Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

isotherms Related Abstracts

16 Adsorption Isotherm, Kinetic and Mechanism Studies of Some Substituted Phenols from Aqueous Solution by Jujuba Seeds Activated Carbon

Authors: O. Benturki, A. Benturki


Activated carbon was prepared from Jujube seeds by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH), followed by pyrolysis at 800°C. Batch studies were conducted for kinetic, thermodynamic and equilibrium studies on the adsorption of phenol (P) and 2-4 dichlorophenol (2-4 DCP) from aqueous solution, than the adsorption capacities followed the order of 2-4 dichlorophenol > phenol. The operating variables studied were initial phenols concentration, contact time, temperature and solution pH. Results show that the pH value of 7 is favorable for the adsorption of phenols. The sorption data have been analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The isotherm data followed Langmuir Model. The adsorption processes conformed to the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy and Gibb’s free energy changes were also calculated and it was found that the sorption of phenols by Jujuba seeds activated carbon was a spontaneous process The maximum adsorption efficiency of phenol and 2-4 dichlorophenol was 142.85 mg.g−1 and 250 mg.g−1, respectively.

Keywords: Adsorption, Phenols, activated carbon, isotherms, Jujuba seeds, langmuir

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15 Preparation of New Organoclays and Applications for Adsorption of Telon Dyes in Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Benamar Makhoukhi


Clay ion-exchange using bismidazolium salts (MBIM) could provide organophilic clays materials that allow effective retention of polluting dyes. The present investigations deal with bentonite (Bt) modification using (ortho, meta and para) bisimidazolium cations and attempts to remove a synthetic textile dyes, such as (Telon-Orange, Telon-Red and Telon-Blue) by adsorption, from aqueous solutions. The surface modification of MBIM–Bt was examined using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Adsorption tests applied to Telon dyes revealed a significant increase of the maximum adsorption capacity from ca. 21-28 to 88-108 mg.g-1 after intercalation. The highest adsorption level was noticed for Telon-Orange dye on the p-MBIM–Bt, presumably due higher interlayer space and better diffusion. The pseudo-first order rate equation was able to provide the best description of adsorption kinetics data for all three dyestuffs. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were also determined. The results show that MBIM–Bt could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of Telon dyes from effluents.

Keywords: Adsorption, Dyes, bentonite, organoclay, isotherms, Bisimidazolium

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14 Optimization of Adsorption Performance of Lignocellulosic Waste Pretreatment and Chemical Modification

Authors: Bendjelloul Meriem, Elandaloussi El Hadj


In this work, we studied the effectiveness of a lignocellulosic waste (wood sawdust) for the removal of cadmium Cd (II) in aqueous solution. The adsorbent material SBO-CH2-CO2Na has been prepared by alkaline pretreatment of wood sawdust followed by a chemical modification with sodium salt of chloroacetic acid. The characterization of the as-prepared material by FTIR has proven that the grafting of acetate spacer took actually place in the lignocellulosic backbone by the appearance of characteristic band of carboxylic groups in the IR spectrum. The removal study of Cd2+ by SBO-CH2-CO2Na material at the solid-liquid interface was carried out by kinetics, sorption isotherms, effect of temperature and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. The last part of this work was dedicated to assess the regenerability of the adsorbent material after three reuse cycles. The results indicate that SBO-CH2-CO2Na matrix possesses a high effectiveness in removing Cd (II) with an adsorption capacity of 222.22 mg/g, yet a better value that those of many low-cost adsorbents so far reported in the literature. The results found in the course of this study suggest that ionic exchange is the most appropriate mechanism involved in the removal of cadmium ions.

Keywords: Adsorption, cadmium, isotherms, lignocellulosic, regenerability

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13 Removal of Basic Dyes from Aqueous Solutions with a Treated Spent Bleaching Earth

Authors: M. Mana, M. S. Ouali, L. C. de Menorval


A spent bleaching earth from an edible oil refinery has been treated by impregnation with a normal sodium hydroxide solution followed by mild thermal treatment (100°C). The obtained material (TSBE) was washed, dried and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, SEM, BET, and thermal analysis. The clay structure was not apparently affected by the treatment and the impregnated organic matter was quantitatively removed. We have investigated the comparative sorption of safranine and methylene blue on this material, the spent bleaching earth (SBE) and the virgin bleaching earth (VBE). The kinetic results fit the pseudo second order kinetic model and the Weber & Morris, intra-particle diffusion model. The pH had no effect on the sorption efficiency. The sorption isotherms followed the Langmuir model for various sorbent concentrations with good values of determination coefficient. A linear relationship was found between the calculated maximum removal capacity and the solid/solution ratio. A comparison between the results obtained with this material and those of the literature highlighted the low cost and the good removal capacity of the treated spent bleaching earth.

