Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

jordan Related Abstracts

42 Entrepreneurship Success in Jordan

Authors: Atef Aladwan

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This research will focus on stimulating greater freedom and facilitating small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Jordan to create jobs, as it is emerging as a key development issue. It will highlight the importance of integrating SMEs into development strategies. Jordan has potentially a large market for its products as a result of proximity to developed country markets, signing of various free trades agreements with European countries, cheap energy sources and vast sovereign funds willing to invest in the development of local enterprises. It is beginning to be accepted by governments that SMEs rather than government need to be the main player in domestic economic activity, especially as providers of employment opportunities, and hence generators of sources of income for many households. To foster SME development, it is generally recognised that reforms are needed in Jordan in order to bring about a more globally competitive and business-friendly environment.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Development, Competitiveness, SMEs, jordan

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41 Predictors of Non-Adherence to Pharmacological Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Anan Jarab, Riham Almrayat, Salam Alqudah, Maher Khdour, Tareq Mukattash, Sharell Pinto

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Background: The prevalence of diabetes in Jordan is among the highest in the world, making it a particularly alarming health problem there. It has been indicated that poor adherence to the prescribed therapy lead to poor glycemic control and enhance the development of diabetes complications and unnecessary hospitalization. Purpose: To explore factors associated with medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Materials and Methods: Variables including socio-demographics, disease and therapy factors, diabetes knowledge, and health-related quality of life in addition to adherence assessment were collected for 171 patients with type 2 diabetes using custom-designed and validated questionnaires. Logistic regression was performed to develop a model with variables that best predicted medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Results: The majority of the patients (72.5%) were non-adherent. Patients were found four times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the number of prescribed medications (OR = 0.244, CI = 0.08-0.63) and nine times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the frequency of administration of diabetic medication (OR = 0.111, CI = 0.04-2.01). Patients in the present study were also approximately three times less likely (OR = 0.362, CI = 0.24-0.87) to adhere to their medications if they reported having concerns about side effects and twice more likely to adhere to medications (OR = 0.493, CI = 0.08-1.16) if they had one or more micro-vascular complication. Conclusion: The current study revealed low adherence rate to the prescribed therapy among Jordanians with type 2 diabetes. Simplifying dosage regimen, selecting treatments with lower side effects along with an emphasis on diabetes complications should be taken into account when developing care plans for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Adherence, Type 2 diabetes, jordan, glycemic control, clinical pharmacist

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40 The Impact of Developing Tourism on the Spatial Pattern in Jordan

Authors: Khries Sawsan

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the phenomenon of urbanization is considered as one of the most important tourism resources that differ from one country to another and from one region to another in the same country. Our concern in tourism accommodation is explained by the fact that their location is directly related to the movement to tourist sites .Besides, these constructions comport security considered as the most important motivation for tourists in their choice of any destination. Hotels are the most representative expression of tourism. This is due to their physical prominence in the landscape and being the sole urban component totally unique to tourism. This study sheds light on the impact of tourism development on the spatial pattern in Jordan. It describes the linkages between existing tourism development policies and the spatial development patterns that have occurred as a result throughout Jordan, particularly looking at the impact that tourism has had on the physical environment of major tourism destinations. It puts an illustrative plan of the impact of the augmentation of tourism accommodations in Jordan in the past 40 years ago. The findings of this study help us to understand better the operation of Jordan’ dynamic changes in the location An intensive analysis is then applied on a representative case study in three regions: Amman, Petra and Aqaba. The study proceeds from an historical perspective to, show the evolution of the current development patterns an increase of tourism’s impact on spatial, in the presence of factors as political and economic stability, is expected.

Keywords: Urbanisation, Tourism Planning, jordan, spatial patterns, spatial transformations

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39 Lived Experience of Breast Cancer for Arab Muslim Women

Authors: Nesreen M. Alqaissi

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Little is known about the lived experiences of breast cancer among Arab Muslim women. The researcher used a qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design to explore the lived experiences of breast cancer as described by Jordanian Muslim women. A purposive sample of 20 women with breast cancer was recruited. Data were collected utilizing individual semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using Heideggerian Hermeneutical methodology. Results: Five related themes and one constitutive pattern: (a) breast cancer means death; (b) matriarchal family members as important source of support; (c) spirituality as a way to live and survive breast cancer; (d) concealing cancer experiences to protect self and families; (e) physicians as protectors and treatment decision makers; (f) the constitutive pattern: culture influencing Jordanian women experiences with breast cancer. In conclusion, researchers and healthcare providers should consider the influence of culture, spirituality, and families, when caring for women with breast cancer from Jordan.

Keywords: Culture, Breast Cancer, Spirituality, jordan, Arab Muslim, lived experiences

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38 Students’ Perception of E-Learning Systems at Hashemite University

Authors: Muneer Abbad

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In search of better, traditional learning universities have expanded their ways to deliver knowledge and integrate cost effective e-learning systems. Universities’ use of information and communication technologies has grown tremendously over the last decade. To ensure efficient use of the e-learning system, this project aimed to evaluate the good and bad practices, detect errors and determine areas for further improvements in usage. This project critically evaluated the students’ perception of the e-learning system and recommended changes to improve students’ e-learning usage, through conducting questionnaire given to the students that have experience with e-learning systems. Results of the study indicated that, in general, students have favourable perceptions toward using the e-learning system. They seemed to value the resources tool and its contribution to building their knowledge more than other e-learning tools. However, they seemed to perceive a limited value from the audio or video podcasts. This study has shown that technology acceptance is the most variable, factor that contributes to students’ perception and satisfaction of the e-learning system.

