscovite type) KAl2[AlSi3O10](OH)2 and kaolinite Al203SiO22Н2О (See Figure 2 and Table 2). As it seen in the figure 3 and table 3a after annealing at 900oC the quartz – sericite contains quartz – SiO2 and muscovite - KAl2[AlSi3O10](OH)2, the peaks related with Kaolinite are absent. After annealing at 1120oC the full disintegration of muscovite and formation of mullite phase Al203 SiO2 is observed (the weak peaks of mullite appears in fig 3b and table 3b). After annealing at 1350oC the samples contains crystal phase of quartz and mullite (figure 3c and table 3с). Well known Mullite gives to ceramics high density, abrasive and chemical stability. Thus the obtained experimental data on formation of various phases during thermal annealing can be used for development of fabrication technology of advanced materials. Conclusion: The influence of thermal annealing in the interval 900-1350oC on phase composition and structure of quartz-sericite minerale is investigated. It is shown that during annealing the phase content of raw material is changed. After annealing at 1350oC the samples contains crystal phase of quartz and mullite (which gives gives to ceramics high density, abrasive and chemical stability).

Keywords: Thermal Processing, kaolinite, quartz-sericite, mullite

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5 Effect of Concentration of Alkaline and Curing Temperature on Compressive Strength of Geopolymer Concert

Authors: Nursah Kutuk, Sevil Cetinkaya


Geopolymers are becoming new concrete materials to use alongside cement, which are formed due to reaction between alumino-silicates and oxides with alkaline media. Silicates obtained from natural minerals or industrial wastes are used for geopolymer synthesis. Geopolymers have recently received wide attention because of their advantages over other cementitious material like Portland cement. Some of the advantages are high compressive strength, low environmental impact, chemical and fire resistance and thermal stability. In this study, geopolymers were prepared by using inorganic materials such as kaolinite and calcite. The experiments were carried out by varying the concentration of NaOH as 5, 10, 15 and 20 M, and at cure temperature of 22, 45 and 65 °C. Compressive strengths for each mixes at each cure temperature were measured. Results of the analyses indicated that the compressive strength of geopolymers did not increase steadily with increasing concentration of NaOH, but did increase steadily with increasing cure temperature. We examined the effect Na2SiO3/NaOH weight ratio on the properties of the geopolymers, too. It was seen that Na2SiO3/NaOH weight ratio was also important to prepare geopolymers that can be applied to construction industry.

Keywords: geopolymers, compressive strength, kaolinite, calcite

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4 Effect of Nano-SiO2 Solution on the Strength Characteristics of Kaolinite

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Hamidreza Rahmani


Today, with developments in science and technology, there is an excessive potential for the use of nanomaterials in various fields of geotechnical project such as soil stabilization. This study investigates the effect of Nano-SiO2 solution on the unconfined compression strength and Young's elastic modulus of Kaolinite. For this purpose, nano-SiO2 was mixed with kaolinite in five different contents: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% by weight of the dry soil and a series of the unconfined compression test with curing time of one-day was selected as laboratory test. Analyses of the tests results show that stabilization of kaolinite with Nano-SiO2 solution can improve effectively the unconfined compression strength of modified soil up to 1.43 times compared to  the pure soil.

Keywords: Stabilization, Young's modulus, kaolinite, unconfined compression test, Nano-SiO2

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3 A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Forensic Soil Analysis: Tested Using a Simulated Crime Scene

Authors: Samara A. Testoni, Vander F. Melo, Lorna A. Dawson, Fabio A. S. Salvador


Soil traces are useful as forensic evidence due to their potential to transfer and adhere to different types of surfaces on a range of objects or persons. The great variability expressed by soil physical, chemical, biological and mineralogical properties show soil traces as complex mixtures. Soils are continuous and variable, no two soil samples being indistinguishable, nevertheless, the complexity of soil characteristics can provide powerful evidence for comparative forensic purposes. This work aimed to establish a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for forensic soil analysis in Brazil. We carried out a simulated crime scene with double blind sampling to calibrate the sampling procedures. Samples were collected at a range of locations covering a range of soil types found in South of Brazil: Santa Candida and Boa Vista, neighbourhoods from Curitiba (State of Parana) and in Guarani and Guaraituba, neighbourhoods from Colombo (Curitiba Metropolitan Region). A previously validated sequential analyses of chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses was developed in around 2 g of soil. The suggested SOP and the sequential range of analyses were effective in grouping the samples from the same place and from the same parent material together, as well as successfully discriminated samples from different locations and originated from different rocks. In addition, modifications to the sample treatment and analytical protocol can be made depending on the context of the forensic work.

