Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Japan Related Abstracts

21 Application of Soft Systems Methodology in Solving Disaster Emergency Logistics Problems

Authors: Arun Kumar, Yousef Abu Nahleh, Alhasan Hakami, Sung J. Shim

Abstract:

In recent years, many high intensity earthquakes have occurred around the world, such as the 2011 earthquake in Tohoku, Japan. These large-scale disasters caused huge casualties and losses. In addition, inefficient disaster response operations also caused the second wave of casualties and losses, and expanded the damage. Effective disaster management can be used to respond to the chaotic situation, and reduce the damage. However, some inefficient disaster response operations are still used. Therefore, this case study chose the 921 earthquakes for analysing disaster emergency logistics problems and proposed the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) to solve disaster emergency logistics problems. Moreover, it analyses the effect of human factors on system operation, and suggests a solution to improve the system.

Keywords: System operation, Earthquakes, Soft Systems Methodology, Emergency logistics, Japan

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20 Calculation of Instrumental Results of the Tohoku Earthquake, Japan (Mw 9.0) on March 11, 2011 and Other Destructive Earthquakes during Seismic Hazard Assessment

Authors: J. K. Karapetyan

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In this paper seismological-statistical analysis of actual instrumental data on the main tremor of the Great Japan earthquake 11.03.2011 is implemented for finding out the dependence between maximal values of peak ground accelerations (PGA) and epicentric distances. A number of peculiarities of manifestation of accelerations' maximum values at the interval of long epicentric distances are revealed which do not correspond with current scales of seismic intensity.

Keywords: Earthquakes, Seismic Hazard, Japan, instrumental records

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19 Marketing and Pharmaceutical Analysis of Medical Cosmetics in Bulgaria and Japan

Authors: V. Petkova, V. Valchanova, D. Grekova, K. Andreevska, S. T. Geurguiev, V. Madgarov, D. Grekov

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Introduction: Production, distribution and sale of cosmetics is a global industry, which played a key role in the European Union (EU), the US and Japan. A major participant EU whose market cosmetics is greater than in the US and 2 times greater than that in Japan. The output value of the cosmetics industry in the EU is estimated at about € 35 billion in 2001. Nearly 5 billion cosmetic products (number of packages) are sold annually in the EU, and the main markets are France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. The aim of the study is legal and marketing analysis of cosmetic products dispensed in a pharmacy. Materials and methodology: Historical legislative analysis - the method is applied in the analysis of changes in the legislative regulation of the activities of cosmetic products in Japan and Bulgaria Comparative legislative analysis - the method is applied when comparing the legislative requirements for cosmetic products in the already mentioned countries. Both methods are applied to the following regulations: 1) Japanese Pharmaceuticals Affairs Law, Tokyo, Japan, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare; 2) Law on Medicinal Products for Human Use; effective from 3.01.2014. Results: The legislative framework for cosmetic products in Bulgaria and Japan is close and generally includes general guidelines: Definition of a medicinal product; Categorization of drugs (with differences in sub-categories); Pre-registration and marketing approval of the competent authorities; Compulsory compliance with gmp (unlike cosmetics); Regulatory focus on product quality, efficacy and safety; Obligations for labeling of such products; Created systems Pharmacovigilance and commitment of all parties - industry and health professionals; The main similarities in the regulation of products classified as cosmetics are in the following segments: Full producer responsibility for product safety; Surveillance of market regulatory authorities; No need for pre-registration or pre-marketing approval (a basic requirement for notification); Without restrictions on sales channels; GMP manuals for cosmetics; Regulatory focus on product safety (than over efficiency); General requirements in labeling: The main differences in the regulation of products classified as cosmetics are in the following segments: Details in the regulation of cosmetic products; Future convergence of regulatory frameworks can contribute to the removal of barriers to trade, to encourage innovation, while simultaneously ensuring a high level of protection of consumer safety.