Keywords: Sorption, isotherms, basic dyes, spent bleaching earth

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12 Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions by Biosorption Using Macadamia Nutshells: Effect of Different Treatment Methods

Authors: Vusumzi E. Pakade, Themba D. Ntuli, Augustine E. Ofomaja


Macadamia nutshell biosorbents treated in three different methods (raw Macadamia nutshell powder (RMN), acid-treated Macadamia nutshell (ATMN) and base-treated Macadamia nutshell (BTMN)) were investigated for the adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra of free and Cr(VI)-loaded sorbents as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the acid and base treatments modified the surface properties of the sorbents. The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Cr(VI) by sorbents were pH 2, contact time 10 h, adsorbent dosage 0.2 g L-1, and concentration 100 mg L-1. The different treatment methods altered the surface characteristics of the sorbents and produced different maximum binding capacities of 42.5, 40.6 and 37.5 mg g-1 for RMN, ATMN and BTMN, respectively. The data was fitted into the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherms. No single model could clearly explain the data perhaps due to the complexity of process taking place. The kinetic modeling results showed that the process of Cr(VI) biosorption with Macadamia sorbents was better described by a process of chemical sorption in pseudo-second order. These results showed that the three treatment methods yielded different surface properties which then influenced adsorption of Cr(VI) differently.

Keywords: treatment, Reduction, biosorption, isotherms, chromium(VI), Macadamia

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11 Enhanced Biosorption of Copper Ions by Luffa Cylindrica: Biosorbent Characterization and Batch Experiments

Authors: Nouacer Imane, Benalia Mokhtar, Djedid Mabrouk


The adsorption ability of a powdered activated carbons (PAC) derived from Luffa cylindrica investigated in an attempt to produce more economic and effective sorbents for the control of Cu(II) ion from industrial liquid streams. Carbonaceous sorbents derived from local luffa cylindrica, were prepared by chemical activation methods using ZnCl2 as activating reagents. Adsorption of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The effects of pH, initial adsorbent concentration, the effect of particle size, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were studied in batch experiments. The maximum adsorption capacity of copper onto grafted Luffa cylindrica fiber was found to be 14.23 mg/g with best fit for Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change, ∆H (-0.823 kJ/mol), entropy change, ∆S (-9.35 J/molK) and free energy change, ∆G (−1.56 kJ/mol) were also calculated. Adsorption process was found spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Finally, the luffa cylindrica has been evaluated by FTIR, MO and x-ray diffraction in order to determine if the biosorption process modifies its chemical structure and morphology, respectively. Luffa cylindrica has been proven to be an efficient biomaterial useful for heavy metal separation purposes that is not altered by the process.

Keywords: thermodynamic, Adsorption, cadmium, isotherms, luffa sponge

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10 Studies on Dye Removal by Aspergillus niger Strain

Authors: M. S. Mahmoud, Samah A. Mohamed, Neama A. Sobhy


For color removal from wastewater containing organic contaminants, biological treatment systems have been widely used such as physical and chemical methods of flocculation, coagulation. Fungal decolorization of dye containing wastewater is one of important goal in industrial wastewater treatment. This work was aimed to characterize Aspergillus niger strain for dye removal from aqueous solution and from raw textile wastewater. Batch experiments were studied for removal of color using fungal isolate biomass under different conditions. Environmental conditions like pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial dye concentration were studied. Influence of the pH on the removal of azo dye by Aspergillus niger was carried out between pH 1.0 and pH 11.0. The optimum pH for red dye decolonization was 9.0. Results showed the decolorization of dye was decreased with the increase of its initial dye concentration. The adsorption data was analyzed based on the models of equilibrium isotherm (Freundlich model and Langmuir model). During the adsorption isotherm studies; dye removal was better fitted to Freundlich model. The isolated fungal biomass was characterized according to its surface area both pre and post the decolorization process by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Results indicate that the isolated fungal biomass showed higher affinity for dye in decolorization process.