Keywords: e-Learning, Perception, Universities, jordan

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37 The Effect of Corporate Governance on Financial Stability and Solvency Margin for Insurance Companies in Jordan

Authors: Ghadeer A.Al-Jabaree, Husam Aldeen Al-Khadash, M. Nassar

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This study aimed at investigating the effect of well-designed corporate governance system on the financial stability of insurance companies listed in ASE. Further, this study provides a comprehensive model for evaluating and analyzing insurance companies' financial position and prospective for comparing the degree of corporate governance application provisions among Jordanian insurance companies. In order to achieve the goals of the study, a whole population that consist of (27) listed insurance companies was introduced through the variables of (board of director, audit committee, internal and external auditor, board and management ownership and block holder's identities). Statistical methods were used with alternative techniques by (SPSS); where descriptive statistical techniques such as means, standard deviations were used to describe the variables, while (F) test and ANOVA analysis of variance were used to test the hypotheses of the study. The study revealed the existence of significant effect of corporate governance variables except local companies that are not listed in ASE on financial stability within control variables especially debt ratio (leverage),where it's also showed that concentration in motor third party doesn't have significant effect on insurance companies' financial stability during study period. Moreover, the study concludes that Global financial crisis affect the investment side of insurance companies with insignificant effect on the technical side. Finally, some recommendations were presented such as enhancing the laws and regulation that help the appropriate application of corporate governance, and work on activating the transparency in the disclosures of the financial statements and focusing on supporting the technical provisions for the companies, rather than focusing only on profit side.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, jordan, financial stability and solvency margin, insurance companies

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36 The Successful Implementation of Management Accounting Innovations (MAIs) within Jordanian Industrial Sector Using Cross-Case Analysis

Authors: Mahmoud Nassar

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This paper was designed for interviews with companies that had implemented Management Accounting Innovations (MAIs) within Jordanian Industrial Sector in full. Each company in this paper was examined as an entity to obtain an understanding of the process of MAIs adoption and implementation as well as the respondents’ opinions and perspectives of each individual company as to what are considered to be the important factors in the company. By firstly using within-case analysis has the potential to aid in-depth views of the issues and their impact on each particular company. Then, cross-case analysis was used to analyse the similarities and differences of the six companies. The study concludes that, the six companies interviewed gradually moved to using MAIs over the last ten years. The length of time required to implement the MAIs varied across the companies. Interviewees revealed several factors from both the demand and supply side that influence implementation of MAIs within the Jordanian industrial companies. Respondents mentioned and emphasised the important effect of the following factors: top management support, education about ABC concept and benefits, training programmes, shortcoming of existing cost system, competition, size of company, professional accounting bodies, management accounting journals, management accounting research and PhD degrees, and cooperation between universities and companies.

Keywords: Management Accounting, Innovations, jordan, industrial sector

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35 The Effect of Organizational Factors on Knowledge Sharing in the Jordanian Commercial Banks

Authors: Nadera Al Hourani

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The study aimed at testing the effect of the organizational factors on reinforcing the knowledge sharing competence in the Jordanian commercial banks. The study population consisted of all the commercial banks working in Jordan according to the statistics of the Jordanian Banks Association by the end of 2010 (n=12). The researchers took a sample of the branch managers (n=240), and constructed a questionnaire to achieve the objective of the study. 235 questionnaires were returned and 16 were discarded due to incompleteness of their data, thus accepting 219 questionnaires. The results of the study indicated statistically significant effect of the organizational factors with their elements: (organizational structure, organizational culture, and human resources policy) in knowledge sharing. The study recommended that the Jordanian commercial banks have to continue attention to the organizational factors through supporting the less important variables and lowest means within the independent variable (organizational factors). The organizational structure came lowest, which urges the management of the commercial banks to adopt a flexible organizational structure capable to reinforce the knowledge sharing competence.

Keywords: Knowledge, sharing, jordan, banks, organizational factors

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34 E-Commerce in Jordan: Conceptual Model

Authors: Muneer Abbad

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This study comes with a comprehensive analysis of specific factors affecting the adoption of e-commerce in Jordan. From the theoretical perspective, this study will make a contribution to the e-commerce by providing insights on the factors that seem to affect e-commerce’s adoption. The current study will provide managers information about the planning and formulating appropriate strategies to ensure rapid adoption of e-commerce in Jordan. It will offer marketing implications, conclusions, and suggestions for future research.