Keywords: Cosmetics, Legislation, Comparative Analysis, Japan, Bulgaria

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18 Health-Related QOL of Motorists with Spinal Cord Injury in Japan

Authors: Hiroshi Ikeda, Hiroaki Hirose, Isao Takeda

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The Japanese version of the SF-36 has been employed to assess individuals’ health-related QOL (HRQOL). This study aimed to clarify the HRQOL of motorists with a spinal cord injury, in order to compare these individuals' SF-36 scores and national standard values. A total of 100 motorists with a spinal cord injury participated in this study. Participants’ HRQOL was evaluated using the Japanese version of the SF-36 (second edition). The score for each subscale was standardized based on data on the Japanese population. The average scores for NPF, NRP, NBP, NGH, NVT, NSF, NRE, and NMH were 10.9, 41.8, 45.9, 47.1, 46.1, 46.7, 46.0, and 47.4 points, respectively. Subjects showed significantly lower scores for NPF and NRP compared with national standard values, which were both ≤ 45.0 points, but relatively normal scores for the other items: NBP, NGH, NVT, NSF, NRE and NMH (> 45.0 points). The average scores for PCS, MCS and RCS were 21.9, 56.0, and 50.0 points, respectively. Subjects showed a significantly lower PCS score (≤ 20.0 points); however, the MCS score was higher (> 55.0 points) along with a relatively normal RCS score in these individuals (= 50.0 points).

Keywords: Spinal Cord Injury, Japan, HRQOL, SF-36, health-related QOL, motorist

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17 Comparison of the Amount of Resources and Expansion Support Policy of Photovoltaic Power Generation: A Case on Hokkaido and Aichi Prefecture, Japan

Authors: Hiroaki Sumi, Kiichiro Hayashi

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Now, the use of renewable energy power generation has been advanced. In this paper, we compared the expansion support policy of photovoltaic power generation which was researched using The internet and the amount of resource for photovoltaic power generation which was estimated using the NEDO formula in the municipality level in Hokkaido and Aichi Prefecture, Japan. This paper will contribute to grasp the current situation especially about the policy. As a result, there were municipalities which seemed to be no consideration of the amount of resources. We think it would need to consider the suitability between the policies and resources.

Keywords: Japan, photovoltaic power generation, dissemination and support policy, amount of resources

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16 Relevance to Transformation Desire at Venetian Masks

Authors: Yoko Katsumata, Takashi Horikoshi, Noriaki Fukuzumi, Shoji Yamaguchi

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This study examined some positive sensations that caused human to experience an intense feeling or sensitivity from Venetian Masks. We surveyed 102 Japanese university students (male; 85, female; 17) about their sensitivity impressions toward Venetian Masks using sensitivity questionnaire. We used questionnaires to examine the relevance to transformation desire at Venetian masks by means of correlation analysis. The positive correlation coefficient was observed between sensitivity impressions and transformation desire.

Keywords: Japan, Venetian Masks, sensitivity impression, transformation desire

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15 Effect of Stress Relief of the Footbath Using Bio-Marker in Japan

Authors: Harumi Katayama, Mina Suzuki, Taeko Muramatsu, Yui Shimogawa, Yoshimi Mizushima, Mitsuo Hiramatsu, Kimitsugu Nakamura, Takeshi Suzue

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Purpose: There are very often footbaths in the hot-spring area as culture from old days in Japan. This culture moderately supported mental and physical health among people. In Japanese hospitals, nurses provide footbath for severe patients to mental comfortable. However, there are only a few evidences effect of footbath for mental comfortable. In this presentation, we show the effect of stress relief of the footbath using biomarker among 35 college students in volunteer. Methods: The experiment was designed in two groups of the footbath group and the simple relaxation group randomly. As mental load, Kraepelin test was given to the students beforehand. Ultra-weak chemiluminescence (UCL) in saliva and self-administered liner scale measurable emotional state were measured on four times concurrently; there is before and after the mental load, after the stress relief, and 30 minutes after the stress relief. The scale that measured emotional state was consisted of 7 factors; there is excitement, relaxation, vigorous, fatigue, tension, calm, and sleepiness with 22 items. ANOVA was calculated effect of the footbath for stress relief. Results: The level of UCL (photons/100sec) was significantly increased in response on both groups after mental load. After the two types of stress relief, UCL (photons/100sec) of footbath group was significantly decreased compared to simple relaxation group. Score of sleepiness and relaxation were significantly increased after the stress relief in the footbath group than the simple relaxation group. However, score of excitement, vigorous, tension, and calm were exhibit the same degree of decrease after the stress relief on both group. Conclusion: It was suggested that salivary UCL may be a sensitive biomarker for mild stress relief as nursing care. In the future, we will measure using UCL to evaluate as stress relief for inpatients, outpatients, or general public as the subjects.

