Commenced in January 2007
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isotopes Related Abstracts

2 Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Oysters (Bivalvia, Ostreoidea) from Siberia: Taxonomy and Variations of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes

Authors: Igor N. Kosenko

Abstract:

The present contribution is an analysis of more than 300 specimens of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous oysters collected by V.A. Zakharov during the 1960s and currently stored in the Trofimuk Institute of Geology and Geophysics SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia). They were sampled in the northwestern bounder of Western Siberia (Yatriya, Maurynia, Tol’ya and Lopsiya rivers) and the north of Eastern Siberia (Boyarka, Bolshaya Romanikha and Dyabaka-Tari rivers). During the last five years, they were examined with taxonomical and palaeoecological purposes. Based on carbonate material of oyster’s shells were performed isotopic analyses and associated palaeotemperatures. Taxonomical study consists on classical morphofunctional and biometrical analyses. It is completed by another large amount of Cretaceous oysters from Crimea as well as modern Pacific oyster - Crassostrea gigas. Those were studied to understand the range of modification variability between different species. Oysters previously identified as Liostrea are attributed now to four genera: Praeexogyra and Helvetostrea (Flemingostreidae), Pernostrea (Gryphaeidae) and one new genus (Gryphaeidae), including one species “Liostrea” roemeri (Quenstedt). This last is characterized by peculiar ethology, being attached to floating ammonites and morphology, outlined by a beak-shaped umbo on the right (!) valve. Endemic Siberian species from the Pernostrea genus have been included into the subgenus Boreiodeltoideum subgen. nov. Pernostrea and Deltoideum genera have been included into the tribe Pernostreini n. trib. from the Gryphaeinae subfamily. Model of phylogenetic relationships between species of this tribe has been proposed. Siberian oyster complexes were compared with complexes from Western Europe, Poland and East European Platform. In western Boreal and Subboreal Realm (England, northern France and Poland) two stages of oyster’s development were recognized: Jurassic-type and Cretaceous-type. In Siberia, Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous oysters formed a unique complex. It may be due to the isolation of the Siberian Basin toward the West during the Early Cretaceous. Seven oyster’s shells of Pernostrea (Pernostrea) uralensis (Zakharov) from the Jurassic/Cretaceous Boundary Interval (Upper Volgian – Lower Ryazanian) of Maurynia river were used to perform δ13C and δ18O isotopic analyses. The preservation of the carbonate material was controlled by: cathodoluminescence analyses; content of Fe, Mn, Sr; absence of correlation between δ13C and δ18O and content of Fe and Mn. The obtained δ13C and δ18O data were compared with isotopic data based on belemnites from the same stratigraphical interval of the same section and were used to trace palaeotemperatures. A general trend towards negative δ18O values is recorded in the Maurynia section, from the lower part of the Upper Volgian to the middle part of the Ryazanian Chetaites sibiricus ammonite zone. This trend was previously recorded in the Nordvik section. The higher palaeotemperatures (2°C in average) determined from oyster’s shells indicate that belemnites likely migrated laterally and lived part of their lives in cooler waters. This work financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grant no. 16-35-00003).

Keywords: taxonomy, oysters, isotopes, Siberia

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1 Impact of Water Storage Structures on Groundwater Recharge in Jeloula Basin, Central Tunisia

Authors: I. Farid, K. Zouari

Abstract:

An attempt has been made to examine the effect of water storage structures on groundwater recharge in a semi-arid agroclimatic setting in Jeloula Basin (Central Tunisia). In this area, surface water in rivers is seasonal, and therefore groundwater is the perennial source of water supply for domestic and agricultural purposes. Three pumped storage water power plants (PSWPP) have been built to increase the overall water availability in the basin and support agricultural livelihoods of rural smallholders. The scale and geographical dispersion of these multiple lakes restrict the understanding of these coupled human-water systems and the identification of adequate strategies to support riparian farmers. In the present review, hydrochemistry and isotopic tools were combined to get an insight into the processes controlling mineralization and recharge conditions in the investigated aquifer system. This study showed a slight increase in the groundwater level, especially after the artificial recharge operations and a decline when the water volume moves down during drought periods. Chemical data indicate that the main sources of salinity in the waters are related to water-rock interactions. Data inferred from stable isotopes in groundwater samples indicated recharge with modern rainfall. The investigated surface water samples collected from the PSWPP are affected by a significant evaporation and reveal large seasonal variations, which could be controlled by the water volume changes in the open surface reservoirs and the meteorological conditions during evaporation, condensation, and precipitation. The geochemical information is comparable to the isotopic results and illustrates that the chemical and isotopic signatures of reservoir waters differ clearly from those of groundwaters. These data confirm that the contribution of the artificial recharge operations from the PSWPP is very limited.

Keywords: Hydrochemistry, recharge, isotopes, Jeloula basin

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