Keywords: E-Commerce, Adoption, jordan, conceptual model

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33 The Leadership Criterion: Challenges in Pursuing Excellence in the Jordanian Public Sector

Authors: Shaker Aladwan, Paul Forrester

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This paper explores the challenges that face leaders when implementing business excellence programmes in the Jordanian public sector. The study adopted a content analysis approach to analyse the excellence assessment reports that have been produced by the King Abdullah II Centre for Excellence (KACE). The sample comprises ten public organisations which have participated in the King Abdullah Award for Excellence (KAA) more than once and acknowledge in their reports that they have failed to achieve satisfactory results. The key challenges to the implementation of leadership criteria in the public sector in Jordan were found to be poor strategic planning, lack of employee empowerment, weaknesses in benchmarking performance, a lack of financial resources, poor integration and coordination, and poor measurement system: This study proposes a conceptual model for the as assessment of challenges that face managers when seeking to implement excellence in leadership in the Jordanian public sector. Theoretically, this paper fills context gaps in the excellence literature in general and organisational excellence in the public sector in particular. Leadership challenges in the public sector are generally widely studied, but it is important to gain a better understanding of how these challenges can be overcome. In comparison to many existing studies, this research has provided specific and detailed insights these organisational excellence challenges in the public sector and provides a conceptual model for use by other researchers into the future.

Keywords: Challenges, Public Sector, jordan, leadership criterion, organisational excellence, quality awards

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32 How Does Spirituality Manifest in the Lives of Jordanian Patients in End Stage Renal Failure: A Phenomenological Study

Authors: A. Tamimi, S. Greatrex-White, A. Narayanasamy

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Background: Spirituality has been increasingly acknowledged in the nursing literature as an important element of holistic patient care. To date there have been numerous studies investigating the meaning of spirituality in Western cultures. Spirituality in Middle Eastern countries however remains under-researched. We will present a study which aimed to address this gap. Aim: The study aimed to explore how spirituality manifests in the lives of Jordanian End Stage Renal Failure (ESRF) patients. Methodology and Method: A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was adopted informed by the philosophy of Martin Heidegger. Participants (n=27) were recruited from four different dialysis units: in a public hospital, a private hospital, an educational hospital and a refugee’s hospital in Jordan. Data was collected through in-depth unstructured interviews. Data Analysis: Analysis was guided by the tenets of hermeneutic phenomenology namely: gaining immediate sense of what was said both during and after each interview, transcribing data verbatim, translating interviews into the English language, intensive reading and re-reading, seeking meaning units by line to line coding, developing situated structures (how spirituality was manifest in each text), developing a general structure from the individual situated structures (how the phenomenon ‘spirituality’ comes into being). Findings: Three major themes emerged from analysis: Religion, Relationships and Desperation. We will argue that a ‘secular’ concept of spirituality had no meaning for the participants in the study. Spirituality is fundamentally part of religion and vice versa. Discussion: The findings may have consequences for the use of spirituality in multi-cultural settings in Western countries. Additionally, findings highlighted an important emphasis on the practice of spirituality, often underestimated in previous literature for Arab-Muslim Jordanian patients. Conclusion: The study findings contribute to the existing gap in knowledge regarding how Arab-Muslim Jordanian ESRF patients experience spirituality during their illness. It provides valuable insights into the importance of spirituality for this patient group and suggests how nurses, educators and policy makers might help address ESRF patients’ spiritual needs and provide appropriate spiritual care. We suggest the findings may have relevance beyond the Jordanian context in educating nurses’ on the importance of appreciating the religious dimension of spirituality.

Keywords: Nursing, Spirituality, muslim, jordan

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31 The Role of Social Media in Growing Small and Medium Enterprises: An Empirical Study in Jordan

Authors: Hanady Al-Zagheer

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The purpose of this paper research is to introduce the role of the social media (face book) in growing small and medium enterprises in Jordan, Today’s developments of information technologies are dazzling. Using information technologies results in having advantages in competition, decreasing costs, gaining time, and getting and sharing information. Now it is possible to state that there are different types of usage within the information technologies. Small and medium enterprises have been grown rapidly in recent years and continue to grow. Jordanian females have played a large role in the growth of entrepreneurship and have made an impact on household economics. Virtual storefronts have allowed these women to balance roles assigned by tradition and culture while becoming successful providers. If you have a small business with a limited public relations and advertising budget, Facebook can be a cost effective way to promote your services because opening an account is free. However, this can work against you if you do not maintain the page. A Face book page without frequent updates can destroy your brand value and image. According to a 2009 Computerworld article by Lisa Hoover, having a Facebook page that looks abandoned is worse than having no page at all. You might need to hire someone or pay an employee to update your business’s Facebook page.

Keywords: Social Media, jordan, social media small, medium enterprises

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30 Halal Authentication for Some Product Collected from Jordanian Market Using Real-Time PCR

Authors: Omar S. Sharaf

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The mitochondrial 12s rRNA (mt-12s rDNA) gene for pig-specific was developed to detect material from pork species in different products collected from Jordanian market. The amplification PCR products of 359 bp and 531 bp were successfully amplified from the cyt b gene of pig the amplification product using mt-12S rDNA gene were successfully produced a single band with a molecular size of 456 bp. In the present work, the PCR amplification of mtDNA of cytochrome b has been shown as a suitable tool for rapid detection of pig DNA. 100 samples from different dairy, gelatin and chocolate based products and 50 samples from baby food formula were collected and tested to a presence of any pig derivatives. It was found that 10% of chocolate based products, 12% of gelatin and 56% from dairy products and 5.2% from baby food formula showed single band from mt-12S rDNA gene.