Keywords: Japan, stress relief, bio-marker, footbath

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14 Place and Role of Corporate Governance in Japan

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

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In a broad sense, corporate governance covers the organization of the control and management. The term is also used in a narrower sense, to refer to the relationship between shareholders, and the company’s board. There are a lot of discussions devoted to the understanding of the corporate governance role and its principles. In this paper, we are going to describe the definition of corporate governance as a control system and its principles, and find the role of corporate governance and its pillars. Finally, we are going to drop the theoretical study on the case of Japan.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, place, Japan, role

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13 Providing Health Promotion Information by Digital Animation to International Visitors in Japan: A Factorial Design View of Nurses

Authors: Mariko Nishikawa, Masaaki Yamanaka, Ayami Kondo

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Background: International visitors to Japan are at a risk of travel-related illnesses or injury that could result in hospitalization in a country where the language and customs are unique. Over twelve million international visitors came to Japan in 2015, and more are expected leading up to the Tokyo Olympics. One aspect of this is the potentially greater demand on healthcare services by foreign visitors. Nurses who take care of them have anxieties and concerns of their knowledge of the Japanese health system. Objectives: An effective distribution of travel-health information is vital for facilitating care for international visitors. Our research investigates whether a four-minute digital animation (Mari Info Japan), designed and developed by the authors and applied to a survey of 513 nurses who take care of foreigners daily, could clarify travel health procedures, reduce anxieties, while making it enjoyable to learn. Methodology: Respondents to a survey were divided into two groups. The intervention group watched Mari Info Japan. The control group read a standard guidebook. The participants were requested to fill a two-page questionnaire called Mari Meter-X, STAI-Y in English and mark a face scale, before and after the interventions. The questions dealt with knowledge of health promotion, the Japanese healthcare system, cultural concerns, anxieties, and attitudes in Japan. Data were collected from an intervention group (n=83) and control group (n=83) of nurses in a hospital, Japan for foreigners from February to March, 2016. We analyzed the data using Text Mining Studio for open-ended questions and JMP for statistical significance. Results: We found that the intervention group displayed more confidence and less anxiety to take care of foreign patients compared to the control group. The intervention group indicated a greater comfort after watching the animation. However, both groups were most likely to be concerned about language, the cost of medical expenses, informed consent, and choice of hospital. Conclusions: From the viewpoint of nurses, the provision of travel-health information by digital animation to international visitors to Japan was more effective than traditional methods as it helped them be better prepared to treat travel-related diseases and injury among international visitors. This study was registered number UMIN000020867. Funding: Grant–in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research 2010-2012 & 2014-16, Japanese Government.

Keywords: Health Promotion, nurse, Japan, digital animation, international visitor

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12 International Migration of Highly Skilled Indian Professionals: A Case Study of Indian IT Professionals in Japan, Preliminary Results

Authors: Rimpi Rani

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In the 2000s, a new migration trend of highly skilled Indian professionals towards Japan has appeared. This paper examines the factors that set off the incoming of highly skilled Indian professionals in Japan, mainly focusing on IT professionals’ immigration, and the reasons of the increase in their number. It investigates the influence of four factors: The Japanese immigration policy, the bilateral relations between India and Japan, the higher education system in India and the American H-1B visa policy with its cap system. This study concludes that increased and continuous supply of highly skilled Indian professionals have intensified the competition for migration to traditional destinations like the USA. This led Indian professionals   to consider other options such as Japan.

