Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

ischemic stroke Related Abstracts

8 Outcome of Patients Undergoing Hemicraniectomy for Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: A 5 Year Retrospective Study at Perpetual Succour Hospital, Cebu City, Philippines

Authors: Adelson G. Guillarte, M. D., Noel J. Belonguel, Jarungchai Anton S. Vatanagul


Patients with malignant middle cerebral infarction (MCA) (with massive brain swelling and herniation) were reported to have a mortality rate of 80% even with the appropriate conservative medical therapy. European Trials (DECIMAL, DESTINY I, and II, HAMLET) showed significant improvement in mortality and functional outcome with hemicraniectomy. No known published local studies in the region, thus a local study is vital. This is a single center, retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, chart review study which includes ≥18 year-old patients with malignant MCA infarction, who underwent hemicraniectomy, and those who were given conservative medical therapy alone, from January 2008 to December 2012 at Perpetual Succour Hospital. Excluded were patients whose charts are with insufficient data, prior MCA stroke, with concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage and with other serious medical conditions or terminal illnesses. Minimum of 32 populations were needed. Data were presented in mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage distribution. Man n Whitney U test and Chi Square test were used. P-values lesser than 0.05 alpha were considered statistically significant. A total of 672 stroke patients were admitted. 34 patients pass the inclusion criteria. 9 underwent hemicraniectomy and 25 were treated by conservative medical therapy alone. Although not statistically significant (64% vs 33%, p=0.112) there were more patients noted improved in the conservative treatment group. Meanwhile, the Hemicraniectomy group have increased percentage of mortality (67%) (p=0.112). There was a decreasing trend in the average NIHSS score in both groups from admission to post-op 7 days (p=0.198, p=0.78). A bigger multicenter prospective study is recommended to control inherent biases and limitations of a retrospective and smaller study.

Keywords: cerebral infarct, hemicraniectomy, ischemic stroke, malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarct

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7 Ischemic Stroke Detection in Computed Tomography Examinations

Authors: Allan F. F. Alves, Fernando A. Bacchim Neto, Guilherme Giacomini, Marcela de Oliveira, Ana L. M. Pavan, Maria E. D. Rosa, Diana R. Pina


Stroke is a worldwide concern, only in Brazil it accounts for 10% of all registered deaths. There are 2 stroke types, ischemic (87%) and hemorrhagic (13%). Early diagnosis is essential to avoid irreversible cerebral damage. Non-enhanced computed tomography (NECT) is one of the main diagnostic techniques used due to its wide availability and rapid diagnosis. Detection depends on the size and severity of lesions and the time spent between the first symptoms and examination. The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is a subjective method that increases the detection rate. The aim of this work was to implement an image segmentation system to enhance ischemic stroke and to quantify the area of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke lesions in CT scans. We evaluated 10 patients with NECT examinations diagnosed with ischemic stroke. Analyzes were performed in two axial slices, one at the level of the thalamus and basal ganglion and one adjacent to the top edge of the ganglionic structures with window width between 80 and 100 Hounsfield Units. We used different image processing techniques such as morphological filters, discrete wavelet transform and Fuzzy C-means clustering. Subjective analyzes were performed by a neuroradiologist according to the ASPECTS scale to quantify ischemic areas in the middle cerebral artery region. These subjective analysis results were compared with objective analyzes performed by the computational algorithm. Preliminary results indicate that the morphological filters actually improve the ischemic areas for subjective evaluations. The comparison in area of the ischemic region contoured by the neuroradiologist and the defined area by computational algorithm showed no deviations greater than 12% in any of the 10 examination tests. Although there is a tendency that the areas contoured by the neuroradiologist are smaller than those obtained by the algorithm. These results show the importance of a computer aided diagnosis software to assist neuroradiology decisions, especially in critical situations as the choice of treatment for ischemic stroke.

Keywords: Image Processing, fuzzy c-means, ischemic stroke, CT scans

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6 Chitosan Coated Liposome Incorporated Cyanobacterial Pigment for Nasal Administration in the Brain Stroke