Keywords: Halal Food, jordan, PCR, baby infant formula, chocolate based products

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29 Evaluation of the Level of Knowledge about Probiotics amongst Community Pharmacy Staff in Jordan

Authors: Feras Darwish Elhajji, Alberto Berardi, Manal Ayyash, Iman Basheti

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The concept of the use of probiotics for humans now has been known for decades however, their intake by the Jordanian population seems to be less common when compared to population in the developed countries. Community pharmacy is the main supplier of probiotics, however, after conducting an extensive literature review, not any published research article could be found talking about the role, knowledge, and practice of the pharmacists in the area of probiotics. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge about probiotics and their dispensing practice in community pharmacies in Jordan. Community pharmacy staff (pharmacists and technicians) in Amman and north of Jordan were randomly selected to complete an anonymous questionnaire that had been pre-tested and validated. Ethical approval was obtained from the university ethics committee. The questionnaire included the following sections: demographics, knowledge and perceptions about probiotics, and role of the pharmacist Pharmacists and technicians were visited and interviewed in 281 community pharmacies. Asking about probiotics, 90.4% of them said that they know what probiotics are, although only 29.5% agreed that pharmacy staff in Jordan have good knowledge about probiotics, and 88.3% agreed that pharmacy staff in Jordan need more training and knowledge about probiotics. Variables that were significantly related to knowledge about probiotics were being a pharmacist (ρ= 0.012), area of the community pharmacy (ρ= 0.019), and female staff (ρ= 0.031) after conducting logistic regression statistical analysis. More than two-thirds of the participants thought that probiotics are classified as dietary supplements by Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA). Of those who knew probiotics, the majority of them – 76.8% and 91.7% – agreed that probiotics are effective and safe, respectively. Believing in efficacy of the probiotics was significantly associated with answering their use to be with or after antibiotic administration and to increase normal flora gut population (ρ= 0.007). Efficacy was also significantly associated with recommending probiotics to consumers by the pharmacist (ρ< 0.001) and by the doctor (ρ= 0.041). At the same time, the concept of safety was mainly associated with their use for flatulence and gases (ρ= 0.048). Level of knowledge about probiotics and their uses, efficacy and safety amongst community pharmacy staff in Jordan is found to be good. However, this level can be raised in the future, especially knowledge about uses of probiotics.

Keywords: Probiotics, Community Pharmacy, Prebiotics, jordan

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28 Key Challenges Facing the Management of Archaeological and Tourism Sites in Jordan

Authors: Muna Slehat

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Jordan is endowed with over 14,500 productive archaeological sites and also a wealth of heritage sites that need to be protected from the pressing threat of destruction and damage. Archaeological sites in Jordan face significant threats, including insensitive development, urbanization, pollution, tourism, and vandalism, therefore an effective management plan is a key element, not only for the conservation of this heritage, but also to address issues such as tourism and sustainable development. This study highlights the obstacles that confront the management of the archaeological and tourism sites in Jordan, prior to and after the launch of the Strategies for Management of Jordan’s Archaeological Heritage by the Department of Antiquities (DoA) 2007-2010 and 2014-2018, as well as the establishment of the Directorate of the Management of Archaeological Sites in 2010, and instructions for the proper use of tourism sites, 2014, by the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities (MoTA). The study has revealed that the management of the archaeological and tourism sites under the pretext of improvement of services for tourists and visitors to Jordan would allow access to so-called polarization tourism and facilitate tourism development that would be sustainable economically and provide attractive returns. The data required have been collected through conducting interviews with 18 specialists. The main findings of the study are that management is new in Jordan, and has become a vital and dynamic force in Jordan after 2000 but that there have also been many mistakes, with sustainability of the sites being ignored and a lack of awareness among local communities surrounding these sites. Management of the sites has also suffered from a lack of organizational vision, with no instructions for practical application and no legislative provisions which cater for the efficient management of the sites. All of this needs to be amended to remove gaps, overlaps and ambiguities, so that the authorities responsible for the rehabilitation and promotion, development and management of these sites can overcome the problems, such as lack of human resources (specialists) and financial resources.

Keywords: Management, Challenges, Tourism, Archaeological Sites, jordan

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27 Screening of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan for Their Protective Properties against Oxidative DNA Damage and Mutagenecity

Authors: Karem H. Alzoubi, Ahmad S. Alkofahi, Omar F. Khabour, Nizar M. Mhaidat

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Herbal medicinal products represent a major focus for drug development and industry and it holds a significant share in drug-market all over the globe. In here, selected medicinal plant extracts from Jordan with high antioxidative capacity were tested for their protective effect against oxidative DNA damage using in vitro 8-hydroxydeoxyguanisine and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) assays in cultured human lymphocytes. The following plant extracts were tested Cupressus sempervirens L., Psidium guajava (L.) Gaerth., Silybum marianum L., Malva sylvestris L., Varthemia iphionoides Boiss., Eminium spiculatum L. Blume, Pistachia palaestina Boiss., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Ficus carica L., Morus alba Linn , Cucumis sativus L., Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Salvia triloba L., Zizyphus spina-christi L. Desf., and Laurus nobilis L. A fractionation scheme for the active plant extracts of the above was followed. Plants extract fractions with best protective properties against DNA damage included hexane fraction of S. marianum L. (aerial parts), chloroform fractions of P. palaestina Boiss. (Fruits), ethanolic fractions of E. camaldulensis Dehnh (leaves), S. triloba L. (leaves), and ethanolic fractions of Z. spina-christi L. Desf. (Fruits/leaves). On the other hand, the ethanolic extracts of V. iphionoides Boiss was found to increase oxidative DNA damage. Results of the SCEs are undergoing. In conclusion, plant extracts with antioxidative DNA damage properties might have clinical applications in cancer prevention.