Keywords: International Migration, India, Japan, highly skilled professionals

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11 Public Environmental Investment Analysis of Japan

Authors: C. W. Kan, K. Y. Chen, H. Chua

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Japan is a well-developed country but the environmental issues are still a hot issue. In this study, we will analyse how the environmental investment affects the sustainable development in Japan. This paper will first describe the environmental policy of Japan and the effort input by the Japan government. Then, we will collect the yearly environmental data and also information about the environmental investment. Based on the data collected, we try to figure out the relationship between environmental investment and sustainable development in Japan. In addition, we will analyse the SWOT of environmental investment in Japan. Based on the economic information collected, Japan established a sound material-cycle society through changes in business and life styles. A comprehensive legal system for this kind of society was established in Japan. In addition, other supporting measures, such as financial measures, utilization of economic instruments, implementation of research and promotion of education and science and technology, help Japan to cope with the recent environmental challenges. Japan’s excellent environmental technologies changed its socioeconomic system. They are at the highest global standards. This can be reflected by the number of patents registered in Japan which has been on the steady growth. Country by country comparison in the application for patents on environmental technologies also indicates that Japan ranks high in such areas as atmospheric pollution and water quality management, solid waste management and renewable energy. This is a result of the large expenditure invested on research and development.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Analysis, Japan, environmental investment

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10 Development of Earthquake and Typhoon Loss Models for Japan, Specifically Designed for Underwriting and Enterprise Risk Management Cycles

Authors: Babak Kamrani, Nozar Kishi, Filmon Habte

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Natural hazards such as earthquakes and tropical storms, are very frequent and highly destructive in Japan. Japan experiences, every year on average, more than 10 tropical cyclones that come within damaging reach, and earthquakes of moment magnitude 6 or greater. We have developed stochastic catastrophe models to address the risk associated with the entire suite of damaging events in Japan, for use by insurance, reinsurance, NGOs and governmental institutions. KCC’s (Karen Clark and Company) catastrophe models are procedures constituted of four modular segments: 1) stochastic events sets that would represent the statistics of the past events, hazard attenuation functions that could model the local intensity, vulnerability functions that would address the repair need for local buildings exposed to the hazard, and financial module addressing policy conditions that could estimates the losses incurring as result of. The events module is comprised of events (faults or tracks) with different intensities with corresponding probabilities. They are based on the same statistics as observed through the historical catalog. The hazard module delivers the hazard intensity (ground motion or wind speed) at location of each building. The vulnerability module provides library of damage functions that would relate the hazard intensity to repair need as percentage of the replacement value. The financial module reports the expected loss, given the payoff policies and regulations. We have divided Japan into regions with similar typhoon climatology, and earthquake micro-zones, within each the characteristics of events are similar enough for stochastic modeling. For each region, then, a set of stochastic events is developed that results in events with intensities corresponding to annual occurrence probabilities that are of interest to financial communities; such as 0.01, 0.004, etc. The intensities, corresponding to these probabilities (called CE, Characteristics Events) are selected through a superstratified sampling approach that is based on the primary uncertainty. Region specific hazard intensity attenuation functions followed by vulnerability models leads to estimation of repair costs. Extensive economic exposure model addresses all local construction and occupancy types, such as post-linter Shinand Okabe wood, as well as concrete confined in steel, SRC (Steel-Reinforced Concrete), high-rise.