Keywords: biomass, biosorption, isotherms, dye

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9 Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies on Adsorption of Reactive Blue 29 from Aqueous Solution Using Activated Tamarind Kernel Powder

Authors: E. D. Paul, A. D. Adams, O. Sunmonu, U. S. Ishiaku


Activated tamarind kernel powder (ATKP) was prepared from tamarind fruit (Tamarindus indica), and utilized for the removal of Reactive Blue 29 (RB29) from its aqueous solution. The powder was activated using 4N nitric acid (HNO₃). The adsorbent was characterised using infrared spectroscopy, bulk density, ash content, pH, moisture content and dry matter content measurements. The effect of various parameters which include; temperature, pH, adsorbent dosage, ion concentration, and contact time were studied. Four different equilibrium isotherm models were tested on the experimental data, but the Temkin isotherm model was best-fitted into the experimental data. The pseudo-first order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were also fitted into the graphs, but pseudo-second order was best fitted to the experimental data. The thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption of Reactive Blue 29 onto activated tamarind kernel powder is a physical process, feasible and spontaneous, exothermic in nature and there is decreased randomness at the solid/solution interphase during the adsorption process. Therefore, activated tamarind kernel powder has proven to be a very good adsorbent for the removal of Reactive Blue 29 dyes from industrial waste water.

Keywords: Kinetics, isotherms, tamarind kernel powder, reactive blue 29

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8 Adsorption of Lead (II) and Copper (II) Ions onto Marula Nuts Activated Carbon

Authors: Tumisang Seodigeng, Hilary Rutto, Lucky Malise


Heavy metal contamination in waste water is a very serious issue affecting a lot of industrialized countries due to the health and environmental impact of these heavy metals on human life and the ecosystem. Adsorption using activated carbon is the most promising method for the removal of heavy metals from waste water but commercial activated carbon is expensive which gives rise to the need for alternatively activated carbon derived from cheap precursors, agricultural wastes, or byproducts from other processes. In this study activated bio-carbon derived from the carbonaceous material obtained from the pyrolysis of Marula nut shells was chemically activated and used as an adsorbent for the removal of lead (II) and copper (II) ions from aqueous solution. The surface morphology and chemistry of the adsorbent before and after chemical activation with zinc chloride impregnation were studied using SEM and FTIR analysis respectively and the results obtained indicate that chemical activation with zinc chloride improves the surface morphology of the adsorbent and enhances the intensity of the surface oxygen complexes on the surface of the adsorbent. The effect of process parameters such as adsorbent dosage, pH value of the solution, initial metal concentration, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption of lead (II) and copper (II) ions onto Marula nut activated carbon were investigated, and their optimum operating conditions were also determined. The experimental data was fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and the data fitted best on the Freundlich isotherm model for both metal ions. The adsorption kinetics were also evaluated, and the experimental data fitted the pseudo-first order kinetic model better than the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The adsorption thermodynamics were also studied and the results indicate that the adsorption of lead and copper ions is spontaneous and exothermic in nature, feasible, and also involves a dissociative mechanism in the temperature range of 25-45 °C.

Keywords: Thermodynamics, Kinetics, Adsorption, isotherms, marula nut shells activated carbon

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7 Removal of Copper(II) and Lead(II) from Aqueous Phase by Plum Stone Activated Carbon

Authors: Erol Pehlivan, Serife Parlayici


In this study, plum stone shell activated carbon (PS-AC) was prepared to adsorb Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions in aqueous solutions. Some important parameters that influence the adsorption of metal ions such as pH, contact time and metal concentration have been systematically investigated in batch type reactors. The characterization of adsorbent is carried out by means of FTIR and SEM. It was found that the adsorption capacities of PS-AC were pH-dependent, and the optimal pH values were 4.5 and 5.0 for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The adsorption was rapid and the equilibrium was reached within 60 minutes to remove of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions. The adsorption stability was studied in various doses of adsorbent. Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibrium studies of PS-AC. Adsorption data showed that the adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) is compatible with Langmuir isotherm model. The result showed that adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherm were 33.22 mg/g and 57.80 mg/g for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively.