Keywords: Fractionation, jordan, medicinal plants extract, oxidative DNA damage, SCEs

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26 Factors Affecting eHealth Literacy among Nursing Students in Jordan

Authors: Laila Habiballah, Ahmad Tubaishat

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Background: with the development of information and communication technology, using the internet as a source to obtain health information is increasing. Nursing students as future health care providers should have the skills of locating, evaluating and using online health information. This will enable them to help their patients and families to make informed decisions. Aim: this study has a two-fold aim. The first is to assess the eHealth literacy among nursing students in Jordan. The second aim is to explore the factors that have an effect on the eHealth literacy. Methods: this is a descriptive cross-sectional survey that conducted in two universities in Jordan; public and private one. A number of 541 students from both universities were completed the eHEALS scale, which is an instrument designed to measure the eHealth literacy. Some additional personal and demographical variable were collected to explore its effect on eHealth literacy. Results: Students have a high perceived level of e-Health literacy (M=3.62, SD=0.58). They are aware of the available online health resources, know how to search, locate, and use these resources. But, they do not have the skills to evaluate these resources and cannot differentiate between the high and low-quality resources. The results showed as well that type of university, type of students' admission, academic level, students' skills of using the internet, and the perception of usefulness and importance of internet have an effect on the eHealth literacy. While the age, gender, GPA, and the frequency of using the internet was no significant factors. Conclusion: This study represents a baseline reference for the eHealth literacy in Jordan. Students have some skills of eHealth literacy and other skills need to be improved. Nursing educators and administrators should integrate and incorporate the skills of eHealth literacy in the curriculum.

Keywords: Nursing, Literacy, eHealth, students, jordan

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25 Accounting Legislation, Corporate Governance Codes and Disclosure in Jordan

Authors: Ayman Haddad, Wafaa Sbeiti, Amr Qasem

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The main aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the most influential economic changes and accounting legislation affecting financial reporting and disclosure practices in Jordan. It also provides an overview of disclosure studies conducted in Jordan covering the year(s) between 1986 and 2014. The economic changes in Jordan required conducting economic reform and revising/issuing new regulations and financial market reforms that led to an improvement in disclosure practices. The issuance of Temporary Securities Law and its Directives of Disclosure in 1997, which came into effect in 1998, is considered as the turning point in the improvement of disclosure practice in Jordan. Based on a review of prior disclosure studies, we conclude that disclosure practices have improved overtime. We also observe that that firm size as a factor has always affected the level of disclosure in Jordan and followed by external auditing while liquidity was found to have the least effect. The paper also addresses the disclosure items required in Corporate Governance Codes that exist for listed shareholding companies, banks, and insurance companies. Finally, the paper discusses the quality of accounting education in Jordan since prior studies noted its impact on accounting practice.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, jordan, disclosure practice, accounting legislation

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24 Development of Three-Dimensional Groundwater Model for Al-Corridor Well Field, Amman–Zarqa Basin

Authors: Moayyad Shawaqfah, Ibtehal Alqdah, Amjad Adaileh

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Coridoor area (400 km2) lies to the north – east of Amman (60 km). It lies between 285-305 E longitude and 165-185 N latitude (according to Palestine Grid). It been subjected to exploitation of groundwater from new eleven wells since the 1999 with a total discharge of 11 MCM in addition to the previous discharge rate from the well field 14.7 MCM. Consequently, the aquifer balance is disturbed and a major decline in water level. Therefore, suitable groundwater resources management is required to overcome the problems of over pumping and its effect on groundwater quality. Three–dimensional groundwater flow model Processing Modeflow for Windows Pro (PMWIN PRO, 2003) has been used in order to calculate the groundwater budget, aquifer characteristics, and to predict the aquifer response under different stresses for the next 20 years (2035). The model was calibrated for steady state conditions by trial and error calibration. The calibration was performed by matching observed and calculated initial heads for year 2001. Drawdown data for period 2001-2010 were used to calibrate transient model by matching calculated with observed one, after that, the transient model was validated by using the drawdown data for the period 2011-2014. The hydraulic conductivities of the Basalt- A7/B2 aquifer System are ranging between 1.0 and 8.0 m/day. The low conductivity value was found at the north-west and south-western parts of the study area, the high conductivity value was found at north-western corner of the study area and the average storage coefficient is about 0.025. The water balance for the Basalt and B2/A7 formation at steady state condition with a discrepancy of 0.003%. The major inflows come from Jebal Al Arab through the basalt and through the limestone aquifer (B2/A7 12.28 MCMY aquifer and from excess rainfall is about 0.68 MCM/a. While the major outflows from the Basalt-B2/A7 aquifer system are toward Azraq basin with about 5.03 MCMY and leakage to A1/6 aquitard with 7.89 MCMY. Four scenarios have been performed to predict aquifer system responses under different conditions. Scenario no.2 was found to be the best one which indicates that the reduction the abstraction rates by 50% of current withdrawal rate (25.08 MCMY) to 12.54 MCMY. The maximum drawdowns were decreased to reach about, 7.67 and 8.38m in the years 2025 and 2035 respectively.