Keywords: Clay Mineralogy, kaolinite, forensic soils analysis, sequential analyses, gibbsite

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2 Industrial Kaolinite Resource Deposits Study in Grahamstown Area, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Adeola Ibukunoluwa Samuel, Afsoon Kazerouni


Industrial mineral kaolin has many favourable properties such as colour, shape, softness, non-abrasiveness, natural whiteness, as well as chemical stability. It occurs extensively in North of Bedford road Grahamstown, South Africa. The relationship between both the physical and chemical properties as lead to its application in the production of certain industrial products which are used by the public; this includes the prospect of production of paper, ceramics, rubber, paint, and plastics. Despite its interesting economic potentials, kaolinite clay mineral remains undermined, and this is threatening its sustainability in the mineral industry. This research study focuses on a detailed evaluation of the kaolinite mineral and possible ways to increase its lifespan in the industry. The methods employed for this study includes petrographic microscopy analysis, X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), and proper field reconnaissance survey. Results emanating from this research include updated geological information on Grahamstown. Also, mineral transformation phases such as quartz, kaolinite, calcite and muscovite were identified in the clay samples. Petrographic analysis of the samples showed that the study area has been subjected to intense tectonic deformation and cement replacement. Also, different dissolution patterns were identified on the Grahamstown kaolinitic clay deposits. Hence incorporating analytical studies and data interpretations, possible ways such as the establishment of processing refinery near mining plants, which will, in turn, provide employment for the locals and land reclamation is suggested. In addition, possible future sustainable industrial applications of the clay minerals seem to be possible if additives, cellulosic wastes are used to alter the clay mineral.

Keywords: Sustainability, Clay Minerals, kaolinite, industrial use, Grahamstown

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1 Kaolinite-Assisted Microencapsulation of Octodecane for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Ting Pan, Jiacheng Wang, Pengcheng Lin, Ying Chen, Songping Mo


Phase change materials (PCMs) are widely used in latent heat thermal energy storage because of their good properties such as high energy storage density and constant heat-storage/release temperature. Microencapsulation techniques can prevent PCMs from leaking during the liquid-solid phase transition and enhance thermal properties. This technique has been widely applied in architectural materials, thermo-regulated textiles, aerospace fields, etc. One of the most important processes during the synthesis of microcapsules is to form a stable emulsion of the PCM core and reactant solution for the formation of the shell of the microcapsules. The use of surfactants is usually necessary for the formation of a stable emulsion system because of the difference in hydrophilia/lipophilicity of the PCM and the solvent. Unfortunately, the use of surfactants may cause pollution to the environment. In this study, modified kaolinite was used as an emulsion stabilizer for the microencapsulation of octodecane as PCM. Microcapsules were synthesized by phase inversion emulsification method, and the shell of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was formed through free radical polymerization. The morphologies, crystalloid phase, and crystallization properties of microcapsules were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TG). The FT-IR, XRD results showed that the octodecane was well encapsulated in the PMMA shell. The SEM results showed that the microcapsules were spheres with an average size of about 50-100nm. The DSC results indicated that the latent heat of the microcapsules was 152.64kJ/kg and 164.23kJ/kg. The TG results confirmed that the microcapsules had good thermal stability due to the PMMA shell. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the modified kaolinite can be used as an emulsifier for the synthesis of PCM microcapsules, which is valid for reducing part of the possible pollution caused by the utilization of surfactants.

Keywords: Thermal Energy Storage, kaolinite, PCM, microencapsulation

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