Authors: Kyou Hee Shim, Hwa Sung Shin


When a thrombolysis agent is administered to treat ischemic stroke, excessive reactive oxygen species are generated due to a sudden provision of oxygen and occurs secondary damage cell necrosis. Thus, it is necessary to administrate adjuvant as well as thrombolysis agent to protect and reduce damaged tissue. As cerebral blood vessels have specific structure called blood-brain barrier (BBB), it is not easy to transfer substances from blood to tissue. Therefore, development of a drug carrier is required to increase drug delivery efficiency to brain tissue. In this study, cyanobacterial pigment from the blue-green algae known for having neuroprotective effect as well as antioxidant effect was nasally administrated for bypassing BBB. In order to deliver cyanobacterial pigment efficiently, the nano-sized liposome was used as a carrier. Liposomes were coated with a positive charge of chitosan since negative residues are present at the nasal mucosa the first gateway of nasal administration. Characteristics of liposome including morphology, size and zeta potential were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and zeta analyzer. As a result of cytotoxic test, the liposomes were not harmful. Also, being administered a drug to the ischemic stroke animal model, we could confirm that the pharmacological effect of the pigment delivered by chitosan coated liposome was enhanced compared to that of non-coated liposome. Consequently, chitosan coated liposome could be considered as an optimized drug delivery system for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

Keywords: chitosan, ischemic stroke, liposome, cyanobacterial pigment, nasal administration

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5 A Promising Thrombolytic and Anticoagulant Serine Protease Purified from Lug Worms Inhabiting Tidal Flats

Authors: Hye Jin Kim, Hwa Sung Shin


Ischemic stroke means the caused brain damage due to neurological defects, occurring occlusion of cerebral vascular resulting in thrombus or embolism. t-PA (tissue Plasminogen Activator) is the only thrombolytic agent passed the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). However, t-PA directly dissolves the thrombus (direct activity) through fibrinolysis, showing side effects such as re-occlusion. In this study, we evaluated the thrombolytic activities of the serine protease extracted from lugworms inhabiting tidal flats. The new serine protease identified as 38 kDa by SDS-PAGE was not toxic to brain endothelial cells line (hCMEC/D3). Also, the plasmin synthesis inhibition activity (indirect activity) of the new serine protease was confirmed through fibrin zymography assay and fibrin plate assay. It was higher than direct activity as compared to u-PA (urokinase Plasminogen Activator). The activities were found to be maintained at a wide range of temperature (4-70 ℃) and pH 7-10 compared to previous thrombolytic agents from the azocasein assay. In addition, the new serine protease has shown anticoagulant activity from fibrinogenolytic activity assay. In conclusion, the serine protease in lug worms inhabiting the tidal flats could be considered a promising thrombolytic candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

Keywords: ischemic stroke, alkaline serine protease, bifunctional thrombolytic activity, fibrinolytic activity, lug worms

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4 Lower Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Hormone Therapy Users with Use of Chinese Herbal Medicine

Authors: Shu-Hui Wen, Wei-Chuan Chang, Hsien-Chang Wu


Background: Little is known about the benefits and risks of use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in conditions related to hormone therapy (HT) use on the risk of ischemic stroke (IS). The aim of this study is to explore the risk of IS in menopausal women treated with HT and CHM. Materials and methods: A total of 32,441 menopausal women without surgical menopause aged 40- 65 years were selected from 2003 to 2010 using the 2-million random samples of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. According to the medication usage of HT and CHM, we divided the current and recent users into two groups: an HT use-only group (n = 4,989) and an HT/CHM group (n = 9,265). Propensity-score matching samples (4,079 pairs) were further created to deal with confounding by indication. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of IS during HT or CHM treatment were estimated by the robust Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The incidence rate of IS in the HT/CHM group was significantly lower than in the HT group (4.5 vs. 12.8 per 1000 person-year, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis results indicated that additional CHM use was significant with a lower risk of IS (HR = 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.43). Further subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses had similar findings. Conclusion: We found that combined use of HT and CHM was associated with a lower risk for IS than HT use only. Further study is needed to examine possible mechanism underlying this association.

Keywords: Menopause, Hormone therapy, ischemic stroke, Chinese herbal medicine

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3 Determining of the Performance of Data Mining Algorithm Determining the Influential Factors and Prediction of Ischemic Stroke: A Comparative Study in the Southeast of Iran

Authors: Y. Mehdipour, S. Ebrahimi, A. Jahanpour, F. Seyedzaei, B. Sabayan, A. Karimi, H. Amirifard


Ischemic stroke is one of the common reasons for disability and mortality. The fourth leading cause of death in the world and the third in some other sources. Only 1/3 of the patients with ischemic stroke fully recover, 1/3 of them end in permanent disability and 1/3 face death. Thus, the use of predictive models to predict stroke has a vital role in reducing the complications and costs related to this disease. Thus, the aim of this study was to specify the effective factors and predict ischemic stroke with the help of DM methods. The present study was a descriptive-analytic study. The population was 213 cases from among patients referring to Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) Hospital in Zahedan. Data collection tool was a checklist with the validity and reliability confirmed. This study used DM algorithms of decision tree for modeling. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-19 and SPSS Modeler 14.2. The results of the comparison of algorithms showed that CHAID algorithm with 95.7% accuracy has the best performance. Moreover, based on the model created, factors such as anemia, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, transient ischemic attacks, coronary artery disease, and atherosclerosis are the most effective factors in stroke. Decision tree algorithms, especially CHAID algorithm, have acceptable precision and predictive ability to determine the factors affecting ischemic stroke. Thus, by creating predictive models through this algorithm, will play a significant role in decreasing the mortality and disability caused by ischemic stroke.