Keywords: Groundwater Modeling, Groundwater Management, jordan, MODFLOW, Amman/Zarqa Basin

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23 An Analysis of the Influence of Employee Readiness for Change on TQM Implementation

Authors: Khalil Al-Hyari, Mohammed Hamdan, Ramadane Djbarni, Mohamed Haffar, Mohammed Khair Abu Zaid

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While employee readiness for change (ERFC) is recognised as critical for total quality management (TQM) implementation, there is a lack of systematic and empirical studies regarding the relationship between ERFC dimensions and TQM. Therefore, this study proposes to fill this gap by providing empirical evidence leading to advancement in the understanding of the influences of ERFC components on TQM implementation. The empirical data for this study was drawn from a survey of 400 middle and senior managers of Jordanian firms. The analysis of the collected data, which was conducted using Structural Equation Modeling technique, revealed that three of the ERFC components, namely personally beneficial, change self-efficacy and management support are the most supportive ERFC dimensions for TQM implementation. Therefore, this paper makes a novel contribution by providing a refined and deeper comprehension of the relationships between ERFCs and TQM implementation.

Keywords: Total Quality Management, jordan, manufacturing organisations, employee readiness for change

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22 The Prevalence of Blood-Borne Viral Infections among Autopsy Cases in Jordan

Authors: Rayyan Al Ali, Emad Al-Abdallat, Faris G. Bakri, Azmi Mahafza, Nidaa Ababneh, Ahmed Idhair

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Background: Morgues are high-risk areas for the spread of infection from the cadavers to the staff during the postmortem examination. Infection can spread from corpses to workers by the airborne route, by direct contact, or from needle and sharp object injuries. Objective: Knowledge about the prevalence of these infections among autopsies is prudent to appreciate any risk of transmission and to further enforce safety measures. Method: A total of 242 autopsies were tested. Age ranged from 3 days to 94 years (median 75.5 years, mean 45.3 (21.9 ± SD)). There were 172 (71%) males. Results: The cause of death was considered natural in 137 (56.6%) cases, accidental in 89 (36.8%), homicidal in 9 (3.7%), suicidal in 4 (1.7%), and unknown in 3 (1.2%). Hepatitis B surface antigen was positive in 5 (2.1%) cases. Hepatitis C virus antibody was detected in 5 (2.1%) cases and the hepatitis C virus polymerase chain reaction was positive in 2 of them (0.8%). HIV antibody was not detected in any of the cases. Conclusions: Autopsies can be associated with exposure to blood borne viruses. Autopsies performed during the study period were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C virus antibody, and human immunodeficiency virus antibody. Positive tests were subsequently confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. There is low prevalence of infections with these viruses in our autopsy cases. However, the risk of transmission remains a threat. Healthcare workers in the forensic departments should adhere to standard precautions.

Keywords: Hepatitis C Virus, Autopsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, jordan, hepatitis B virus

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21 Blood Pressure and Anthropometric Measurements: A Correlational Study

Authors: Abdul-Monim Batiha, Manar AlAzzam, Mohammed ALBashtawy, Loai Tawalbeh, Ahmad Tubaishat, Fadwa N. Alhalaiqa

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Background: Obesity is the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic illnesses especially high blood pressure. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric indices and high blood pressure, and which one was most strongly correlated with high blood pressure in Jordanian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total 622 students and workers from three Jordanian universities. Results: Nearly half of the participant are overweight (34.7%) and obese (15.4%) and hypertension was detected among 138 (22.2%) of the participants. Linear correlation was significant (p<0.01) between both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure for all anthropometric indices, except for A body shape index and diastolic blood pressure was significant at p< 0.05. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the influence of age and anthropometric measurements. Conclusions: The waist circumference was the only independent predictor of hypertension, showing that this simple measurement may be an importance marker of high blood pressure in Jordanian population.

Keywords: Obesity, Hypertension, Blood Pressure, jordan, waist circumference, anthropometric indices, cross-sectional study

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20 Exposure of Emergency Department Staff in Jordanian Hospitals to Workplace Violence: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Ibrahim Bashayreh Al-Bashtawy Mohammed, Al-Azzam Manar Ahmad Rawashda, Abdul-Monim Batiha Mohammad Sulaiman

Abstract:

Background: Workplace violence against emergency department staff (EDS) is considered one of the most common and widespread phenomena of violence. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to determine the incidence rates of workplace violence and the predicting factors of violent behaviors among emergency departments’ staff in Jordanian hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional study was used to investigate workplace violence towards a convenience sample of 355 emergency staff departments from 8 governmental and 4 private Jordanian hospitals. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire that was developed for the purpose of this study. Results: 72% of workers in emergency departments within Jordanian hospitals are exposed to violent acts, and that patients and their relatives are the main source of workplace violence. The contributing factors as reported by the participants were related to overcrowding, lack of resources, staff shortages, and the absence of effective antiviolence policies. Conclusions/implications for Practice: Policies and legislation regarding violence should be instituted and developed, and emergency department staff should be given training on how to deal with violent incidents, as well as on violence-management policies.