Keywords: activated carbon, isotherms, plum-stone, copper and lead

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6 Biosorption of Fluoride from Aqueous Solutions by Tinospora Cordifolia Leaves

Authors: Srinivasulu Dasaiah, Kalyan Yakkala, Gangadhar Battala, Pavan Kumar Pindi, Ramakrishna Naidu Gurijala


Tinospora cordifolia leaves biomass used for the removal fluoride from aqueous solutions. Batch biosorption technique was applied, pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial fluoride concentration was studied. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques used to study the surface characteristics and the presence of chemical functional groups on the biosorbent. Biosorption isotherm models and kinetic models were applied to understand the sorption mechanism. Results revealed that pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial fluoride concentration played a significant effect on fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. The developed biosorbent derived from Tinospora cordifolia leaves biomass found to be a low-cost biosorbent and could be used for the effective removal of fluoride in synthetic as well as real water samples.

Keywords: biosorption, contact time, fluoride, isotherms

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5 Acidic Dye Removal From Aqueous Solution Using Heat Treated and Polymer Modified Waste Containing Boron Impurity

Authors: Ali Kara, Vural Bütün, Asim Olgun, Pelin Sevinc, Merve Gungor, Orhan Ornek


In this study, we investigated the possibility of using waste containing boron impurity (BW) as an adsorbent for the removal of Orange 16 from aqueous solution. Surface properties of the BW, heat treated BW, and diblock copolymer coated BW were examined by using Zeta Meter and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The polymer modified sample having the highest positive zeta potential was used as an adsorbent. Batch adsorption studies were carried out. The operating variables studied were the initial dye concentration, contact time, solution pH, and adsorbent dosage. It was found that the dye adsorption largely depends on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at pH 3. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and the isotherm fit well to the Langmuir model.

Keywords: Adsorption, zeta potential, isotherms, Orange 16

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4 Synthesis of Graphene Oxide/Chitosan Nanocomposite for Methylene Blue Adsorption

Authors: S. Melvin Samuel, Jayanta Bhattacharya


In the present study, a graphene oxide/chitosan (GO-CS) composite material was prepared and used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The synthesized GO-CS adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The removal of MB was conducted in batch mode. The effect of parameters influencing the adsorption of MB such as pH of the solution, initial MB concentration, shaking speed, contact time and adsorbent dosage were studied. The results showed that the GO-CS composite material has high adsorption capacity of 196 mg/g of MB solution at pH 9.0. Further, the adsorption of MB on GO-CS followed pseudo second order kinetics and equilibrium adsorption data well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model. The study suggests that the GO-CS is a favorable adsorbent for the removal of MB from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Kinetics, methylene blue, isotherms, Graphene oxide-chitosan

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3 Applicability and Reusability of Fly Ash and Base Treated Fly Ash for Adsorption of Catechol from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Modeling

Authors: S. Agarwal, A. Rani


Catechol is a natural polyphenolic compound that widely exists in higher plants such as teas, vegetables, fruits, tobaccos, and some traditional Chinese medicines. The fly ash-based zeolites are capable of absorbing a wide range of pollutants. But the process of zeolite synthesis is time-consuming and requires technical setups by the industries. The marketed costs of zeolites are quite high restricting its use by small-scale industries for the removal of phenolic compounds. The present research proposes a simple method of alkaline treatment of FA to produce an effective adsorbent for catechol removal from wastewater. The experimental parameter such as pH, temperature, initial concentration and adsorbent dose on the removal of catechol were studied in batch reactor. For this purpose the adsorbent materials were mixed with aqueous solutions containing catechol ranging in 50 – 200 mg/L initial concentrations and then shaken continuously in a thermostatic Orbital Incubator Shaker at 30 ± 0.1 °C for 24 h. The samples were withdrawn from the shaker at predetermined time interval and separated by centrifugation (Centrifuge machine MBL-20) at 2000 rpm for 4 min. to yield a clear supernatant for analysis of the equilibrium concentrations of the solutes. The concentrations were measured with Double Beam UV/Visible spectrophotometer (model Spectrscan UV 2600/02) at the wavelength of 275 nm for catechol. In the present study, the use of low-cost adsorbent (BTFA) derived from coal fly ash (FA), has been investigated as a substitute of expensive methods for the sequestration of catechol. The FA and BTFA adsorbents were well characterized by XRF, FE-SEM with EDX, FTIR, and surface area and porosity measurement which proves the chemical constituents, functional groups and morphology of the adsorbents. The catechol adsorption capacities of synthesized BTFA and native material were determined. The adsorption was slightly increased with an increase in pH value. The monolayer adsorption capacities of FA and BTFA for catechol were 100 mg g⁻¹ and 333.33 mg g⁻¹ respectively, and maximum adsorption occurs within 60 minutes for both adsorbents used in this test. The equilibrium data are fitted by Freundlich isotherm found on the basis of error analysis (RMSE, SSE, and χ²). Adsorption was found to be spontaneous and exothermic on the basis of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔS°, and ΔH°). Pseudo-second-order kinetic model better fitted the data for both FA and BTFA. BTFA showed large adsorptive characteristics, high separation selectivity, and excellent recyclability than FA. These findings indicate that BTFA could be employed as an effective and inexpensive adsorbent for the removal of catechol from wastewater.

