Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Islands Related Abstracts

4 Sustainable Use of Laura Lens during Drought

Authors: Kazuhisa Koda, Tsutomu Kobayashi

Abstract:

Laura Island, which is located about 50 km away from downtown, is a source of water supply in Majuro atoll, which is the capital of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Low and flat Majuro atoll has neither river nor lake. It is very important for Majuro atoll to ensure the conservation of its water resources. However, up-coning, which is the process of partial rising of the freshwater-saltwater boundary near the water-supply well, was caused by the excess pumping from it during the severe drought in 1998. Up-coning will make the water usage of the freshwater lens difficult. Thus, appropriate water usage is required to prevent up-coning in the freshwater lens because there is no other water source during drought. Numerical simulation of water usage applying SEAWAT model was conducted at the central part of Laura Island, including the water-supply well, which was affected by up-coning. The freshwater lens was created as a result of infiltration of consistent average rainfall. The lens shape was almost the same as the one in 1985. 0 of monthly rainfall and variable daily pump discharge were used to calculate the sustainable pump discharge from the water-supply well. Consequently, the total amount of pump discharge was increased as the daily pump discharge was increased, indicating that it needs more time to recover from up-coning. Thus, a pump standard to reduce the pump intensity is being proposed, which is based on numerical simulation concerning the occurrence of the up-coning phenomenon in Laura Island during the drought.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Sustainable water use, Islands, freshwater lens

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3 Innovative Waste Management Practices in Remote Areas

Authors: Dolores Hidalgo, Jesús M. Martín-Marroquín, Francisco Corona

Abstract:

Municipal waste consist of a variety of items that are everyday discarded by the population. They are usually collected by municipalities and include waste generated by households, commercial activities (local shops) and public buildings. The composition of municipal waste varies greatly from place to place, being mostly related to levels and patterns of consumption, rates of urbanization, lifestyles, and local or national waste management practices. Each year, a huge amount of resources is consumed in the EU, and according to that, also a huge amount of waste is produced. The environmental problems derived from the management and processing of these waste streams are well known, and include impacts on land, water and air. The situation in remote areas is even worst. Difficult access when climatic conditions are adverse, remoteness of centralized municipal treatment systems or dispersion of the population, are all factors that make remote areas a real municipal waste treatment challenge. Furthermore, the scope of the problem increases significantly because the total lack of awareness of the existing risks in this area together with the poor implementation of advanced culture on waste minimization and recycling responsibly. The aim of this work is to analyze the existing situation in remote areas in reference to the production of municipal waste and evaluate the efficiency of different management alternatives. Ideas for improving waste management in remote areas include, for example: the implementation of self-management systems for the organic fraction; establish door-to-door collection models; promote small-scale treatment facilities or adjust the rates of waste generation thereof.

Keywords: Islands, Municipal Waste, rural communities, door to door collection, isolated areas, remote areas

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2 Views from Shores Past: Palaeogeographic Reconstructions as an Aid for Interpreting the Movement of Early Modern Humans on and between the Islands of Wallacea

Authors: S. Kealy, J. Louys, S. O’Connor

Abstract:

The island archipelago that stretches between the continents of Sunda (Southeast Asia) and Sahul (Australia - New Guinea) and comprising much of modern-day Indonesia as well as Timor-Leste, represents the biogeographic region of Wallacea. The islands of Wallaea are significant archaeologically as they have never been connected to the mainlands of either Sunda or Sahul, and thus the colonization by early modern humans of these islands and subsequently Australia and New Guinea, would have necessitated some form of water crossings. Accurate palaeogeographic reconstructions of the Wallacean Archipelago for this time are important not only for modeling likely routes of colonization but also for reconstructing likely landscapes and hence resources available to the first colonists. Here we present five digital reconstructions of coastal outlines of Wallacea and Sahul (Australia and New Guinea) for the periods 65, 60, 55, 50, and 45,000 years ago using the latest bathometric chart and a sea-level model that is adjusted to account for the average uplift rate known from Wallacea. This data was also used to reconstructed island areal extent as well as topography for each time period. These reconstructions allowed us to determine the distance from the coast and relative elevation of the earliest archaeological sites for each island where such records exist. This enabled us to approximate how much effort exploitation of coastal resources would have taken for early colonists, and how important such resources were. These reconstructions also allowed us to estimate visibility for each island in the archipelago, and to model how intervisible each island was during the period of likely human colonisation. We demonstrate how these models provide archaeologists with an important basis for visualising this ancient landscape and interpreting how it was originally viewed, traversed and exploited by its earliest modern human inhabitants.

Keywords: Islands, Wallacea, palaeogeographic reconstructions, intervisibility

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1 The Incorporation of Themes Related to Islandness in Tourism Branding among Cold-Water, Warm-Water, and Temperate-Water Islands

Authors: Susan C. Graham

Abstract:

Islands have a long established allure for travellers the world over. From earliest accounts of human history, travellers were drawn by the sense of islandness embodied by these destinations. The concept of islandness describes the essence of what makes islands unique relative to non-islands and extends beyond geographic interpretations by attempting to capture the specific sense of self-exhibited by islanders in relation to their connection to place. The themes most strongly associated with islandness include a) a strong connection to water as both the life blood and a physical barrier, b) a unique culture and robust arts community that is deeply linked to both the island and islanders, c) an appreciation of and for nature, d) a rich sense of history and tradition connected to the place, e) a sense of community and belonging that arose through shared triumphs and struggles, and f) a profound awareness of independence, separateness, and uniqueness derived from both physical and social experience. The island brand, like all brands, is a marketing tactic designed to succinctly express a specific value proposition in simplistic ways which might include a brand symbol, logo, slogan, or representation meant to distinguish one brand from another. If a value proposition is the identification of attributes that separate one brand from another by highlighting the brand’s uniqueness, then presumably island brands may, at least in part, emphasize islandness as part of the destination brand. Yet it may in naïve to expect all islands to brand themselves using similar themes when islands can differ so substantially in terms of population, geography, political climate, economy, culture, and history. Of particular interest is the increased focus on tourism among 'cold-water' islands. This paper will examine the incorporation of themes related to islandness in tourism branding among cold-water, warm-water, and temperate-water islands. The tourism logos of 83 islands were collected and assessed for the use of themes related to islandness, namely water, arts and culture, nature, history and tradition, community and belongingness, and independence, separateness, and uniqueness. The ratings for each theme related to islandness for each of the 83 island destinations were then analyzed to identify if differences exist between cold-water, warm-water, and temperate-water islands. A general consensus of what constitutes 'cold-water' destinations is lacking, therefore a water temperature of 15C was adopted using the guidelines from the National Center for Cold Water Safety. Among these 83 islands, the average high and average low water temperatures of 196 specific locations, including the capital, northern, and southern most points of each island, was recorded to determine if the location was a cold-water (average high and low below 15C), warm-water (average high and low above 15C), or temperate-water (average high above 15C and low below 15C) location.

Keywords: Tourism, branding, Islands, cold-water

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