Keywords: Community Health, Workplace violence, jordan, emergency staff department

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19 An Evaluative Study of Services Provided in Community Based Rehabilitation Centres in Jordan

Authors: Wesam Darawsheh

Abstract:

Purpose: There is an absence of studies directed to evaluate the effectiveness of Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) programs in Jordan. This research study is aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the services of CBR programmes in Jordan. Method: A questionnaire anonymized survey was carried out with forty-seven participants (stakeholders and volunteers) from four CBR centres in Jordan. It comprised eighteen questions that collected both qualitative and quantitative data with both closed- and open-ended questions. The survey assessed participants’ knowledge of CBR and perception of the effectiveness of services provided. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS Version 22.0 (2016, IBM Corporation New York). Qualitative data were analyzed through thematic content and analysis and open coding to identify emergent themes. Results: The ROC curve revealed that the AUC for questions of the survey to be (AUC=0.846) which indicated a good specificity and sensitivity of the questions of the survey. The MANOVA revealed insignificant results in the effect of the CBR site (p= 0.157), and the level of education of participants (p=0.549), on the perception of the effectiveness of CBR services. There were insignificant differences between the scores of PWDs and volunteers (p=0.781). 40.4% evaluated the effectiveness of CBR services to be low. This mainly stemmed out from the lack of efforts of the CBR programmes to raise the knowledge of the local community about CBR, disability and the role toward PWDs. Conclusions: A speculation for priorities of CBR programmes in Jordan was offered where efforts need to be directed at promoting livelihood and the empowerment components, in order to actualize the main three principles of CBR mainly by promoting multispectral collaboration as a way of operation.

Keywords: jordan, community based rehabilitation (CBR), people with disabilities (PWDS), CBR centres, rehabilitation services, mixed-methods, evaluative study

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18 Carbonate Crusts in Jordan: Records of Groundwater Flow, Carbon Fluxes, Tectonic Movement and Climate Change

Authors: Nizar Abu-Jaber

Abstract:

Late Pleistocene and Holocene carbonate crusts in the south of Jordan were studied using a combination of field documentation, petrography, geochemical and isotopic techniques. These surficial crusts and vein deposits appear to have formed as a result of interaction between near-surface groundwater, surficial soil and sediments and rising carbon dioxide. Rising mantle CO2 dissolves in the water to create carbonic acid, which in turn dissolves the calcite in the soil in the sediments. When the pH rises later due to degassing, the carbonate crusts are left in the places where the water was flowing in veins, channels and interfaces between high and low permeability materials. The crusts have the potential for being important records of natural and human agencies on the landscape of the area. They reflect the isotopic composition of the waters in which they precipitated in, and also contain isotopic information about the aeolian calcium fluxes affecting the area (using strontium isotopes). Moreover, changing stream valley base levels can be identified and measured, which can help quantify the rates of tectonic movement. Finally, human activities such and channel construction and terrace building can be identified and traced temporally and spatially using these deposits.

Keywords: Environmental Change, jordan, anthropogenic change, carbonate crusts

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17 Exploring Family and Preschool Early Interactive Literacy Practices in Jordan

Authors: Rana Alkhamra

Abstract:

Background: Child's earliest experiences with books and stories during the first years of his life are strongly linked with the development of his early language and literacy skills. Interacting in routine learning activities, such as shared book reading, storytelling, and teaching about the letters of the alphabet make a critical foundation for early learning, language growth and emergent literacy. Aim: The current study explores family and preschool early interactive literacy practices in families and preschools (nursery and kindergarten) in Jordan. It highlights the importance of early interactive literacy activities on child language and literacy growth and development. Methods: This is a cross sectional study that surveyed 243 Jordanian families. The survey investigated literacy routine practices, largely shared books reading, at home and at preschool; child speech and language development; and family demographics. Results: Around 92.5% of the families read books and stories to their children, as frequently as 1-2 times weekly or monthly (75%). Only 19.6% read books on daily basis. Many families reported preferring story-telling (97%). Despite that families acknowledged the importance of early literacy activities, on language, reading and writing, cognitive, and academic development, 45% asked for education and training pertaining to specific ways and ideas to help their young children develop language and literacy skills. About 69% of the families reported reading books and stories to their children for 15 minutes a day, while 71.2% indicated having their children watch television for 3 to > 6 hours a day. At preschool, only 52.8% of the teachers were reported to read books and stories. Factors like parent education, monthly income, living inside (33.6%) or outside (66.4%) the capital city of Amman significantly (p < 0.05) affected child early literacy interactive activities whether at home or at preschool. Conclusion: Early language and literacy skills depend largely on the opportunities and experiences provided to children in the home and in preschool environment. Family literacy programs can play an important role in bridging the gap in early literacy experiences for families that need help. Also, speech therapists can work in collaboration with families and educators to ensure that young children have high quality and sufficient opportunities to participate in early literacy activities both at home and in preschool environments.