Keywords: Earthquake, Stochastic Modeling, Japan, stratified sampling, loss model, typhoon, ERM, catastrophe modelling

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9 Childhood Obesity in Japan: Trends in Obesity Prevalence among Japanese Kids under 17 Years Old from 2007 to 2016

Authors: Houda Mnif Sellami, Toshi Umehara, Yuriko Yamazaki, Reie Matoba, Anna Sakashita, Yoshimi Abe, Hiroyuki Otake, Satoko Morita, Yoshitaka Akiyama, Chieko Morisawa, Eiji Omura, Masako Yazawa, Yoshie Koike, Mitsugu Tokunaga, Seiki Wada, Shinya Minagawa, Masafumi Matsuda

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Childhood obesity has been, for decades, a very serious public health problem worldwide. Some Asian countries have already reached alarming rates, as lifestyle changed dramatically in this part of the world. In many concerned countries, strategies including educational, promotional and awareness-raising activities have been established to combat obesity within kids. Objective: To estimate the obesity and also the underweight trends of Japanese kids from 5 to 17 years, by single year of age and by gender, over the last decade. Methods We used the data from the cross-sectional annual Nationwide surveys (National Nutrition Survey, Japan, Ministry of education, culture, sports, science and technology) conducted from 2007 to 2016. We compared trajectories of obesity prevalence, with the data on sex and age groups. We also analyzed energy and macronutrients intakes of Japanese kids using Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare-Japan annual data, from 2007 to 2014. Results: From 2007 to 2016, Boys obesity was higher than Girls obesity for the over 6 YO participants. Both Boys and Girls obesity trends had 2 peaks of prevalence at (11-13 YO) and then at (15-16 YO). From 2007 to 2012, Kids obesity decreased considerably in both sex and all year of age; then obesity decline was more modest till 2016.On the other side, Kids underweight prevalence increased in both sexes. The macronutrients analyze couldn’t show an evident association between obesity trends and foods intake. Conclusion: Japanese kids’ obesity has been decreased since 2007, in opposition to some other countries reports. We didn’t find an observed association with food intake using Health Ministry data; we need further investigation to estimate energy intake, lifestyle and physical activity by year of age to know whether there is any possible relation.

Keywords: Obesity, Childhood, Japan, underweight

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8 Representation and Reality: Media Influences on Japanese Attitudes towards China

Authors: Shuk Ting Kinnia Yau

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As China has become more and more influential in the global and geo-political arena, mutual understanding between Japan and China has also become a topic of paramount importance. There have always been tensions between the two countries, but unfortunately, each country tends to blame the other for fanning emotions. This research will investigate portrayals of China and the Chinese people in Japanese media such as newspapers, TV news, TV drama, and cinema over this period, focusing on media sources that have particularly wide viewership or readership. By doing so, it attempts to detect any general trends in the positive or negative character of such portrayals and to see if they correlate with the results of surveys of attitudes among the general population. To the degree that correlations may be found, the question arises as to whether the media portrayals are a reflection of societal attitudes towards the Chinese, on one hand, or may be playing a role in promoting such attitudes, on the other. The relationship here is, without doubt, more complex than a simple one-way relationship of cause and effect, but indications of some direction of causality may be suggested by trends in one occurring before or after the other. Evidence will also be sought of possible longer-term trends in media portrayals of China and the Chinese people in Japan during the post-2012 period, i.e., Abe Shinzo’s second term as prime minister, in comparison to earlier periods. Perceptions of Japan’s view of China and the Chinese, both inside and outside the scholarly world, tend to be oversimplified and are often incomprehensive. This research calls attention to the role played by the media in promoting or de-promoting Sino-Japanese relations. By analyzing the nature and background of images of China and the Chinese people presented in the Japanese media, especially under the new Abe Regime, this research seeks to promote a more balanced and comprehensive understanding of attitudes in Japanese society towards its gigantic neighbor. Scholars have seen the increasingly fragile Sino-Japanese relationship as inseparable from the real-world political conflicts that have become more frequent in recent years and have sought to draw a correlation between the two. The influence of the media, however, remains a mostly under-explored domain in the academic world. Against this background, this research aims to provide an enriched scholarly understanding of Japan’s perception of China by investigating to what extent such perception can be seen to be affected by subjective or selective forms of presentation of China found in the Japanese media, or vice versa.

