Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

kano model Related Abstracts

3 The Extension of the Kano Model by the Concept of Over-Service

Authors: Lou-Hon Sun, Yu-Ming Chiu, Chen-Wei Tao, Chia-Yun Tsai


It is common practice for many companies to ask employees to provide heart-touching service for customers and to emphasize the attitude of 'customer first'. However, services may not necessarily gain praise, and may actually be considered excessive, if customers do not appreciate such behaviors. In reality, many restaurant businesses try to provide as much service as possible without taking into account whether over-provision may lead to negative customer reception. A survey of 894 people in Britain revealed that 49 percent of respondents consider over-attentive waiters the most annoying aspect of dining out. It can be seen that merely aiming to exceed customers’ expectations without actually addressing their needs, only further distances and dissociates the standard of services from the goals of customer satisfaction itself. Over-service is defined, as 'service provided that exceeds customer expectations, or simply that customers deemed redundant, resulting in negative perception'. It was found that customers’ reactions and complaints concerning over-service are not as intense as those against service failures caused by the inability to meet expectations; consequently, it is more difficult for managers to become aware of the existence of over-service. Thus the ability to manage over-service behaviors is a significant topic for consideration. The Kano model classifies customer preferences into five categories: attractive quality attribute, one-dimensional quality attribute, must-be quality attribute, indifferent quality attribute and reverse quality attributes. The model is still very popular for researchers to explore the quality aspects and customer satisfaction. Nevertheless, several studies indicated that Kano’s model could not fully capture the nature of service quality. The concept of over-service can be used to restructure the model and provide a better understanding of the service quality construct. In this research, the structure of Kano's two-dimensional questionnaire will be used to classify the factors into different dimensions. The same questions will be used in the second questionnaire for identifying the over-service experienced of the respondents. The finding of these two questionnaires will be used to analyze the relevance between service quality classification and over-service behaviors. The subjects of this research are customers of fine dining chain restaurants. Three hundred questionnaires will be issued based on the stratified random sampling method. Items for measurement will be derived from DINESERV scale. The tangible dimension of the questionnaire will be eliminated due to this research is focused on the employee behaviors. Quality attributes of the Kano model are often regarded as an instrument for improving customer satisfaction. The concept of over-service can be used to restructure the model and provide a better understanding of service quality construct. The extension of the Kano model will not only develop a better understanding of customer needs and expectations but also enhance the management of service quality.

Keywords: consumer satisfaction, DINESERV, kano model, over-service

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2 Using Serious Games to Integrate the Potential of Mass Customization into the Fuzzy Front-End of New Product Development

Authors: Michael N. O'Sullivan, Con Sheahan


Mass customization is the idea of offering custom products or services to satisfy the needs of each individual customer while maintaining the efficiency of mass production. Technologies like 3D printing and artificial intelligence have many start-ups hoping to capitalize on this dream of creating personalized products at an affordable price, and well established companies scrambling to innovate and maintain their market share. However, the majority of them are failing as they struggle to understand one key question – where does customization make sense? Customization and personalization only make sense where the value of the perceived benefit outweighs the cost to implement it. In other words, will people pay for it? Looking at the Kano Model makes it clear that it depends on the product. In products where customization is an inherent need, like prosthetics, mass customization technologies can be highly beneficial. However, for products that already sell as a standard, like headphones, offering customization is likely only an added bonus, and so the product development team must figure out if the customers’ perception of the added value of this feature will outweigh its premium price tag. This can be done through the use of a ‘serious game,’ whereby potential customers are given a limited budget to collaboratively buy and bid on potential features of the product before it is developed. If the group choose to buy customization over other features, then the product development team should implement it into their design. If not, the team should prioritize the features on which the customers have spent their budget. The level of customization purchased can also be translated to an appropriate production method, for example, the most expensive type of customization would likely be free-form design and could be achieved through digital fabrication, while a lower level could be achieved through short batch production. Twenty-five teams of final year students from design, engineering, construction and technology tested this methodology when bringing a product from concept through to production specification, and found that it allowed them to confidently decide what level of customization, if any, would be worth offering for their product, and what would be the best method of producing it. They also found that the discussion and negotiations between players during the game led to invaluable insights, and often decided to play a second game where they offered customers the option to buy the various customization ideas that had been discussed during the first game.

Keywords: New Product Development, mass customization, serious game, kano model

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1 Streamlining the Fuzzy Front-End and Improving the Usability of the Tools Involved

Authors: Michael N. O'Sullivan, Con Sheahan


Researchers have spent decades developing tools and techniques to aid teams in the new product development (NPD) process. Despite this, it is evident that there is a huge gap between their academic prevalence and their industry adoption. For the fuzzy front-end, in particular, there is a wide range of tools to choose from, including the Kano Model, the House of Quality, and many others. In fact, there are so many tools that it can often be difficult for teams to know which ones to use and how they interact with one another. Moreover, while the benefits of using these tools are obvious to industrialists, they are rarely used as they carry a learning curve that is too steep and they become too complex to manage over time. In essence, it is commonly believed that they are simply not worth the effort required to learn and use them. This research explores a streamlined process for the fuzzy front-end, assembling the most effective tools and making them accessible to everyone. The process was developed iteratively over the course of 3 years, following over 80 final year NPD teams from engineering, design, technology, and construction as they carried a product from concept through to production specification. Questionnaires, focus groups, and observations were used to understand the usability issues with the tools involved, and a human-centred design approach was adopted to produce a solution to these issues. The solution takes the form of physical toolkit, similar to a board game, which allows the team to play through an example of a new product development in order to understand the process and the tools, before using it for their own product development efforts. A complimentary website is used to enhance the physical toolkit, and it provides more examples of the tools being used, as well as deeper discussions on each of the topics, allowing teams to adapt the process to their skills, preferences and product type. Teams found the solution very useful and intuitive and experienced significantly less confusion and mistakes with the process than teams who did not use it. Those with a design background found it especially useful for the engineering principles like Quality Function Deployment, while those with an engineering or technology background found it especially useful for design and customer requirements acquisition principles, like Voice of the Customer. Products developed using the toolkit are added to the website as more examples of how it can be used, creating a loop which helps future teams understand how the toolkit can be adapted to their project, whether it be a small consumer product or a large B2B service. The toolkit unlocks the potential of these beneficial tools to those in industry, both for large, experienced teams and for inexperienced start-ups. It allows users to assess the market potential of their product concept faster and more effectively, arriving at the product design stage with technical requirements prioritized according to their customers’ needs and wants.

Keywords: New Product Development, Usability, quality function deployment, voice of customer, kano model, fuzzy front-end

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