Keywords: Data Mining, Decision Tree, Bayesian network, ischemic stroke

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2 The Use of Stroke Journey Map in Improving Patients' Perceived Knowledge in Acute Stroke Unit

Authors: C. S. Chen, F. Y. Hui, B. S. Farhana, J. De Leon


Introduction: Stroke can lead to long-term disability, affecting one’s quality of life. Providing stroke education to patient and family members is essential to optimize stroke recovery and prevent recurrent stroke. Currently, nurses conduct stroke education by handing out pamphlets and explaining their contents to patients. However, this is not always effective as nurses have varying levels of knowledge and depth of content discussed with the patient may not be consistent. With the advancement of information technology, health education is increasingly being disseminated via electronic software and studies have shown this to have benefitted patients. Hence, a multi-disciplinary team consisting of doctors, nurses and allied health professionals was formed to create the stroke journey map software to deliver consistent and concise stroke education. Research Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of using a stroke journey map software in improving patients’ perceived knowledge in the acute stroke unit during hospitalization. Methods: Patients admitted to the acute stroke unit were given stroke journey map software during patient education. The software consists of 31 interactive slides that are brightly coloured and 4 videos, based on input provided by the multi-disciplinary team. Participants were then assessed with pre-and-post survey questionnaires before and after viewing the software. The questionnaire consists of 10 questions with a 5-point Likert scale which sums up to a total score of 50. The inclusion criteria are patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke and are cognitively alert and oriented. This study was conducted between May 2017 to October 2017. Participation was voluntary. Results: A total of 33 participants participated in the study. The results demonstrated that the use of a stroke journey map as a stroke education medium was effective in improving patients’ perceived knowledge. A comparison of pre- and post-implementation data of stroke journey map revealed an overall mean increase in patients’ perceived knowledge from 24.06 to 40.06. The data is further broken down to evaluate patients’ perceived knowledge in 3 domains: (1) Understanding of disease process; (2) Management and treatment plans; (3) Post-discharge care. Each domain saw an increase in mean score from 10.7 to 16.2, 6.9 to 11.9 and 6.6 to 11.7 respectively. Project Impact: The implementation of stroke journey map has a positive impact in terms of (1) Increasing patient’s perceived knowledge which could contribute to greater empowerment of health; (2) Reducing need for stroke education material printouts making it environmentally friendly; (3) Decreasing time nurses spent on giving education resulting in more time to attend to patients’ needs. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the benefit of using stroke journey map as a platform for stroke education. Overall, it has increased patients’ perceived knowledge in understanding their disease process, the management and treatment plans as well as the discharge process.

Keywords: Education, Knowledge, Stroke, ischemic stroke, acute stroke

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1 Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders in Patients with Precuneal Infarcts

Authors: F. Ece Cetin, H. Nezih Ozdemir, Emre Kumral


Ischemic stroke of the precuneal cortex (PC) alone is extremely rare. This study aims to evaluate the clinical, neurocognitive, and behavioural characteristics of isolated PC infarcts. We assessed neuropsychological and behavioral findings in 12 patients with isolated PC infarct among 3800 patients with ischemic stroke. To determine the most frequently affected brain locus in patients, we first overlapped the ischemic area of patients with specific cognitive disorders and patients without specific cognitive disorders. Secondly, we compared both overlap maps using the 'subtraction plot' function of MRIcroGL. Patients showed various types of cognitive disorders. All patients experienced more than one category of cognitive disorder, except for two patients with only one cognitive disorder. Lesion topographical analysis showed that damage within the anterior precuneal region might lead to consciousness disorders (25%), self-processing impairment (42%), visuospatial disorders (58%), and lesions in the posterior precuneal region caused episodic and semantic memory impairment (33%). The whole precuneus is involved in at least one body awareness disorder. The cause of the stroke was cardioembolism in 5 patients (42%), large artery disease in 3 (25%), and unknown in 4 (33%). This study showed a wide variety of neuropsychological and behavioural disorders in patients with precuneal infarct. Future studies are needed to achieve a proper definition of the function of the precuneus in relation to the extended cortical areas. Precuneal cortex region infarcts have been found to predict a source of embolism from the large arteries or heart.

Keywords: Cognition, ischemic stroke, pericallosal artery, precuneal cortex

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