Keywords: Media, China, Japan, Abe Shinzo

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7 The Sexuality of People with Physical Disabilities: A Qualitative Feminist Perspective of Carer's Points of View

Authors: Etsuko Sakairi

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In 2016 Japan started to enforce domestic legislation in the form of the Act of Elimination of Discrimination against Persons with Disability, along with ratifying the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in 2014. However, it is not clear what kind of situations would be considered cases of discrimination in relation to issues of sexuality according to this legislation. Furthermore, in March 2016, the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) made a recommendation to the Japanese government to conduct a study of the forced sterilization of women under the Eugenic Protection Act. This research is carried out against this background in which the experiences of people with disabilities have often been restricted by caregivers and family members—as evidenced by the high number of eugenics surgeries performed on people with disabilities without their consent. This research contributes to this topic by presenting voices and perspectives of key people, especially focusing on the voices of carers who are working with people with physical disabilities in a Non-Western country, Japan. Furthermore, since 90% of the research on the topic of sexuality of people with disabilities is conducted in Western countries, the voices from Non-Western countries in this regard are greatly lacking. In the part of the research presented here, the researcher has employed a feminist disability theory to understand the circumstances surrounding people with physical disabilities. She has gathered voices from 58 carers by using an on-line questionnaire (55) and by conducting face-to-face interviews (3). In this presentation, the researcher will introduce experiences and thoughts regarding sexuality and people with disabilities by using carers’ own words. One of the major findings was carers’ concern about a boundary issue. Although each carer has had unique experiences depending on their professional or personal relationship with people with physical disabilities, many of them shared some similar viewpoints. This included a concern that assisting with the meeting of some forms of sexual needs 9e.g. assisted masturbation) would result in the possibility of transgressing the boundary between the carer and the person with physical disability. Most of the carer did not have any opportunity to receive any trainings regarding to sexuality of people with disabilities. Furthermore, most of the carers conceptualized that ‘Keeping a sexual dignity of people with disabilities’ means practicing a ‘Principle of same sex assistance’. The researcher hopes that this presentation provides an opportunity for audiences to look back at their own community and to think about what sexuality of people with physical disabilities means to their carers as well as to look back at their own practice in relation to this issue.

Keywords: Sexuality, Physical Disabilities, Japan, carer

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6 Comparison of Tourist Shopping Patterns in Korea, 2009-2015: A Case of China and Japan

Authors: Miju Choi, Ava Seo

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Japan has been positioned as a major inbound market to Korea, accounting for about 31% of total inbound visitors until 2012. The percentage has sharply dropped each year since and remained in second place, reaching 13.33% in 2016. Meanwhile, China has been boosted as a major inbound market, reaching 46.79% in 2016. Chinese tourists mainly visit Korea with the major purpose of shopping. They consume Korean cosmetic/beauty products and clothes while Japanese tourists prefer to purchase healthy food such as ginseng and seaweed. This study aims to investigate and compare tourist shopping patterns across two major inbound markets, China and Japan. A quantitative approach using survey was applied from 2009 to 2016. Findings suggest Chinese visit Korea due to quality of product, value for money, and accessibility, and trust. Meanwhile, Japanese choose Korea as a shopping destination mainly due to convenience, affordability, and tourist attractions. Also, there were significant differences in shopping venues. For example, Japanese tourists prefer shopping at department stores while Chinese tourists prefer retail outlets and local markets. This study contributes to deeper understanding on two major inbound markets to Korea and suggests future marketing strategies.