Keywords: Language, Practices, Literacy, Family, jordan, preschool, interactive activities

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16 The Impact of Corporate Governance Mechanisms on Earnings Management Practices: Evidence from Jordan

Authors: Lara Al-Haddad, Mark Whittington

Abstract:

This paper aims to examine the impact of two influential internal corporate governance mechanisms, namely board characteristics and ownership structure on the use of real activities-based and accrual-based earnings management by Jordanian public firms. Using panel data from Jordanian public firms after the introduction of the Jordanian Corporate Governance Code (JCGC) in 2009, the study finds both institutional ownership and managerial ownership constrain the use of real and accrual earnings manipulations. On the other side, both independent directors and largest shareholders are found to exaggerate the incidence of using real and accrual earnings management. The study also examines the trade-off between real and accrual earnings management and found that Jordanian firms use a combination of real and accrual-based earnings management to obtain the greatest effect on earnings reporting strategies. For the purpose of this study, three types of real earnings management are considered: sales manipulation, overproduction, and the abnormal reduction of discretionary expenditures. The abnormal discretionary accrual is considered for accruals management. While for the internal corporate governance mechanisms; board characteristics are examined by using board independence, board size, and CEO-duality; and ownership structure is examined by using managerial ownership, institutional ownership, foreign ownership and largest shareholder ownership. To the best knowledge of the researchers, this study is the first to examine the relationship between board characteristics and real earnings management in Jordan. Further, it is the first to examine the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms and discretionary accruals after the introduction of the Jordanian Corporate Governance Code in 2009. Thus, the findings of this study have important policy implications for policymakers, regulators, standard setters, audit professional, and investors in their attempts to constrain the practice of earnings management, whether real or accrual, and to improve the financial reporting quality in Jordan.

Keywords: jordan, board characteristics, ownership structure, real earnings management

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15 Design of Distribution Network for Gas Cylinders in Jordan

Authors: Hazem J. Smadi

Abstract:

Performance of a supply chain is directly related to a distribution network that entails the location of storing materials or products and how products are delivered to the end customer through different stages in the supply chain. This study analyses the current distribution network used for delivering gas cylinders to end customer in Jordan. Evaluation of current distribution has been conducted across customer service components. A modification on the current distribution network in terms of central warehousing in each city in the country improves the response time and customer experience. 

Keywords: Supply Chain, jordan, distribution network, gas cylinder

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14 Health Satisfaction and Family Impact of Parents of Children with Cancer

Authors: Ekhlas Al Gamal, Tony Long

Abstract:

The impact on the parents of caring for a child with cancer was intense and wide-ranging. A high level of distress and low level or resilience remains during treatment. Even completion of treatment can be a time of increased anxiety and stress for parents particularly with worries about recurrence or relapse. The purpose of this study to examine the associations between parental satisfactions with healthcare provided for their child and the impact of being a caregiver for a child with cancer. Methodology: A descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional design was employed using data from Arabic versions of self-report questionnaires which were administered to 113 parents with children with cancer in Jordan during 2015. Findings: the result indicated that Family relationship functioning was ranked as the highest (better functioning) domain while daily activities were ranked as the lowest (poorer functioning) domain. Parents were generally satisfied with the health care provided, but their emotional needs were not met adequately. Parents with better social functioning were more satisfied in all areas of healthcare satisfaction other than emotional needs and communication. Parents who had a child with more emotional and behavioural problems were more likely to experience a negative impact on the family and a poor level of family functioning. Conclusion and Significance: Nurses and other health care providers should emphasis on family centred approach rather than child centred approach.

Keywords: Cancer, Children, Parents, jordan

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13 Perception and Knowledge of the Jordanian Society of Occupational Therapy

Authors: Wesam Darawsheh

Abstract:

Background: there are scarcity of studies done to investigate the level of knowledge and the level of awareness and perception of Jordanians about occupational therapy (OT). Aim: to investigate the level of awareness of lay people, clients receiving services and healthcare professionals of OT, identify the common misconceptions about OT, and to explore ways whereby the knowledge and awareness about OT can be increased. Methodology: a cross sectional design was employed in this study where a survey was distributed in the Northern, Southern, Western, Eastern provinces and the Middle (capital city: Amman) province of Jordan. The survey consisted of eight section and 61 questions that aims to investigate the demographics of participants, self evaluation concerning knowledge and awareness about OT, sources of knowledge about OT, the perception of the aims, fields of practice, OT settings, misconceptions about OT, and suggestion to improve knowledge and awareness about OT. Results: A total of 829 participants were enrolled in this study: 459 lay people, 155 clients who are currently receiving OT services, 215 healthcare professionals. About 57% of the participants did not hear about OT, and 48% of those who reported to hear about OT did not have sufficient knowledge about it. There are several misconceptions associated with OT. The statistical analysis was executed using IBM SPSS software, Version 22.0 (SPSS, Chicago, USA). Conclusion: it is the responsibility of OTRs to increase the knowledge and awareness about OT in Jordan. This is required for the profession to proliferate and to be given its status.

Keywords: Knowledge, Healthcare Professionals, jordan, occupational therapy misconceptions, lay people

Procedia PDF Downloads 206