Keywords: Kinetics, fly ash, isotherms, catechol, thermodynamic parameters

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2 Removal of Metal Ions (II) Using a Synthetic Bis(2-Pyridylmethyl)Amino-Chloroacetyl Chloride- Ethylenediamine-Grafted Graphene Oxide Sheets

Authors: Laroussi Chaabane, Amel El Ghali, Emmanuel Beyou, Mohammed Hassen V. Baouab


The functionalization of graphene oxide sheets by ethylenediamine (EDA) was accomplished followed by the grafting of bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino group (BPED) onto the activated graphene oxide sheets in the presence of chloroacetylchloride (CAC) produced the martial [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED]. The physic-chemical properties of [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED] composites were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPs), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED] was used for removing M(II) (where M=Cu, Ni and Co) ions from aqueous solutions using a batch process. The effect of pH, contact time and temperature were investigated. More importantly, the [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED] adsorbent exhibited remarkable performance in capturing heavy metal ions from water. The maximum adsorption capacity values of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) on the [(GO-EDA-CAC)-BPED] at the pH of 7 is 3.05 mmol.g⁻¹, 3.25 mmol.g⁻¹ and 3.05 mmol.g⁻¹ respectively. To examine the underlying mechanism of the adsorption process, pseudo-first, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were fitted to experimental kinetic data. Results showed that the pseudo-second-order equation was appropriate to describe the three metal ions adsorption by [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED]. Adsorption data were further analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Jossensadsorption approaches. Additionally, the adsorption properties of the [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED], their reusability (more than 10 cycles) and durability in the aqueous solutions open the path to removal of metal ions (Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) from water solution. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED] can be an effective and potential adsorbent for removing metal ions from an aqueous solution.

Keywords: Graphene Oxide, isotherms, adsorption kinetics, bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino

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1 Adsorption of Peppermint Essential Oil by Polypropylene Nanofiber

Authors: S. M. Anisuzzaman, Duduku Krishnaiah, Kumaran Govindaraj, Chiam Chel Ken, Zykamilia Kamin


Pure essential oil is highly demanded in the market since most of the so-called pure essential oils in the market contains alcohol. This is because of the usage of alcohol in separating oil and water mixture. Removal of pure essential oil from water without using any chemical solvent has become a challenging issue. Adsorbents generally have the properties of separating hydrophobic oil from hydrophilic mixture. Polypropylen nanofiber is a thermoplastic polymer which is produced from propylene. It was used as an adsorbent in this study. Based on the research, it was found that the polypropylene nanofiber was able to adsorb peppermint oil from the aqueous solution over a wide range of concentration. Based on scanning electron microscope (SEM), nanofiber has very small nano diameter fiber size in average before the adsorption and larger scaled average diameter of fibers after adsorption which indicates that smaller diameter of nanofiber enhances the adsorption process. The adsorption capacity of peppermint oil increases as the initial concentration of peppermint oil and amount of polypropylene nanofiber used increases. The maximum adsorption capacity of polypropylene nanofiber was found to be 689.5 mg/g at (T= 30°C). Moreover, the adsorption capacity of peppermint oil decreases as the temperature of solution increases. The equilibrium data of polypropylene nanofiber is best represented by Freundlich isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacity of 689.5 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics of polypropylene nanofiber was best represented by pseudo-second order model.

Keywords: Nanofiber, Adsorption, isotherms, adsorption kinetics, peppermint essential oil

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