Keywords: China, Japan, historical data, Korea, tourist shopping patterns

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5 Japanese and Europe Legal Frameworks on Data Protection and Cybersecurity: Asymmetries from a Comparative Perspective

Authors: S. Fantin

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This study is the result of the legal research on cybersecurity and data protection within the EUNITY (Cybersecurity and Privacy Dialogue between Europe and Japan) project, aimed at fostering the dialogue between the European Union and Japan. Based on the research undertaken therein, the author offers an outline of the main asymmetries in the laws governing such fields in the two regions. The research is a comparative analysis of the two legal frameworks, taking into account specific provisions, ratio legis and policy initiatives. Recent doctrine was taken into account, too, as well as empirical interviews with EU and Japanese stakeholders and project partners. With respect to the protection of personal data, the European Union has recently reformed its legal framework with a package which includes a regulation (General Data Protection Regulation), and a directive (Directive 680 on personal data processing in the law enforcement domain). In turn, the Japanese law under scrutiny for this study has been the Act on Protection of Personal Information. Based on a comparative analysis, some asymmetries arise. The main ones refer to the definition of personal information and the scope of the two frameworks. Furthermore, the rights of the data subjects are differently articulated in the two regions, while the nature of sanctions take two opposite approaches. Regarding the cybersecurity framework, the situation looks similarly misaligned. Japan’s main text of reference is the Basic Cybersecurity Act, while the European Union has a more fragmented legal structure (to name a few, Network and Information Security Directive, Critical Infrastructure Directive and Directive on the Attacks at Information Systems). On an relevant note, unlike a more industry-oriented European approach, the concept of cyber hygiene seems to be neatly embedded in the Japanese legal framework, with a number of provisions that alleviate operators’ liability by turning such a burden into a set of recommendations to be primarily observed by citizens. With respect to the reasons to fill such normative gaps, these are mostly grounded on three basis. Firstly, the cross-border nature of cybercrime brings to consider both magnitude of the issue and its regulatory stance globally. Secondly, empirical findings from the EUNITY project showed how recent data breaches and cyber-attacks had shared implications between Europe and Japan. Thirdly, the geopolitical context is currently going through the direction of bringing the two regions to significant agreements from a trade standpoint, but also from a data protection perspective (with an imminent signature by both parts of a so-called ‘Adequacy Decision’). The research conducted in this study reveals two asymmetric legal frameworks on cyber security and data protection. With a view to the future challenges presented by the strengthening of the collaboration between the two regions and the trans-national fashion of cybercrime, it is urged that solutions are found to fill in such gaps, in order to allow European Union and Japan to wisely increment their partnership.

Keywords: cybersecurity, Data protection, European Union, Japan

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4 A Comparative Study between Japan and the European Union on Software Vulnerability Public Policies

Authors: Stefano Fantin

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The present analysis outcomes from the research undertaken in the course of the European-funded project EUNITY, which targets the gaps in research and development on cybersecurity and privacy between Europe and Japan. Under these auspices, the research presents a study on the policy approach of Japan, the EU and a number of Member States of the Union with regard to the handling and discovery of software vulnerabilities, with the aim of identifying methodological differences and similarities. This research builds upon a functional comparative analysis of both public policies and legal instruments from the identified jurisdictions. The result of this analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with EUNITY partners, as well as by the participation of the researcher to a recent report from the Center for EU Policy Study on software vulnerability. The European Union presents a rather fragmented legal framework on software vulnerabilities. The presence of a number of different legislations at the EU level (including Network and Information Security Directive, Critical Infrastructure Directive, Directive on the Attacks at Information Systems and the Proposal for a Cybersecurity Act) with no clear focus on such a subject makes it difficult for both national governments and end-users (software owners, researchers and private citizens) to gain a clear understanding of the Union’s approach. Additionally, the current data protection reform package (general data protection regulation), seems to create legal uncertainty around security research. To date, at the member states level, a few efforts towards transparent practices have been made, namely by the Netherlands, France, and Latvia. This research will explain what policy approach such countries have taken. Japan has started implementing a coordinated vulnerability disclosure policy in 2004. To date, two amendments can be registered on the framework (2014 and 2017). The framework is furthermore complemented by a series of instruments allowing researchers to disclose responsibly any new discovery. However, the policy has started to lose its efficiency due to a significant increase in reports made to the authority in charge. To conclude, the research conducted reveals two asymmetric policy approaches, time-wise and content-wise. The analysis therein will, therefore, conclude with a series of policy recommendations based on the lessons learned from both regions, towards a common approach to the security of European and Japanese markets, industries and citizens.

Keywords: cybersecurity, Vulnerability, European Union, Japan

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3 Japan as a Tourism Nation: Emerging Immigrant Entrepreneurship in the Tourism Sector of Kyoto

Authors: Szabó Renáta Andrea

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In 2012 Japan created a new plan in order to become a tourism nation. The number of foreign tourists rises rapidly year by year, and with the upcoming Olympics in 2020, tourism turned into a prioritized national strategy. This paper offers a new perspective of tourism research: instead of focusing on the host nation or the inbound tourists, it represents an emerging in-between group: foreign entrepreneur residents. Despite the fact that Japan continuously scores as one of the lowest in East and South Asia related to entrepreneurial activity, in recent years, the activity of foreign entrepreneur residents is on the rise. This study is focused on Kyoto - the former capital of Japan and a popular tourist destination - and applies the mixed embeddedness model, which was used to understand this new phenomena and explore this emerging mediator group between locals and foreign tourists. Immigrant entrepreneurship is often related to a disadvantageous situation, and the businesses are introduced as the sole purpose of making a profit. The study seeks to argue with this point of view and augment the standard approaches to immigrant entrepreneurship. The findings introduce the key factors of this lifestyle choice besides profit and present how entrepreneurship is becoming an escape route to avoid standard working environment while living in Japan. It also shows the gap in the visa system and raises awareness about the emerging trend.

Keywords: Tourism, Japan, immigrant entrepreneurship, lifestyle entrepreneurship, mixed embeddedness model

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2 Spreading Japan's National Image through China during the Era of Mass Tourism: The Japan National Tourism Organization’s Use of Sina Weibo

Authors: Abigail Qian Zhou

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Since China has entered an era of mass tourism, there has been a fundamental change in the way Chinese people approach and perceive the image of other countries. With the advent of the new media era, social networking sites such as Sina Weibo have become a tool for many foreign governmental organizations to spread and promote their national image. Among them, the Japan National Tourism Organization (JNTO) was one of the first foreign official tourism agencies to register with Sina Weibo and actively implement communication activities. Due to historical and political reasons, cognition of Japan's national image by the Chinese has always been complicated and contradictory. However, since 2015, China has become the largest source of tourists visiting Japan. This clearly indicates that the broadening of Japan's national image in China has been effective and has value worthy of reference in promoting a positive Chinese perception of Japan and encouraging Japanese tourism. Within this context and using the method of content analysis in media studies through content mining software, this study analyzed how JNTO’s Sina Weibo accounts have constructed and spread Japan's national image. This study also summarized the characteristics of its content and form, and finally revealed the strategy of JNTO in building its international image. The findings of this study not only add a tourism-based perspective to traditional national image communications research, but also provide some reference for the effective international dissemination of national image in the future.

Keywords: Tourism, International Communication, China, Japan, national image

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1 How Much for a Dancer? Culture Policy in Japan and Czech Republic towards Dance.

Authors: Lucie Hayashi

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This paper offers a view on a different approach towards a dancer´s career in two very dissimilar countries: on one hand Japan, an economic predator at the end of last century, but suffering under economic crisis from the beginning of the new century; and the Czech Republic, a post-communist country, caught up in capitalist fever from the 1990s on the other. The government’s approach towards culture and dance in these two countries not only has a different history and nature, but also presents a different take on the ideal future development in its respective dance scenes. The level of support from the state budget echoes in all the fields of a professional dance career, dance art and the education of the public towards dance. The message of the statistic data is clear: the production of an enormous number of well trained and expensively educated dancers with no jobs for them in Japan, and a lack of good dancers ready to fill state supported theatre companies in the Czech Republic (that gladly employs Japanese dancers). The paradigm leaves a big exclamation mark on the huge influence the policy has on dance in society, and a question mark on the ideal situation.

Keywords: Education, Employment, Dance, Czech Republic, Japan, culture policy

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